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x V 



M. TULLII CICEKONIS 
DE NATURA DEORUM 

LIBRI TRES 



2LottHon: C. J. CLAY AND SON, 

CAMBELDGE UNIVEESITY PEESS WAEEHOUSE, 
AVE MAEIA LANE. 




CAMBRIDGE: DEIGHTON, BELL, AND CO. 
LEIPZIG: F. A. BROCKHAUS. 



LL 



M. TULLII CICERONIS 

DE NATUBA DEOEUM 

LIBBJ TEES 

WITH INTRODUCTION AND COMMENTARY 



JOSEPH B. MAYOK, M.A. 



TOGETHEB WITH 

A NEW COLLATION OF SEVERAL OF THE ENGLISH MSS. 
BY J. H. SWAINSON, M.A. 

FORMERLY FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE. 



VOL. III. 



(Eambrtoge ; 

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 

1885 

[The rights of translation and reproduction are reserved.] 



CTamfcrfoge : 

PRINTED BY C. J. CLAY, M.A. AND SON, 
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 






PREFACE. 

IN concluding a work which has cost me many 
years of labour, it may not be out of place to state 
why I first undertook it and what I have tried to 
accomplish. Believing that the entrance of Chris 
tianity into the world is the central fact of man s 
history, the key to all that preceded and all that has 
followed it, I have always esteemed it to be the highest 
office of classical scholarship to throw light upon the 
state of thought and feeling in the two great nations 
of antiquity at the time of the birth of Christ. It 
is as a contribution to such an inquiry that the 
treatise on the Nature of the Gods seems to me to 
possess a unique interest and value ; not because 
Cicero was himself the most original, the most earnest, 
or the most religious thinker of his time ; but because 
he, more than any other, reflects for us the best tone 
of his time, because he represents to us most truly 
its highest level of intelligence and morality. To 
what extent then do we find in his writings any 



iv PREFACE. 

anticipation of the religion which was to establish 
itself, not in Judaea alone but in Greece and Italy also, 
within a hundred years of his death ? We find in the 
first place the way prepared for Christianity by the 
abandonment of the old polytheism. The arguments 
used against the later Paganism by such men as 
Minucius, Tertullian, Arnobius, Lactaritius and even 
Augustine himself are largely borrowed from this very 
dialogue. Nor is it only in the negative direction 
that Cicero exhibits to us philosophy preparing the 
way for Christianity. That God is perfect in wisdom, 
power, and goodness, that men are his children, par 
takers of his Spirit, that his Providence overrules all 
things to the best end, that the only acceptable 
worship is that in spirit and in truth, that virtue is a 
Divine gift, that God is the animating Spirit of the 
universe and yet has his peculiar abode in the heart 
of the virtuous, who shall hereafter be partakers of 
eternal 1 blessedness in heaven, this is the teaching 
of Balbus, as modified by the criticisms of Cicero, and 
this is also the foundation of the teaching of the New 
Testament ; it is Bishop Butler s Natural Religion 
in its purest form. That Christians themselves re 
cognized a positive element of Christianity in the 
writings of Cicero is strikingly shown by the passage 
given as the motto of this volume, in which St 
Augustine describes the impression produced upon 
his own mind by the study of the Hortensius 2 . 

1 Cf. .V. D. II 62, in 12. 2 Confess, in 4. 



PREFACE. V 

But Cicero s treatise is not only interesting from a 
historical point of view. It gains a further practical 
interest when we see him contending on behalf of 
rational religion against superstition on the one side 
and atheism on the other ; when we find him uphold 
ing the union of reason and religion, both against 
those who placed religion outside the bounds of reason, 
making it rest on authority alone, and against those 
who maintained that the belief in a Divine Governour 
of the world was contrary to reason and detrimental 
to virtue and happiness. And then when we look 
onward to the further development of this contest, 
and see how the agnosticism of Cicero s time, after 
it had served its purpose in purifying the religious 
idea from its incrustations, itself disappeared before 
the vast influx of a religion which satisfied heart and 
mind alike, may not this suggest a similar issue for 
the struggle in which we ourselves are engaged, and 
may we not recognize, under the materialistic and 
agnostic tendencies of the present, the hand of God s 
Providence clearing the way for a purer and more 
enlightened Christianity in the future ? 

While however my chief aim has been to illustrate 
and explain the general argument of Cicero, I have 
not knowingly passed over any minor difficulty with 
out doing my best to clear it up. For this end I have 
carefully studied all that has been written by my 
predecessors in the same field, and I have incorporated 
in my own commentary whatever seemed of value in 



VI PREFACE. 

their writings. I hope that something has also been 
done for the improvement of the text in my critical 
notes, and something in the commentary and index 
to advance the knowledge of Ciceronian Latin. As 
regards the text I have always named the originator 
of any improvement ; in the explanatory notes I have 
followed the example of Schomann, treating as common 
property all that had been collected up to the date of 
the last variorum edition (A.D. 1818), but naming my 
authority wherever I have borrowed from later writers, 
such as Allen or Schomann himself. 

In conclusion I have only to repeat my thanks to 
Mr Roby and to my brother, Prof. J. E. B. Mayor, 
for looking over the proofs of this as of my former 
volumes, and to the Syndicate of the Cambridge 
University Press for undertaking the expense of 
publication. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTION : PAGE 

(1) On the Design and Execution of the Dialogue . ix xxv 

(2) Was it published during the life-time of Cicero? xxv xxvi 

(3) On the relations of Orelli s MSS. to the Archetype 

and to each other xxvii xliii 

(4) The Merton Codex of Cicero s De Natura Deorum xliv li 

(5) Collation of Merton Codex for Book T. . . li liv 

(6) Analysis of Book III Iv Ix 

(7) On the Sources of Book III Ix Ixx 

(8) Editions and Illustrative Works .... Ixx Ixxvi 

Addenda and Corrigenda Ixxvii Ixxxviii 

Text 140 

Collations of English MSS 4158 

Commentary 59199 

Appendix 199209 

Index. 210247 



Usitato jam discendi ordine perveneram in librum quendam Ciceronis, 
cujus linguam fere omnes mirantur, pectus non ita. Sed liber ille ipsius 
exhortationem continet ad philosophiam et vocatur Hortensius. Ille vero 
liber mutavit afectum meum et ad te ipsum, Domine, mutavit preces meas, 
et vota ac desideria mea fecit alia. Viluit mihi repente omnis vana spes 
et immortalitatem sapientiae concupiscebam aestu cordis incredibili, et sur- 
gere coeperam ut ad te redirem. AUG. Confess, in 4. 



INTRODUCTION. 



ON THE DESIGN AND EXECUTION OF THE DIALOGUE. 

CICERO S object in writing the De Natura Deorum was partly to 
complete Ms systematic exposition of Greek philosophy for the benefit 
of his countrymen l ; but, as theology was in his opinion the most 
important as well as the most difficult branch of philosophy, deter 
mining the nature and even the possibility of religion, and thus involv 
ing the very existence of morality itself 2 , this speculative motive 
was reinforced by practical considerations of the most momentous 
character. The greater part of mankind seemed to him to be crushed 
under the weight of a degrading superstition, from which they could 
only be delivered by the propagation of more rational views on the 
subject of religion 3 . A few had been driven into atheism by the 
recoil from superstition; but religious belief was natural to man, 
and the real question at issue among thinking men generally was the 
nature and manner of life of those Divine Beings whose existence 
they were compelled to acknowledge. The Epicureans boasted loudly 
of what they had done to set men free from the fetters of superstition, 
but so far as they had succeeded in doing this, it was only by aban 
doning the belief in a providential government of the world and re 
ducing religion to an empty form 4 . In fact their account of the 
Divine nature was so absurd that it was impossible to believe it 
could be seriously intended 5 . The Stoic doctrine was far more 

1 Div. ii 3, 4 ut nullum philosophiae locum esse pateremur qui non Latinis 
litteris illustratum pateret , cf. N. D. i 9. 

2 N. D.I 14. 3 Div. ii 148150. 
4 N. D.I 3, 117, 121. 5 N.D.i 123, m 3. 

M. C. III. b 



X INTRODUCTION. 

worthy of consideration. It rested on a large induction of facts and 
supplied a very noble theory of morals and religion 1 . Still the 
Stoics had laid themselves open to the criticism of the Academy, partly 
by their over-positiveness in. doubtful matters, partly by their anxiety 
to find a justification for the popular belief in regard to divination 
and the multiplicity of gods. In his 3rd book Cicero states at 
length the Academic objections to the Stoic view, but concludes by 
avowing his own preference for the latter 2 . 

If we compare this treatise with one which had appeared about 
ten years before, as a posthumous work, edited by Cicero himself 
after the death of its author, I think we cannot doubt that the 
later treatise was written with distinct reference to the earlier. 
I allude to the poem of Lucretius, of which Cicero speaks in 
such high terms in a letter to his brother Quintus written in Feb. 
54 B.C., about four months after the poet s death, Lucrelii poemata, 
ut scribis, ita sunt, multis luininibus ingenii multae tamen artis, and 
to which we find several allusions in this and other writings of 
Cicero 3 . The avowed motive of both writers is the same, to deliver 

1 N. I), i 4, 121, m 4. 

2 N. 1). in 94, cf. Diem, i 9, n 148. 

3 See Munro s Lucretius Intr. p. 93 J foil, and compare Lucr. i 74 with Fin. 
ii 102, Lucr. ii 1092 with Tusc. i 48, Lucr. in 983 with Fin. i 60, Lucr. iv 
1070 with Tusc. iv 75, Lucr. vi 396 with Div. in 44. The passage to 
Quintus (ii 10) is thus explained by Munro p. 108, " There seems to have 
been almost a formal antithesis between the rude genius of Ennius and the 
modern art. It is not then impossible that Quintus may so have expressed 
himself on this head, that Cicero may mean to answer yes, you are quite 
right in saying that Lucretius has not only much of the native genius of 
Ennius, but also much of that art which, to judge by most of the poets of the 
day, might seem incompatible with it ." I should gather from the words which 
follow (scd, cum vcneris, virum te puttibo, si Sallustii Empedoclea legeris, hominem 
non putabo) that Quintus had announced his intention of reading the Empedoclea 
on his return to Eome: Cicero says if you accomplish your purpose I shall 
admire your manhood (strength of will), but not think so highly of your humanity 
(feeling and taste) . If we are to make any change in the reading, I very much 
prefer the emendation sed, si ad umbilicum vcneris, virum te putaljo (implying 
that Cicero, notwithstanding his admiration for the poet, shared the feeling 
of most moderns in regard to the technicalities of the Atomic System) to the 
emendation adopted by Mr G. A. Simcox in his History of Latin Literature 
(i p. 84) multae tamen artis si eum inveneris, virum te putabo; si Sallusti Empe 
doclea leyeris, hominem non putabo, which he thus explains, Cicero gives his 
brother credit for recognizing Lucretius genius in the many splendid passages 
of his poem, hopes he is man enough to recognize his skill as well, and tells 



DESIGN AND EXECUTION OF THE DIALOGUE. XI 

mankind from the yoke of superstition. If Lucretius describes the 
state of the world, unenlightened by Epicurus, in the words humana 
ante oculos foede cum vita jaceret in terris oppressa gravi sub religione, 
quae caput a caeli regionibus ostendebat horribili super aspectu mor- 
talibus instans (i 63 foil.), and again faciunt animos Jiumiles formidine 
divom dcpressosque premunt ad terram (vi 52); we find Cicero (Div. 
II 148) deploring the evil in almost the same terms, nam, ut vere 
loquamur, superstitio fusa per gentes oppressit omnium fere animos 

atque hominutn imbecillitatem occupavit Instat enim et urgetet quo 

te cumque verteris persequitur, sive tu vatem, sive tu omen audieris, 
sive immolaris, sive avem aspexeris, si Ckaldaeum, si haruspicem vide- 
ris, si fulserit, si tonuerit, si tactum aliquid erit de caelo, si ostenti 
simile natum factumve quippiam ; quorum necesse est plerumque ali 
quid eveniat, ut numquam liceat quieta mente consistere. Perfugium 
videtur omnium laborum et sollicitudinum esse somnus. At ex eo ipso 
plurimae curae metusque nascuntur 1 . If Lucretius speaks of the 
everlasting punishments of Tartarus as the climax of those terrors 
which kept men all their lifetime subject to bondage , Cicero makes 
his Stoic repudiate this as a superstition which was at length felt 
even by the vulgar to be no longer endurable 2 . It is true that 
Cicero does not in our dialogue go so far as to speak of crimes per 
petrated in the name of religion, as Lucretius speaks of the sacrifice of 
Iphigenia : he is content here to show the folly and misery of super 
stition, and the inequity of the principles of action which it ascribes 
to the gods ; but elsewhere he contrasts it with religion, as a spurious 



him he will sink below humanity if he can read Sallust s Empedocles\ It 
is unnecessary to say more of this translation than that it loses the force of 
tamen and virum, as well as of the opposition between virum and hominem. 
I must caution my younger readers against trusting too implicitly to Mr Simcox 
where he touches on other points which concern our present treatise. The 
statement in i p. 80 that Panaetius had adopted the orthodox doctrines of omens 
and oracles instead of the consistent and simple fatalism of the earlier Stoics is 
exactly the reverse of the truth, as may be seen from the passages cited in p. xxi 
of my 2nd volume and the notes on n 162, 163, in 93, 95; and Posidonius was 
not a Peripatetic (as is stated in vol. n 389) but one of the most famous of the 
younger Stoics. 

1 For vates cf. N. D. i 55 and Lucr. i 102 internet a nobis jam quovis tempore 
vatum terriloquis victus dictis desciscere quaeres; for somnus Lucr. i 132, iv 33; 
for quieta mens the tranquilla pax animi of Lucr. vi 78, the suave mari magno of 
ii 1. 

2 Lucr. i 107 foil., N. D. n 5, i 86 n. 

62 



xil INTRODUCTION. 

imitation, bearing to it the same relation as rashness to fortitude, 
craftiness to prudence, and tending to blind and stupefy the conscience. 
The same idea seems to be implied in the phrase used (W. D. I 1) 
that a knowledge of theology is necessary ad moderandam religionem 1 . 
Again, as the evil deplored by both writers is the same, so is the 
remedy proposed, which is in a word the scientific theory of nature, 
religio quae est jimcta cum cognitione naturae (Div. n 149), the 
physica constansque ratio, which is opposed to superstition in N. D. 
in 92, ii 63, Div. i 126 ; in the words of Lucretius i 146 hunc iyitur 
terrorem animi tenebrasque necessest non radii solis neque lucida tela 
diei discutiant, sed naturae species ratioque. Further we find both 
writers agreed as to the fact, that the Divine existence is not incon 
sistent with the scientific theory of nature, and as to the origin of 
religious belief among mankind from the awe-inspiring phenomena 
of nature and the orderly movements of the heavenly bodies 2 . 

From this point however the two writers draw apart. Cicero 
accepts as valid the above-mentioned grounds of religious belief and 
adds to them the general consent of mankind, the traditional faith 
of Rome, the marks of intelligence and of benevolence visible in the 
universe ; while he ridicules the solitary evidence on which Lucre 
tius appears to build his theology, that of dreams, and shows how 
arbitrary and inconsistent is the Epicurean idea of the intermundian 
gods 3 . To the fortuitous concourse of atoms and the fortmia guber- 
nans of Lucretius he opposes the providentia gubernans of the Stoics 4 . 
Lastly, while it is religio which is the curse of mankind according to 
Lucretius, with Cicero it is superstitio; over and over again he dis 
tinguishes the one from the other, as the lawful from the unlawful, 
the rational from the irrational, the holy from the unholy, and sums 
up in the words, ita factuin est in superstitioso et religioso alterum 
vitii nomen, alterum laudis. The way in which he introduces his 
distinction has the air of remonstrance against a misuse of the 
word religio (N. D. n 71), non enim philosopld solum (referring to 

1 Lucr. i 80 foil., N. D. i 42, n 70, Part. Or. 81 religionem superstitio imitatur, 
Clnent. 194 nocturna sacrificia sceleratasque ejus preces et nefaria vota cognovimus; 
quibus ilia etiam deos immortelles de suo scelcre testatur, neque intellegit pietate 
et reliyione et justis precibus deorum mentes, non contaminata superstitione neque 
ad scelus perficiendum caesis hostiis posse placari. 

2 Lucr. v 11831240, N. D. m 16, Div. u 148. 

3 Tusc. i 30, Lee,, i 24, Div. u 148, N. D. in 5, Leg. i 25, Tusc. i 68 foil., 
Lucr. v 1161 foil., N. D. i 76 foil. 

4 Lucr. v. 107. N. D. n 73, 93. 



DESIGN AND EXECUTION OF THE DIALOGUE. xiii 



the Greek distinction between euo-e/foa and ScLcriBaifwvia already 
established in the time of Polybius, who however does not altogether 
condemn the latter in vi 56), verum etiam major es nostri super sti- 
tionem a religione separaverunt ; while at the same time the fact that 
he thinks it necessary to claim the authority of ancient usage for his 
own distinction, may perhaps be regarded as an indication that it was 
not yet fully recognized. It was apparently unknown to the author 
of the treatise ad Herennium, who couples religio with ambitio and 
other passions which impel to evil (n 34) ; but it seems to have been 
observed by all later writers. Thus, while Lucretius always uses religio 
in a bad sense and never uses superstitio at all, his imitator Virgil 
reserves religio for what is laudable and speaks of vana superstitio vete- 
rumque ignara deorum (Aen. vm 187), and so Horace reckons tristis 
superstitio among the diseases of the mind (Sat. II 3. 79). Perhaps 
it may be thought that the difference between Cicero and Lucretius 
is not a difference of meaning as to the word religio, but a difference 
of feeling and judgment as regards the facts denoted by the word. 
Such a view would be quite consistent with the supposition that 
Cicero s dialogue is intended in part as a protest against the doctrine 
advocated by Lucretius ; but Lucretius himself asserts more than 
once that his doctrine is not hostile to religion, as Cicero would under 
stand that word 1 . In either case it seems to me clear that, while 
agreeing with Lucretius as to the evils wrought in the name of religion, 
Cicero wished to make it plain to all men that these evils did not 
flow from religion rightly understood, but from its corruption, which 
he distinguished by the name of superstitio ; and that an indiscrimi 
nate attack on all that went under the name of religion was even 
more injurious to society than superstition itself. 

Assuming then that Cicero had this double practical aim in 
writing his ti^eatise, first to eradicate superstition, second, to show 
the importance of a rational religion ; and that he combines with 
this the speculative aim of completing his system and expounding to 
his countrymen the theological views of the leading Greek philo 
sophers, we have next to consider how this design has been carried 
out ? If we compare the impression produced upon us by reading the 

1 Lucr. i 80 illud in his rebus vereor ne forte rearis impia te rationis inire 
elementa...quod contra saepius ilia religio peperit scelerosa atque impia facta, v 
1198 nee pietas ulla est velatum saepe videri vertier ad lapidem atque omnes ac- 
cedere ad aras,...sed mage pacata posse omnia mente tueri, vi 75 delubra deum 
placido cum pectore adibis, 



xiv INTRODUCTION. 

poem of Lucretius or the 10th book of Plato s Laivs with the 
impression produced by the Natura Deorum, I think it cannot be 
denied that the latter is far less impressive than either of the former. 
Cicero is a man of extraordinary ability cultivated to the highest pitch 
by an excellent education, with the widest tastes and sympathies, and 
a mind open, as that of few Romans has been, to all impressions 
of beauty and sublimity. But, considered as a philosopher, he has 
the misfortune to be at the same time a lawyer, an orator and a man 
of the world : in his philosophical treatises we are too often conscious 
of the author holding a brief, appealing to the populace, writing 
against time and amidst countless distractions, far removed from the 
whole-hearted concentration of a Plato or a Lucretius. We must 
not wonder therefore if Cicero s wide scheme contracts itself to the 
paraphrase or adaptation of two or three contemporary writings 
and the exposition and criticism of the Epicurean and Stoic theologies. 
Contenting ourselves with this lower aim we ask again, how it 
has been accomplished ? Is the exposition clear, accurate and metho 
dical, observing due proportion throughout 1 Are the arguments well 
set forth, the criticisms just and fair? Is the dialogue, as a whole, 
a finished work of art, like the dialogues of Plato ? Before attempting 
to answer these questions I will quote the estimate given of Cicero s 
physical or theological treatises by two writers of antiquity. The 
first is Yelleius Paterculus, who says dum hoc vel forte vel providentia 
vel utcumque constitutum rerum naturae corpus, quod ille paene solus 
Romanorum animo vidit, ingenio complexus est, eloquentia illuminavit, 
manebit incolume, comitem aevisui laudem Ciceronis trahet (n 66); the 
second Macrobius, or rather the captious interlocutor in his Satur 
nalia (i 24, 4), who is probably intended to be the spokesman of 
others, when he says TuUius, qui non minus prqfessus est pliilo- 
sopliandi studium quam loquendi, quotiens aut de natura deorum 
aut de fato aut de divinatione disputat, gloriam, quam oratione 
conflavit, incondita rerum relatione minuit. Modern readers will 
probably side with the latter view. While allowing that we 
have in this treatise a great deal of excellent sense admirably 
expressed, and that it is hardly possible to exaggerate its histo 
rical importance as contributing to our knowledge of the religious 
philosophy of the ancients, yet, regarding it as a whole, it is 
impossible to call it a work of art, it is impossible to say that the 
due proportions of the subject have been observed. Each of the 
three books is disfigured by an insertion which is foreign to the 



DESIGN AND EXECUTION OF THE DIALOGUE. XV 

argument and of singularly little- interest in itself. The 1st is the 
historical sketch of previous philosophy from the Epicurean point of 
view, which is of much the same value, as if a historian of modern 
religious thought were to take his account of German philosophy 
from Mansel s Bampton Lectures. The 2nd insertion is Cicero s 
own translation of the Aratea ; the 3rd and the most incompre 
hensible of the three is the mythological section, in which he attempts 
to show that there were many separate deities confused under the 
same name. In speaking of these as insertions, I do not mean that 
the 1st and 3rd are exclusively due to Cicero and had nothing 
corresponding to them in the Greek original, but that in all three 
cases a very subordinate point has been allowed to swell out beyond 
all proportion, and that in order to make room for them, matters 
of real interest and importance have been either omitted or curtailed 
to such an extent as to become themselves unintelligible. Thus, how 
willingly should we have exchanged the first insertion, either for an 
intelligent and impartial review of the growth of religious philosophy, 
or for a fuller account of the life of the * intermnndian gods ; 
how willingly have dispensed with the Aratea in order to obtain 
more information as to the Stoic doctrine of the dealings of Provi 
dence with the individual, so cruelly cut down in the concluding 
paragraphs of the Second Book; above all how gladly should we 
have escaped from the futility of the mythological section, if we 
might thereby have secured space for a reply from Balbus, or even 
for a fuller statement of the Academic argument on such a question 
as the consistency of moral virtue with the Divine nature ! 

Taking the book however as it stands with its faulty proportions, 
what are we to say of the manner in which each separate part is done? 
The introduction, which gives the key-note to the whole treatise, is 
of special importance as expressing Cicero s own convictions in regard 
to the need of a true religious belief. A mere pretence of religion , 
he says (in reference to the Epicureans, but the same thing applies to 
an Academic like Cotta) is inconsistent with any true piety, and 
without piety faith and justice cannot exist and all society is sub 
verted. Piety is necessarily bound up with the belief in the pro 
vidential government of the world ; there can be no such thing as 
worship, unless we believe that the gods are interested in men and 
are able and willing to benefit them. But we must be able to give 
a reason for our faith, and not embrace an opinion without investi 
gation, merely on the authority of others. While the Stoics have 



xvi INTRODUCTION, 

performed an important service in exhibiting the evidences of design 
in the outward universe, the Academy has not been without its use 
in forcing us to look at both sides of the question, and insisting on 
probability as the guide of life, since absolute certainty is unattainable 
owing to the limitation of the human faculties. 

The 2nd portion of Bk I contains the Epicurean polemic against 
the orthodox theology, Platonic and Stoic. It touches on many 
interesting points, but it does no more than touch on them ; its 
criticism is addressed as usual to the gallery, very much in the style 
of the alter catio with Clod i us, of which Cicero writes with such 
complacency to Atticus (Atf. I 3), and for the most part consists of 
a series of exclamatory questions, which are assumed to be unanswer 
able, though the answer may be distinctly given in the words of the 
treatise criticized 1 . The more rational objections, such as those which 
turn on the possibility of Creation at a particular moment of time, 
on the motives which could be supposed to influence the Creator, on 
the imperfection visible in the work of Creation, are never directly 
met by succeeding speakers. No one seems to pay any attention to 
them. Just as it is afterwards with the Academic criticisms 011 the 
Epicurean and Stoic systems, there is no right of reply, no judicial 
weighing of opposing arguments, no honest endeavour to carry out 
even the principle of Carneades and ascertain precisely to which side 
the balance of probability inclines. 

The review of the history of religious opinions contained in the 
following sections ( 25 43) is, as I have already remarked, the great 
blot on this first book. It would be hardly going too far to say that, as 
regards the prae-Stoic philosophy, it does not contain a single strictly 
accurate statement or a single intelligent criticism. It may be said, 
this is the fault not of Cicero but of the Epicurean authority whom 
he follows ; Cicero merely gives it as a specimen of Epicurean 
ignorance and prejudice. But if it was intended as an exposure 
of this sort, why is it that, so far from giving any hint to that 
effect, so far from correcting any of the blunders of Yelleius, Cicero 
afterwards makes Cotta compliment Velleius 011 the accuracy of his 
sketch 1 ? The real fact is that Cicero himself was in all probability 
unconscious of the inaccuracies which fill the historical section, and 
that some at least of these inaccuracies (as may be proved by a 
comparison with the fragments of Philodenius) arose from his own 

1 See nn. on i 19 iliac qninque format, 20 quod ortum sit. 



DESIGN AND EXECUTION OF THE DIALOGUE. XV11 

misunderstanding of his authority. See for instance my notes 011 
the account of Thales 25, of Anaximenes 26, of Parrnenides 28, 
of Xenophon 31. 

The Epicurean exposition, contained in 4356, is far superior 
to the historical section, but it suffers from curtailment, just where 
full explanation was most needed. Unhappily Cicero had not time 
to think out a difficulty; so when he comes to one, he either omits, 
or satisfies himself with a rendering which is unintelligible to himself 
as well as to every one else ; see especially what is said of the divine 
images in 49 compared with 105 and 109. In fairness it 
must however be allowed that he is writing for Roman readers and 
has to select or reject with the thought of what will be most in 
accordance with their taste, just as the late Dr Whewell did in his 
Platonic Dialogues for English Readers. 

The Academic criticism which occupies the rest of the book 
contains much that is interesting, but, here too, flippant assertion 
not unfrequently takes the place of argument. Thus there is no 
pretence of arguing the question between a plenum and a vacuum 
(65 foil.); the speaker dogmatically asserts his preference for the 
former, therefore the latter is wrong. The objections to anthropo 
morphism are well stated in 76 102, but Cicero has either 
misunderstood or has confused the argument on the value of general 
experience, as a criterion of truth, and the possibility of a unique 
experience (see nn. on 87). In 103, 104 Cotta announces his 
intention to examine the Epicurean account of the habitation and 
manner of life of their gods, but in 105 hurries on to a discussion 
of the theory of images. Possibly this change of plan may have 
arisen, as Schwoncke suggests, from the discovery that the original 
treatise from which he is translating, travelled beyond the topics 
introduced in the speech of Velleius. In any case it is a fault 
in the construction of the dialogue, and deprives us of information, 
which would have been very welcome, as to the nature of existence 
in the intermundia. The question raised in 105 110 relates to 
the possibility of distinguishing between objective and subjective 
images ; what right have we to assume that the phantasms of 
divinities are more real than those of absent or non-existent persons 
or things 1 Even if we assume their reality, what right have we to 
attribute happiness to beings without virtue (since without action) 
and without the sensual pleasures which are allotted to man ? Can 
they even be said to be free from pain, when they are in constant 



XV111 INTKODUCTION. 

danger from the incoming and outgoing atoms 1 The remainder of 
the book is occupied in showing that the Epicurean notion of a 
deity, incapable of action and absorbed in his own pleasure, who 
has no feeling for men, and is altogether unconnected with them, is 
really atheistic and inconsistent with any kind of piety or holiness. 
It is to be noticed that the Epicurean defence (at etiam liber est Epicuri 
de sanctitate) meets a double rejoinder 115, 123. Is this a sign that 
Cicero had before him two criticisms of Epicurus, one, say, by 
Philo (i 59), the other by Posidonius, or are they alternative sum 
maries of the argument of the latter, which have both been inserted 
by mistake] We shall see other examples of the same sort of care 
lessness in the following books. 

In the 2nd book we have perhaps the most important contribution 
to theological thought which has come down to us from classical 
antiquity. It wants the inspiration, the passionate earnestness of 
Plato, but it covers a wider range ; it is a store-house in which 
are preserved the best achievements of Greek philosophy in this 
department from the time of Socrates to that of Cicero. The 
arrangement may be confused, many of .the special theories advanced 
may be obsolete, many of the facts misunderstood or inaccurately 
stated, but the general proof here given of a rationally ordered 
universe, and of a providential care for man can never lose its interest 
or value. It holds good against all theories of evolution, whether 
ancient or modern, which would make mind posterior to matter. 
The main lines of the proof are that religious belief is natural to 
man ; that it is confirmed by the signs of superhuman power, 
wisdom and goodness visible in the universe ; that man cannot be 
the highest thing in the universe, as he would be if the universe 
were irrational; rather that it is from it he derives his reason as 
well as the gross elements of which the body is composed ; that the 
common source of the reason of all men must far surpass the 
particles of reason dispersed in individual men; that the harmony 
and sympathy of all the parts of the universe proves it to be under 
the control of one guiding spirit ; that mind or soul originates all 
motion. Then follows the argument from the Scale of Existence : 
we observe the gradual ascent from vegetable to animal, from animal 
to man, the last showing the potentiality of virtue and wisdom, 
hence we infer a higher stage, the divine, which is absolutely virtuous 
and Avise. Nature strives after perfection in all its parts; this 
striving cannot be frustrated ; there may be partial hindrances, but 



DESIGN AND EXECUTION OF THE DIALOGUE. xix 

there is no external power to check the progress of the whole; there 
fore the universe as a whole must attain perfection. 

The larger portion of the 2nd book is occupied with the subject 
of Providence. This is argued 1st from our idea of the Divine nature 
as active and benevolent, and 2nd from the skill manifested in 
the universe, which attests the wisdom of the great Artist, just in 
the same way as the orrery attests the wisdom of Archimedes. The 
skill of the Creator is then shown in detail, 1st as regards the earth 
and the heavenly bodies, 2nd as regards the adaptations visible in 
vegetable and animal life, 3rd and above all in the case of man. It 
is further shown that the universe exists for the sake of its rational 
inhabitants, and that all things tend to the good of man, that pro 
vidential care extends even to individual men, that virtue and wisdom 
are divine gifts, that the philosopher is dear to God and can never 
experience what is really harmful. 

So far I think we may be sure that Cicero would go along with 
Balbus. It is no more than he has repeatedly said in his own 
person elsewhere, except as to the Scale of Existence, to which we 
find resemblances, it is true, but no exact parallel in the passages 
quoted in my notes. There are other parts of his discourse which 
are less in harmony with what we know of Cicero s opinions from 
other treatises. Such are the identification of heat with intelligence, 
the ascription of life, thought and volition to the material universe 
and the heavenly bodies, the sanction accorded by the Stoics to the 
popular mythology as representing either the varied activity of the 
Supreme Being, the personification of abstract qualities, or the 
divinity of the human, soul ; to which we may add the belief in 
divination l . 

When we go on to inquire into the arrangement of the 2nd book, 
there is much to find fault with. The main divisions are by no means 
clear. As is pointed out in Vol. n p. xxii, much that is placed under 

1 Cicero, speaking in his own person, asserts the existence and the immateri 
ality of God, and ascribes to him the origin of all motion and the fatherhood of 
the human soul Tusc. i 66 (a quotation from his own Consolatio), animorum nulla 
in terris origo inveniri potest . . .quicquid est illud quod sentit, quod sap it, quod 
vivit, quod viyet, caeleste et divinum ob eamque rem aeternum sit necesse est. Nee 
vero deus ipse,..alio modo intellegi potest nixi mens soluta quaedam et libera, segre- 
gata ab omni concretione mortali, omnia sentiens et movens, ipxaque praedita motu 
sempiterno cf. ib. i 30, 36, 60, 63 (the Creator is to the universe as Archimedes 
to his orrery), 68 foil., Leg. i 21, 11 15 foil., Milo 83, 84, Harusp. Eesp. 19. 



XX INTRODUCTION. 

the 1st head, would have come more naturally under the 2nd, and 
much that is placed under the 3rd would have come better under the 
4th. In one place Cicero seems to have confused himself, and com 
mences his 4th division out of its proper order in 133, giving a se 
cond commencement in 155. Then we have the superfluous Aratean 
section ( 104 114), and the omission of much interesting matter at 
the end of the book, in reference to the calamities of the good and 
the difficulties alleged against the moral government of the world. 
For faults of detail see my notes on etenim 1 6, crassissima regione 
17, cum alio juncta 29, dbsoluti operis effectum 35, ex utraque re 49, 
aetherios cursus 54, suis seminibus 58, vis major, regi non potest 61, 
denies et pubertatem 86, where particular arguments seem to be im 
perfectly stated. For mistranslations of the Greek original see on 
obductus, cujus sub pedibus, 110, poster lore trahens 113. 

It is more difficult to take a general view of the 3rd book than 
of the preceding, as so large a portion, probably more than one 
third, has been lost. It will be seen from the analysis, as well as 
from the Essay which follows, upon the Sources of this book, that the 
arrangement of what remains is again unsatisfactory. Cicero is 
embarrassed throughout by having to meet a later Stoic argument 
out of an earlier Academic treatise, in which the topics are different 
and differently arranged. This explains why, after Gotta has an 
nounced his intention to treat several of the arguments adduced for 
the Divine existence under the 3rd head, instead of under the 1st, 
as Balbus had done (in 17, 18), he introduces them under the 2nd 
head without giving any reason for his change of purpose. We 
will take the different arguments in order with reference to the 
corresponding parts of the 2nd book. There is certainly some weight 
in the objections urged to the argument from universal consent, viz. 
that the object of popular belief is not the God of the Stoics, and 
that it is inconsistent in those who regard the majority as fools, to 
attach any importance to what the majority believe ( 10, 11); still 
these objections hardly apply to the arguments as stated in Bk n. 
Consensus is cited there as a proof not of any special Stoic doctrine, 
but of the existence of a Divine Governor; and a careful distinction 
is made between temporary opinion and fixed belief, especially 
where the latter becomes stronger with the advance in civilization. 
The Stoic arguments derived from recorded epiphanies and the prac 
tice of divination, are fairly met by denial of the facts and questioning 
the utility of a knowledge of the future; the self-devotion of Decius 



DESIGN AND EXECUTION OF THE DIALOGUE. XXI 

was prompted by policy, not by religion ; to suppose otherwise would 
be to impute injustice to the Gods ( 11 15). This sets aside one 
of the grounds assigned for the prevalence of religious belief by 
Cleanthes; his 2nd ground, that of the terrible phenomena of nature, 
is allowed as a fact; the two others are deferred along with the 
arguments of Zeno and Chrysippus to the 3rd head. The 2nd branch 
of the discussion deals with the Divine nature. This begins in 20 
with a distinct reference to the corresponding part of the argument 
of Balbus (n 45). In both the question is qualis eorum natura sit; 
both refer to the stupefying influence of custom. Gotta then proceeds 
to challenge Balbus assertion mundum animantem esse et deum, and 
the proof alleged for it nihil mundo esse melius. It no more follows 
from this, he says, that the world must be possessed of reason than 
that the city of Home is a reasoning creature, or that, if it is not, 
it must be reckoned of less value than the ant which is possessed of 
reason. (Cf. n 45, 16.) But the same proof had been quoted as 
from Zeno in n 21, so Cotta recurs to that (in 22), in spite of his 
avowed intention of leaving it for the section on Providence, and 
replies that on the same principle we might argue that the world 
could read a book. In 23 he deals with another argument of Zeno s 
given in n 22, putting it in a more general form (apparently with a 
reference to the Socratic argument in n 18) everything which exists 
is derived from the world, and the world can produce nothing unlike 
itself, therefore the human reason is a product of the world and 
resembles it. On the same principle, he says, we might maintain 
that the world could play the flute. The next argument touched on 
by Cotta is that which deduces the divinity of the stars from their 
regular motions, apparently referring to II 54 foil. Similarly we 
might argue for the divinity of quartan fevers (in 24). For an 
examination of these objections see nn. on the particular passages. 
In 25 Cotta goes back to Chrysippus (n 16, 17). His 1st argument 
is that if there is anything in the world beyond man s power to 
make, he who made it must be God ; the 2nd that if there were no 
Gods, man would be the best thing in the universe, which it would 
be the extreme of arrogance to suppose ; the 3rd that the world is 
too beautiful to have been built simply for the habitation of man. 
Cotta s answer to the 1st is that it ignores the distinction between 
nature and reason (which of course has no force against the Stoics 
who identified nature with reason, and does not in the least degree 
affect the inference that there is a superhuman power at work in the 



XX11 INTRODUCTION. 

universe); to the 2nd that it is not arrogant for man to recognize 
that he has reason and that the stars are without it (shirking the 
question and also assuming what the Stoics denied) ; to the 3rd that 
the world was not built but formed by nature (what nature forms is 
built, according to the Stoics; but this argument, like the others, is 
equally true, put into its most general form: the beauty of the 
universe is only very partially explained by the pleasure or utility 
which it affords to man). In 27 Gotta proceeds with the argument 
quoted from Xenophon (n 18), whence did man obtain reason if it 
did not exist in the world? to which he makes the same frivolous 
answer as he had done to the similar questions of Zeno. Then comes 
(in 28) an approving reference to the sympathy which unites all the 
parts of the universe, but it is denied that this affords any ground for 
believing that the universe is pervaded by a divine spirit or breath; 
it is all the unconscious operation of nature. Here again we have 
simple assertion on the part of the Academics. The vague term 
nature was explained by the Epicureans, from the analogy of material 
objects, to mean atoms moving in a vacuum according to the laws of 
gravitation modified by the individual clinamen, by the Stoics, from 
the analogy of the soul, to mean the reason and will embodied in 
the universe; the Academics, clinging to their unanalysed conception 
of nature, opposed their simple denial to both. 

There is more weight in the argument by which Carneades en 
deavoured to show that if the world is an animal it must be liable to 
destruction and therefore not divine. As corporeal it is discerptible ; 
as a compound of contrary and perishable elements, it is liable to fly 
asunder and perish; as animated and therefore capable of feeling, it is 
liable to sensations of pain and susceptible of death ( 29 34). It 
is partly met by the Stoic doctrine of the cyclic renovation, partly by 
denying that the capacity of pleasure involves the possibility of pain 
and that this latter involves the possibility of death. In 35 37 
Cotta has no difficulty in showing that fire is not more divine than 
the other elements. 

After this follows an interesting argument on the compatibility 
of the ideas of virtue and divinity ( 38). As we may see by com 
paring Sextus, this has been very much cut down by Cicero. The 
quotations in the notes will show with what limitations it holds good. 
The subordinate deities of the Stoics are subjected to a severe criticism 
in 39 G4. It is shown that Stoic allegorization is purely arbitrary, 
that it is impossible to draw the line between the human and divine 



DESIGN AND EXECUTION OF THE DIALOGUE. xxill 

in the popular theology, which they take under their protection, and 
that it is impossible to say what is believed about each deity. It is 
here that Cicero inflicts upon us the tedious mythological section, of 
which Sextus was satisfied to give one or two extracts as specimens. 
I have spoken sufficiently of this in the Essay 011 the Sources and in 
the Appendix. 

After this, many chapters are lost till we come to the answer to 
the Stoic proof of Divine beneficence as shown in the gift of reason. 
In the speech of Balbus this was treated under the general head of 
Providence (n 147, 148), here it is treated as a part of the argument 
to prove a special providential care for man (in 66 78). Cotta 
shows by examples taken from the stage and the law-courts the ill 
effects of reason, and argues that, if it is a divine gift, the Giver is 
responsible for effects, which he must have foreseen, and against which 
he ought to have secured man. There is a disarrangement in these 
paragraphs which was perhaps caused by the mistaken insertion of 
two alternative versions or abstracts of the Greek original. It is a 
defect in Cicero s exposition of the Stoic argument in the previous 
book that the difficulties urged by the Academic under this last head 
are not touched on by Balbus. In all probability they formed part of 
the cargo thrown overboard by Cicero (in 164 167) in order to 
save his Aratea. Other arguments alleged against a providential 
ordering of human affairs are the universal lack of wisdom deplored 
by the Stoics, and the unrighteous distribution of prosperity and 
adversity. The Stoics have depreciated the importance of these 
gifts of fortune in comparison with the qualities of the soul, but 
Providence has nothing to do with the latter; each man must achieve 
them for himself. Besides, whether important or unimportant, 
nothing should be neglected under the rule of Providence. It has 
been attempted to eke out the case for providential government by 
pointing to the misfortunes which befall the descendants of the guilty, 
but what sort of justice is tins ? Is it even consistent with the Stoic 
idea of God, that he should exact punishment at all? The Stoics 
themselves allow that his care does not extend to individuals, 
what reason have we for supposing that it extends to mankind? 
(m 7993). 

Speaking generally the Academic objections under this head 
are well and clearly stated by Cicero, but here and there ob 
scurities arise from too great conciseness, -see note on 91 (D c. 9), 
92 aut nescit quod 2^ossit. There are also several inaccuracies, 



XXIV INTRODUCTION. 

arising apparently from over-haste in translating the original, see 
notes on fanum Proserpinae 83, ad Peloponnesum ib., Epidauri ib., 
mensas argenteas 84, ne Delia quidem Apollini 88. As to the 
manner in which these objections were met by the Stoics see my 
notes on each passage. In some instances they may be directly 
answered from the speech of Balbus, e.g., the assumption that virtue 
is allowed by all to be independent of Divine grace, is contradicted 
in II 79; the assertion that, according to the Stoics, Providence does 
not extend to individuals, is contradicted in n 1G5. In both these 
cases it is probable that the elder Stoics held the doctrines impugned, 
but this want of correspondence between the exposition and the 
criticism spoils the verisimilitude of the dialogue. 

As to Cicero s own feeling with regard to the questions at issue, 
we find him dissenting from the Academic view in regard to the 
misfortunes of the good and the prosperity of the bad, in the passages 
cited in my notes on 80 Regidi, 84 percussit] on conscience as the 
voice of God 85 sine ulla divina rationc; on virtue as the gift of 
God 87 quis quod bonus vir esset. But none except the extreraest 
partisans could pretend that the Academic difficulties were entirely 
cleared up by such considerations as were available 011 the other side. 
Then, as now, the Divine government was a matter of faith, not of 
certainty. Now, as then, in spite of the added light of Christianity, 
we must confess that, logically speaking, the religious view of the 
order of the world is only the more probable; that Cicero in fact is 
right, as against the Stoics, when he refuses to say more than that the 
argument of Balbus appeared to him to be ad veritatis similitudinem 
propensior. 

Lastly, provokingly inconsistent as is the Academic view which 
at one time professes to be guided by reason alone, irrespective of 
authority (i 10), and at other times, in the person of Cotta, accepts 
without inquiry whatever has come down to us 011 the authority of 
our ancestors (in 5, 9); which sneers at the sacred legends and the 
practice of divination, and does its best to show that the very idea of 
God is self -contradictory and impossible, and yet insists on retaining 
all the externals of religion as a duty obligatory on every Roman 
citizen ; still the Academic pontiff is a person of genuine historical 
interest. He is the Trajan who, allowing that there is no harm in 
Christianity and that Christians are not to be hunted out, yet ordains 
that if a man is accused of Christianity before a magistrate and 
refuses to abjure his faith, he is to be put to death. In later times 



PUBLISHED AFTER CICERO S DEATH. XXV 

he is the unbelieving statesman who fights against liberty of con 
science and uses the arm of the secular power to prevent Church 
reform; he is the Christian apologist who, insisting on the acceptance 
of every letter of the creed, forbids all thought as to its meaning under 
the name of rationalism or dogmatism. 



WAS THE NATURA DEORUM PUBLISHED DURING THE 
LIFE-TIME OF CICERO? 

In the preceding essay indications of hasty composition have been 
pointed out, and it has been remarked that some passages present the 
appearance of having been made up of two alternative versions of 
the same original, both of which have been inserted by mistake. If 
this is so, it would seem that the book must have been published 
without the author s revision. Are there any facts which would 
confirm this suspicion 1 ? 

The conclusive proof that the book did not receive the finishing 
touches from the hand of its author, is to be found in the inconsistent 
allusions to the time occupied in the discussion. Thus, in n 73 we 
find the conversation of the 1st book alluded to in the words a te ipso 
hesterno die dictum est, and in in 18 the 2nd book is alluded to in 
the words omnia quae a te nudius tertius dicta sunt; from which we 
should infer that the whole discussion must have occupied four days, 
giving one day to each speech. But if we look back to the beginning 
of the 2nd and 3rd books (quae cum Cotta dixisset turn Velleius n 1, 
quae cum Balbus dixisset turn arridens Cotta in 1), we find no hint 
of any break in the conversation. The only reference to time is in 
in 94 quoniam advesperascit dabis nobis diem aliquem ut contra ista 
dicamus, which certainly implies that the conversation had occupied 
only one day. There is no difficulty of this kind in other dialogues. 
In the Tusculans (i 8) Cicero distinctly says dierum quinque scholas 
in totidem libros contuli, and there is a formal notice of the close of 
one day and the beginning of another in I 119, n 9, 10, n 67, in 7, 
in 84, iv 7, v 1, 11, with a separate dedication or preface to each 
book. In the De Finibus the first two books are supposed to be 
spoken continuously at Cicero s villa at Cumae, the 3rd and 4th on 
a different occasion at Lucullus Tusculan villa, the 5th in Plato s 
Academia at Athens. 

M. C. III. C 



XXVI INTRODUCTION. 

But does not Cicero himself speak of the De Natura Deorum as 
already published at the time of his writing the De Divinatione, and 
the De Fatol Compare Div. I 8, where Quintus says perlegi tuum 
paulo ante tertium de nat^tra deorum in quo disputatio Cottae, quam- 
quam labefactavit sententiam meam, non funditus tamen sustulit, to 
which Marcus replies Optime vero, etenim ipse Gotta sic disputat, ut 
Stoicorum magis argumenta confatet quam hominum deleat religionem. 
Quintus regards this protest as a matter of form dicitur quidem istuc 
ne communia jura migrare videatur ; sed studio contra Stoicos dis- 
serendi deos mild videtur funditus tollere: ejus rationi non sane 
desidero quid respondeam; satis enim defensa religio est in secundo 
libro a Lucilio, ci jus disputatio tibi ipsi, ut in extremo libro scribis, 
ad veritatem est visa propensior. Again in Div. II 3 quibus rebus 
editis (i.e. the Ilortensius, Academica, De Finibus, Tusculans^ tres 
libri perfecti sunt de natura deorum ; to which he adds others after 
wards. It may be thought that these quotations settle the question 
and that Cicero himself is responsible for the book in its present 
state whether finished or unfinished. But is it not permissible to 
draw a different conclusion from the opposition of the words editi 
and perfecti in the last passage ? The Hortensius and other dialogues 
were published, the Natura Deorum was what we should call ready 
for the press. So in Fat. i 1 we find a distinction made between 
quod in aliis libris fed qui sv,nt de natura deorum, and the books 
quos de divinatione edidi. We are not bound to take literally the 
statement that Quintus had read the book of which he is supposed to 
speak in Div. i; even if he had done so, it might have been from having 
access to the original MS. We know that other works of Cicero were 
published after his death, such as the Epistles and probably some of 
the Orations by Tiro, and, among his philosophical works, the un 
finished Leges. If the Natura Deorum was still unpublished at the 
time of Cicero s murder, and if the MS w r as as much altered and 
emended as that of the De Gloria, of which he says to Atticus (xvi 3) 
misi apxervTrov ipsum crebris locis inculcatum et refectum, this would 
go far to explain the existing roughnesses and inconsistencies of the 
dialogue. 



RELATIONSHIP OF MSS. XXV11 



ON THE RELATIONS OF ORELLI S MSS TO THE 
ARCHETYPE AND TO EACH OTHER. 

The archetype from which all the existing MSS are derived must 
have been in a very bad condition, having lost considerable portions 
of the 3rd book, and having suffered much from dislocation in the 
2nd book and, as I believe, in the 3rd also. Of the four sections, 
into which the 3rd book is divided, the whole of C (dealing with the 
Stoic argument in proof of the Providential Government of the 
universe) and a considerable portion of D (dealing with the argu 
ment in proof of a special Providence ordering the affairs of men) 
have been lost; and smaller losses occur in the same book at the end 
of 13 and 64, and in I 25, 65. The great instance of dislocation 
is in the 2nd book, where 1686 are placed after 156, but in 
my note on in 43 ut jam docebo, I have attempted to show 
that we have there also a transposition in the MSS of 53 60, 
which ought to come before 43. For examples of what appears to 
me dislocation on a smaller scale, see the notes on I 6 qua quidem in 
causa, I 97 (in quicquam vidimus (which, following Bake, I have 
transferred to the end of 88), n 110 atque ita dimetata appareat, 
transferred to 104, also n 167 magnis copiis, in 29 cumque omne 
animal, 34 etenim, 70 n. on Da (3). The cause of the dislocation 
in Bk. ii was doubtless that the archetype had come to pieces and 
was bound up again in wrong order, without any regard to sense. 
So B (Cod. Leid. 86) interposes part of the De Divinatione after 
N. D. i 64, giving the following (64 91) after De Fato 4, see 
note on the latter passage in Orelli s ed., and Bake s ed. of the De 
Legibus p. 104 foil., where B is thus described " constat quaterni- 
onibus xxiv. quorum singula octo folia habent. Ceterum descriptus 
esse videtur e libro cujus quaterniones misere disjecti essent ; locis 
quippe plurimis, continuata scriptura, alienissima interponuntur, 
omniumque ordo et series turbantur, quae tamen ne legenti fraudem 
faciant, vetus manus in margine subinde solet indicare." In Bk. in 
I have suggested that it may have been Cicero s own intention to 
omit the mythological section, and that this was afterwards inserted 
by the original editor in a wrong place. As to the smaller transposi 
tions they are probably owing to the wrong insertion of marginal notes 
or of additions written on slips of parchment which got fastened to the 

c2 



Xxvili INTRODUCTION. 

wrono* leaves. As to actual losses, some have attempted to account 
for these by supposing that the Christians destroyed the argument 
against Providence as impious, others relying on the statement of 
Arnobius to the effect that some of the treatises of Cicero caused 
much scandal among the Pagans, have retorted the charge on the 
latter*; but there is no reason to have recourse to either supposition. 
The condition of the archetype, as proved by the transpositions in 
Bk. n, is quite sufficient to account for the loss of other portions, 
and we meet with similar phenomena in the Leges, the De Fato, the 
Jiespublica, and other treatises. 

These being the undoubted facts, as shown by all the MSS, we 
have next to inquire which of the MSS best represent the archetype 
and what are their individual characteristics and their relations 
to each other. The oldest of the MSS of the iV. D. is the Vienna 
codex (V) of the 10th cent., but portions of the treatise have been 
preserved in a MS of the 9th century described by Narducci, of which 
an account is given in the Jahresberickt niter d. Fortschritte d. 
classischen Alterthumswissenscliaft for 1883, vol. 35, p. 75. The chief 
fact of importance noted in regard to this MS is that in book n 
it exhibits the same dislocation as the other MSS. 

There is much resemblance between Y and the Leyden codex (A) 
of the llth century, which comes nearest to it in age. In both we 
find careless mistakes, but very rarely any signs of an attempt to 
alter the reading in order to make sense, such as we shall see reason to 
suspect in BCE. The Palatine codex (P), which is called per- 
antiquus^, is I presume of about the same date as A. It is not only 

* See Olivet s French translation of the Natura Deorum vol. in p. 87 n., 
citing Arnob. in 7 ante omnes Tullius Eomani disertissimus generis, nullam veritus 
impietatis invidiam, ingenue constanter et libere, quid super tali opinionatione 
(the distinction of sex in deity) sentiret, pietate cum majore monstravit, a quo si 
res sumere judicii veritate conscriptas, non verborum luculentias pergeretis, pero- 
rata esset liaec causa. ...Sed quid aucupia I erborum splendoremque sermonis peti ab 
hoc dicam, cum sciam esse non paucos, qui aversentur et fugiant libros de hoc ejus... 
cumque alios audiam mussitare indignanter et dicere, oportere statui per senatum, 
aboleantur ut haec scripta quibus Christiana rcligio comprobetur et vetustatis 
opprimatur auctoritas ? Quinimmo si fiditis exploratum vos dicere quidquam de dis 
vestris, erroris conv incite Ciceronciii...Nam intcrcipere scripta et publicatam velle 
submergere lectionem, non est deos defendere, sed veritatis testijicationem timere. 

t Ebeling in Philologus XLIII 4 p. 703, which has reached me since the above 
was put in type, assigns it to the 10th cent. .He also gives a short account of 
the Laureiitian Cod. 257 at Florence, which he considers to be of the llth cent. 
It agrees with B (against AC Oxf.) in making the dislocation of Bk n commence 



RELATIONSHIP OF MSS. XX IX 

careless but capricious and for the most part quite indifferent to 
making sense. The first two I regard as honest but somewhat incom 
petent witnesses, the writer of P has no intention to deceive, but his 
inaccuracy almost amounts to dishonesty, while the writer of B, a 
far more competent witness, as far as ability goes, is not satisfied 
merely to report, but deliberately sets himself to improve the read 
ings of the archetype. It is perhaps unnecessary for me to adduce 
any evidence of the carelessness of APV, as that will be apparent to 
any one who will glance over the readings of a chapter or two in 
Orelli s edition, but I shall endeavour to show (1) that A and Y are 
independent of each other, but approach more nearly to one another 
than to any of the other MSS, (2) that B is connected with the arche 
type by a different line of descent from the others, and has frequently 
preserved the true reading which has been lost by them, but that it 
also alters the mistaken readings of the archetype so as to make 
sense. The varying disarrangements in BPV seem to show that 
these are mutually independent and are not copied either from A or 
from the immediate ancestor of A ; and this conclusion is confirmed 
by the subjoined comparison of particular readings. I have compared 
the readings for the 3rd book, as the MSS are less imperfect for 
this than for the earlier books. I give first those readings in which 
the unaltered A and Y agree against BC and P, taking no account 
of Orelli s 6th codex E, belonging to the 15th century. In making 
this comparison it must be remembered that it is only of APY 
that we have the complete readings in Orelli s edition. Where the 
true reading is not that of AY it is given first in round brackets. 
Headings conjectured ex silentio in Orelli s apparatus criticus are put 
in square brackets, as in the critical notes. 

4. (parum) parvam A Y 1 . 

5. (religionesque) religionisque AY 1 . 

(C. Laelium) clelium AY 1 . 

(auspicia) ospicia AY 1 . 

harum ego AY (al. harum ergo). 
8. (quod esset perspicuum) quod est p. AY 1 . 
10. (candens) cadens A J Y. 
11. (grave) gravem AY 1 . 
15. (at)adA l y\ 

with 15 after vicissitudines, instead of 16 after quam deum, and in reading 
rcquiro after rationes at the end of in 13. 



xxx INTRODUCTION. 

15. (placari) placeri AY 1 . 

(equo) aequo AY. 
18. (omniaque quae a te) omnia quae ad te A 1 ^"" 1 . 

(nudius) nudus A^ 1 . 
21. (velis) vellis AY 1 . 

22. (dilatavit) dilata lavit Y 1 (and by corr. fr. dilatavit) A, 
see n. in loc. 

23. (philosopkus) pJiiloso A 1 , pldlosoph. Y 1 . 
24. (siciliensi) siilicensi AY 1 . 
(fervore) ferbore A^ 1 . 
(Britannici) brittannici AY. 
25. (aram} aramd A, aranam Y 1 . 
29. (itta) illam A X Y. 
34. umida A ] Y, al. humida. 
35. umore AY, al. humore. 

(hoc) ho A V 1 . 

37. (solstitiali) solistitiali AY 1 . 
39. (inscitiam) inscitam A l ~V\ 

45. maritumae AY, mariturrt hae P, maritimae BCE. 
46. fotci^s [AY], /^cis B 1 , foc^6s C, ?MCOS P. 
53. (filii)fili AY 1 . 
56. (Pendopa) poenelopa AY. (nefas) nefans A Y 1 . 

(Aegyptiis] Aegyptis A 1 V\ 
58. (confici) confeci A. l V l . 
59. (Elide delubrurn ?) elidelubrum AY. 

(ApoUinis) Apollonis AY 1 . 
62. (qui) quiqui A. l V l . 
65. (istoc i6i) ista ibit AY 1 . 
68. (coinquinari) quoinquinari AY 1 . 
69. scaena AY, al. scena. 
71. (si 7m) si is AY 1 . 
73. (cedo) caedo AY. 
74. (conducto) conduto AY. 
76. 5?fom Y 1 and probably A 1 . 

78. (reprehendenda) repraendenda A, reprendenda Y. 
80. (Reguli) reguilis Y 1 , regiulis A 1 probably. 
81. (supplicioque Q. Varius) supplicio quae que Varius AY 1 . 

si AY (al. sic &c.) 

82. (so^eo Platonem legens) soleo I. platonem legens AY (pro 
bably beginning legens out of order. B. has superscr.) 



RELATIONSHIP OF MSS. XXXI 

83. (Syracusas) seracusas AV 1 . 

84. (fulmine) flumine A V 1 . 

85. (rations) rationem A^ 1 . 

86. (fructuum) fructum A*V l . 

91. (Critolaus) critolauus AY 1 . 
(Corint/ium) corkintum AV. 

9 4. (cingitis) cincitis A 1 Y l . 

This gives 55 instances in which AV agree against the other MSS, 
while the agreements between either of them and any other single 
MS do not amount to more than 13, as may be seen from the fol 
lowing lists (1) of agreements between V and one other MS, (2) 
between A and one other MS. 

(1) Agreements between V and any other single MS. 

1. factu [BV] (&\. factum). 

4. (sin me) si me BV. 

11. cotidie CV (cottidie AB). 

albisPy, aluis A, alms CE, ab his B, where A has the not 
uncommon misreading v (u) for b, and CB are evident emendations. 

14. secuntur BV 1 . 

15. nikil BV, al. nil. 

21. (idquoque) ut quoque PV 1 and perhaps A 1 . 

animum [PV], animam ABCE. 

38. (dilectu) delectu CV. 

39. Leucotheam BV 1 , al. leuchotheam. 

42. (Karthaginem) cartaginem CV. 

46. honores [CV], al. honoris. 

47. (faelis) fells BV 1 . 

50. (filiaeque) illiaeque CV, iliaeque A. 

51. (fluctibus) fructibus PV. 

54. (appellatum) appellatus BV. 

56. (is) Ms VB 1 . (Tkeuth ?) tkeyr C V. 

61. (aut enim) autem enim P V 1 . 

67. (Medea) media VB 1 . 

72. (comicae) cornice CV. 

74. (dejide mala tutelae) defide mala at utile P V, see further below. 

75. (sementim) sementem PV. 

76. (si ista) sed ista V ! B. 

78. (illam quam) aliam quam PV. 

84. (auferri) auferi BV 1 . (impietatem) impletatem B V . 



xxxii INTRODUCTION; 

86. (Rutilii 2) rutili BY. 

88. (immolavisse ?) immolasse PY. 

91. (judico) judicio P Y 1 . 

93. (gentis) sentis PY. (contemnet) contempnet PY. 

This gives 13 agreements between Y and B, 12 between Y and 
P, 7 between Y and C. 

(2) Agreements between A and any other single MS. 

3. (par ratio) paratio A B 1 . 

11. (tu) tu quae AC. 

19. (tacitae) tacite AC. 

32. (omittamus) ommittamus AC. 

37. (cur) quur AC. 

41. Accius AB, al. actius, &c. 

45. (olivae) olive AC. 

47. (omniaque quae) omnia quaeque AC. 

(accipitres) accipitros AP and perhaps Y 1 . 

49. (Erechtheus) erectheus AB. 

54. (Heliopolis) diopolis AC. 

64. (comprehendere) comprendere AP 

68. (cepit) caepit AC. 

74. (it praetor), ite praecor AC. (Plaetoria) letoria AC. 

76. (etsi hi) et sibi AC. 

78. (meracius sumpturum) meratius sumturum AC. 

83. (manubiis) manubiis is A P. (Aescuhqrii?) Aesculapi AB. 

85. dissignata AB, al. designata. 

86. (questus) quaestus AB. 

89. (neglegere), neclegere AB. inulti [AB], multis CPY 1 . 

This gives 8 agreements between A and B, 12 between A and 
C, 3 between A and P as contrasted with 55 agreements between 
A and Y. 

I proceed now to examine the readings in which the accepted 
text rests on the authority of a single codex. 

True text preserved, ~by V alone. 

11. credis esse, where A has credidisese, B credissesse corr. in 
credidisses, CP credidisse, credisse E. Here the variety of readings 
suggests a fault in the archetype : if it had credidsesse, this might 
easily be corrupted into the other readings and corrected in Y. 



RELATIONSHIP OF MSS. XXXlll 

20. a consuetudine enim, where enim is omitted by the other 
MSS and given in contraction by Y. In this case there can be little 
doubt that Y represents the archetype. 

35. quern ipsum non omnes inter pretantur uno modo, qui 
quoniam quid diceret intellegi noluit, omittamus, where the other MSS 
omit qui and even Y seems uncertain. Baiter thinks non omnes modo 
to be a gloss, which would naturally suggest a connecting qui before 
quoniam : on the other hand qui would easily be lost before 
quoniam. 

62. talis a philosophia pellatur error, where the final a of 
philosophia (which probaby commenced a new line in the archetype) 
is written separately in Y 1 . From this the readings of the other 
MSS would easily spring, viz. t. a philosophiappellatur error A, 
t. a pliilosophi appellatur e. B C, t. philosophia appellatur e. B 2 
(evidently altered to make sense), and so t. a philosophis appellatur 
e. PE and Y 2 (only that the last has apellatur). 

70. quisquamne istuc negat by corr. in Y, where A has quis- 
quam iuste (iuste being in ras. by a late hand), C quisquam istuc, 
BP quisquas istuc (quas cancelled in B), quid istud E. I am inclined 
to think the archetype had quisqud stuc (for exx. of stuc in Cicero s 
MSS see my n. and Lachmann s Lucr. p. 197), so that here the 
unaltered B and P are its best representatives. 

73. neque ut inde auferam (see n. in loc.) which, written 
continuously in the archetype, is nearly the same as Y 1 neque tinde 
auferam ; the other readings are easily explicable from Y, viz. neque 
unde auf. ACEP, and ne quid inde auf. B, which may be compared 
with the superscription of quid over neque in Y 2 . 

84. pecunia, edixisse Y, where B 1 has pecuniae dixisse, and 
AB 2 CP pecunia dixisse. Here it would seem that B must be either 
taken directly from a MS in which the words were not separated, or 
(as I think more probable), from a MS wrongly copied from such an 
archetype. 

To these some would add 66, where Y has permiciem see in loc. 

True text preserved by A alone. 

67. posquam (so Baiter), others postquam. 

68. quern dam Thyestem, see nn. P has quern cleanthyestem, 
C and by corr. B have quendam thyestem, Y quern dant hyestem, 
(corr. fr. hyestim\ E quam dant thiestem. Here there can be no 



XXXIV INTRODUCTION. 

doubt that A represents the archetype, that in CB and V cl have 
been mistaken for d and that in V the letters were wrongly grouped. 
This seems to show that A is independent of Y. 

11. Sagram A, all others are allured by the easier sacram. 

22. inanimarum AB 2 V 2 , inanimatarum B 1 V 1 E, animarum 0. 
There can be little doubt that the archetype (a) is represented by A 
and that the commoner form is written by error in B Y 1 . 

48. duces A 1 , right as shown by the following respondebis, 
B^EY 1 have by carelessness duds, PA 2 V 3 dicis, B 3 dices. 

71. commemorabantur A, commemorabatur others. 

89. quidain A (so Baiter), quidam amicus the other MSS, 
except that B 2 has quidem. It seems more likely that A should 
have overlooked arnicas than that it should have been inserted 
by the rest. 



True text preserved by B alone. 

4. parum, parvam AY ! E, parva CV 2 . Probably a had paru, 
which being followed by accepi would suggest parva or parvam : or, 
if Madvig is right in reading cepi, accepi may have arisen from 
par ud cepi in a, in which case B s reading would be an emendation. 

8. quod esset perspicuum BV 2 , where AV 1 have q. est p., and 
CE q. et p. probably by mere carelessness. 

11. eos tu cantheriis : here Y has tuq., P tuque, AC tu quae, 
E que tu. I am inclined to think that the q. of "V (and probably of 
a) was intended to be the first letter of cantheriis, spelt with qu for c, 
like quotta for Gotta, quoinquinari for coinquinari, quohaerere for 
cokaerere, quorum canium for Coruncanium. We have a similar 
instance of a word just begun in 82 1. Platonem legens noticed 
above. 

13. rationes require BY 2 . Baiter with the other MSS omits 
require and it was 110 doubt a natural word to supply, but A s 
reading of the following word, recunturfor the secuntur of BY, seems 
to have arisen from require sequuntur, the eye of the scribe passing 
from the 1st to the 2nd qu. If so we must suppose an intermediate 
link between a and AY on the one side, as between a and B on the 
other side, the former link having recuntur, changed by Y 1 into 
secuntur, the latter preserving the reading of a. 

18. omniaque quae a te BY 2 , omnia quae a te APY 1 (d erased 
after a in AY), omnia quaeque a te C, omnia que a te. Here APY 



RELATIONSHIP OF MSS. XXXV 

must either represent the archetype, emended by Y 2 and B, or else 
the former are derived from the same incorrect copy of a. 

24. fieri non possunt B 1 , all others nonne. There can be little 
doubt that non is what Cicero wrote, but the reading nonne is not so 
objectionable as to call for emendation. It would seem therefore 
that B here represents the archetype, and that the others are con 
nected with it by a medium which in this instance proves to be less 
trustworthy. 

26. Orionem B, orationem ACEPV. Here in all probability a 
had a contraction wrongly interpreted by all but B *. 

27. cientis [B], scientis ACEPY. This is another evidence 
showing that B is connected with the archetype by a different line of 
descent from that of the others. 

42. (Lysithoe est), Lysitho est B (perhaps Lysithoest in a), 
Lysito est ACPY, lisito est E. 

43. (eapedunculis Us), cap. his B, om. Us ACEPY. The 
demonstrative seems necessary, but was of course easily lost after -Us. 

47. ibis B, ibi AEY 1 , ibl C, ibes Y 2 , nothing said of P. Here 
C appears to represent a, while AY have neglected to mark the 
abbreviated s and B has written it out in full. 

49. si sunt hi di BE, si sunt di A 1 , si sunt id Y 1 , si sunt ii dii 
C, si hi sunt di P, si sunt hii di A 2 , si sunt hi dii Y 2 . Probably a 
omitted the demonstrative, as in 43 si di sunt, where I have added 
isti. If Cicero wrote si hi di sunt, it would be easy for hi to drop 
out, and the variety of readings suggests that each scribe reinserted 
it, where he thought best. 

52. jam B, tarn CEY, and probably A 1 , turn A 2 , nothing said 
of P. Here B either follows a separate tradition or has emended the 
common archetype. 

mare B, mater ACEPY. An abbreviated mater might 
easily be mistaken for mare and v.v. The readings may be most 
easily explained by supposing two recensions of a, one followed by 
ACPY (0), the other by B (y). 

54. Mnemosyne [BP], nemosine E, nemo sine ACY (nemo 
in ras. A) f. 

57. Cynosuris [BP], gynosuris ACE, ginosuris Y 1 . 

66. exitium BE, exitum ACPY. It seems more probable that 

* Deiter (Rh. Mus. 1882 p. 314) states that B has orationem like the rest. 
t Deiter gives mnemosine as B s reading. 



XXXVI INTRODUCTION. 

the 1st recension (ft) should have gone wrong than that B should 
have corrected exitum. 

75. (abiegnae) abiegne by corr. in B, dbigne all others. 

82. Anaxarchum [BP] anxarcum A T CE, anxarchum Y. 

83. praedo felix habebatur B, p. filia h. ACEPY, the inferior 
MSS have /Wi, filica, summus, in Pampliylia &c. I have sometimes 
thought fh&ifelix &udjilia might both be corruptions of yaoc/>uAa, 
that being the office held by Harpalus at the court of Alexander, but 
if so, several words must have been lost. It does not seem possible 
ih&tfelix should have been an emendation of jilia, so that we must 
in any case recognize here again two recensions of a. 

manubiis, BEC 2 , manubiis is AP, manubiis Us Y, manibiis C 1 . 
Here I should think the reading of AP is that of the ] st recension 
of a, arising from dittographia of -is, Y s reading would be a natural 
correction of this. 

84. quod quisque sacri hdberet B (so Ba.), q. q. a sacris h. 
ACEPV. Here it hardly seems possible for the one reading to have 
grown oat of the other by inadvertence, and as there was more to 
tempt an intelligent scribe to alter the latter than the former reading, 
I am inclined to consider sacri an emendation. 

in tyrannidis rogum B, in typanidis rogum AEPY, in 
timpanidis rogum C. If my view of the passage is right (see n. in 
loc.), several words are omitted owing to homoeoteleuton ; B has pre 
served tyrannidis, but altered ut into in with all the other MSS. 

True Text preserved by C alone. 

23. saepe dixti C, dixi ABEPV. It is easy to understand an 
ignorant or careless scribe writing dixi for dixti, but how are we 
to account for C 1 Is it directly copied from a, or is it a correction, 
not needing very much acuteness, of a wrong traditional reading ? 

41. in monte Oetaeo C, in monte moetaeo AEPY, in monte 
metaeo B. I have suggested that the prevalent reading may have 
originated in in montem oetaeum wrongly divided. If so, C s reading 
is an emendation. 

42. accepimus CEY 2 , accipimus others. An easy emendation. 

52. nikil horum CEY 2 , nihil honorum ABY 1 , n. bonorum P. 
The abbreviations of honorum, bonorum and horum are easily con 
fused, the only question is -how C got the right reading. I think by 
emendation or by copying from Y 2 . 



RELATIONSHIP OF MSS. XXXV11 

54. Pierias 0, plerias ABE, proelias P, pleridas Y. Here it 
would seem that a must have had plerias, variously corrupted in PY; 
C is an easy emendation. 

65. consulantne di rebus humanis C, for di the other MSS have de, 
which is a very natural corruption of original di, and was probably 
the reading of a, corrected by C. 

72. quod sumas, quanta dissipes libentius CE ; for dissipes 
ABPV 1 have dissipis, Y 2 dissijias. Here too I think it is easiest to 
regard C s reading as a correction of dissipis. 

74. dejide mala tutele (for -lae) C, defidefidem alatat utile A, 
de jide allata tutelae B, de fide mala at utile PY, de fide mala 
tot utiles E. Here A must have arisen from a wrong division of 
words (defidem alat utele) and a double dittographia of fide and at: 
perhaps in a the line ended with at. I think it probable that here too 
C s reading is an emendation, as B s certainly is. 

83. grave C, gravem all others. Probably amiculum was mis 
taken for the diminutive of amicus and so made masculine. C s read 
ing I take to be an emendation. 

86. cuipiam nocuit C, quipiam n. A*B, quippiam n. A 2 Y 
(nothing said of E and P). Here I think the original reading was 
probably quoipiam, corrupted to quipiam in a, and variously emended 
by Y and C. 

94. in earn CE, ineram (with r erased) A, in eram BP Y 1 , in 
is tarn P 2 , in meram Y 2 . Here a must have had eram, CE are no 
doubt corrected after A. 

True text preserved by P alone. 

26. conformatum [P], confirmatum others. 

66. istuc istac ibit PE (perhaps B 1 ), istuc is tacebit C, istuc 
ista ibit AYB 2 , isthaec marg. Y same hand. There can be no doubt 
that P here represents a, and that the form istac being not very 
common, got corrupted in ABY; the marginal reading of Y is pro 
bably an attempt to explain istac. 

92. hanc PY 2 , haec others. 

I go on to give some crucial instances illustrating the character 
of the different MSS. 

13. de Sagra. All the MSS have gone wrong here, ACEPY 
having sacra by inadvertence, but B changes this into sacris to suit 
the context. 



XXXV111 INTRODUCTION. 

14. commemorabas BPV 2 , commorabas ACEV 1 . Here I think 
ACV represent a corrected in BP. 

15. audivi; till si ACV, audivit quam si (quam in ras.) B, 
audivit. tu si P, audivi Bis se E. The origin of the wrong readings 
is misdivision (audivit ibi si), which is corrected with intelligence by 
B and P, and without sense by E. 

16. unus is modus est ACEPV 2 , for is V 1 has by a common 
mistake his, which B alters into ex his to make sense. 

18. quoniam esset aliquid in rerum natura...esse aliquid 
liomine melius ACPV, q. esset aliquit hominem aliquid in rerum ttc. 
(si superscr. before esset) B, the eye of the copyist passing from the 
1st to the 2nd aliquid, and then si being inserted to give a construc 
tion ; E has si esset aliquod. 

19. ab hac ea questione...separantur ABPV, ea oin CE (mis 
taking it for a superfluous abl. sing.). 

25. aram BCE, aramd A, aranam V 1 , arenam V 2 , aram aut P. 
The varieties here can be best explained by supposing a dittographia 
in a, altered in V and P to get some approach to sense. The correct 
reading was an easy emendation. 

26. aedificatum ACEPV, aedificatum esse B Mu. Sch. The 
insertion of esse is an easy emendation, which to my mind rather spoils 
the rhythm of the sentence. 

27. naturae ista CEPV, naturae ste A, natura istae B. Pro 
bably B is a correction of a, represented by A, ste being carelessly 
written for sta*. 

31. mollis est CEV 2 , mo V 1 , mollest A 1 , molest B 1 , molle est 
A 2 B 3 P. Here a probably had the abbreviated moll-est, written as 
one word by A, omitted as a monstrosity by V, and altered to the 
more familiar molest by B. 

43. meliora me didicisse . . .capeduncidis . . .quam rationibus : 
this is the reading of all the MSS, but C adds refersit to find a govern 
ment for quam, which it takes for the relative. 
Panisci ABPV, Panes CE. 

45. sanctissume colunt (with one letter erased before colunt) 
V, sanctissimu ecolunt A, sanctissimum colunt E, sanctissimae colunt 
P, sanctissime colunt BC. Here probably V (and a) had sanctissume 
ecolunt by dittographia of e, this was variously understood by A and 
P and emended by BCE. 

* Deiter (Eh. JIus. 1882 p. 314) gives naturae istae as the true reading of B. 



KELATIONSHIP OF MSS. XXXIX 

46. fanum est BPV 2 ,fanus est ACV 1 (in A s erased), fannus 
E. Probably a had fanu st, corrected in BP. 

47. lucus AEYB 2 , lucos P making it the object of interpreter, 
lucis B 1 perhaps to suit Athenis, locus C. 

51. Arqui ATV 1 , arcui B, arcus A 2 V 3 , arci CE. -4r#iu is 
plainly the reading of a, of which the others are corruptions. 

56. Argum dicitur interemisse [A 2 BCE], argentum d. i. AT V. 
Probably a had an abbreviation, misread by the first recension (/?), 
but rightly interpreted by B and emended by C. 

Aegyptum profugisse [CE], . aegyptum profuisse AB V 1 , 
aegypto praefuisse B 2 PY 2 . I think a must have agreed with ABV, 
and that C and P are emendations. 

64. dicamus indigna naturis Madv. conj., dicaliusu ignais 
ACPV, die olio usu igneis V 2 , dicamus dignais de dys E., dicamus 
digna dis B. As m, n, u and li are frequently interchanged in the 
MSS, there is no difficulty about the first word, but how are we to 
explain the change from indigna naturis into u ignais ? The last 
syllable is an abbreviation for naturis, so the problem is how to 
change indignanais into u ignais. The disappearance of the repeated 
na explains itself and we are left with u followed by hiatus to repre 
sent ind. If this is a correct account of the readings in ACPV it is 
plain that B and E are merely conjectural. 

per mare BPV and (with re on erasure of four letters) A, 
permanere CE and probably A 1 . 

65 fin. ni ob rem (see my n.), ni orbem V, niobem AC 2 E, niobe 
B ; in jovem C 1 , an iobem P, om. edd. with some inferior MSS. No 
one has attempted to offer any explanation of the oldest readings; it 
has been assumed that Niobe in B was a gloss giving the name of the 
speaker, but why in the world should Niobe have been selected ? 
If ni obrem were the reading of a, this would naturally be changed 
into the more familiar ni orbem or Niobem, and B would naturally try 
to make sense by dropping the m. 

69. pestifera est multis admodum paucis salutaris. Instead of 
est A BEPV 1 have sint, CA 2 V 2 sit, in place of the original st ; B 
retaining the plural mends the grammar by reading salutaria. 

70. nocere Deianira voluit ACEPV, n. Dianae ira voluit B by 
an ingenious emendation. 

72. nee amet BPA 2 V 2 , necari et A^CE. I should suppose 
that B represents a, misread by J3 and corrected by P. 

74. haec cotidiana, sicae, venena ACEPY, h. c. sica v. B 
(altering the number to make it agree with cotidiana). 



xl INTRODUCTION. 

75. (dedisses), dedisse E and before erasure of one letter B. 

79. locum conficit cur di ABEP, locum conjicitur di Y by 
carelessness, corrected in V 2 into conficit utrum, in C into con- 
jicit ut. 

81. septimum consul ABY 1 , Septimus c. CE, septies c. PY 2 , 
both corrections of a less common construction. 

83. qui cum ad by corr. in BY, qui quod ad ABCPY, qui 
quod cum ad E. The original reading was probably quoni. 

86. quasi ego . . . de fundo . . . P. Rutilii sim questus ABPY, in 
stead of the last four words CE ingeniously emend protulissem 
questus. 

I add a few examples from the earlier books. 

i 5. ut earum C, et earum AE, uetearum B. Probably a had 
etearum with u superscript over 1st letter. 

i 17. aecum A (and perhaps a), aequ B, f return (to govern 
following judicio) CE. 

i 24. ubinam C, ubinan A, ubinon B 1 , ubi B 2 E. Probably A 
represents a, corrected in B and C. 

i 36. (vi divina esse), ut divina esse A, ut divinam esse B Oxf., 
ut divina sit E. It is plain that A is a misreading of a and that B 
and E are corrections to make some kind of construction. 

I 37. (sententia st qui a), sententias qui ABE, sentias qui C (to 
make a government for the following qui). 

I 43. quoins ABE, cujus C. 

i 44. fere constat BE, fieri constat AGP. Probably B preserves 
the original, altered into a more common phrase by the others. 

i 49. viderit CE, viderat AP Oxf., videat B. Both C and B 
seem to me conjectural emendations of viderat. 

i 58. L. Crasso interpolated by BE, omitted by ACP Oxf. and 
no doubt by a. 

i 63. nonne aperte B by corr. from non ea parte, nonne a parte 
AC, none aperte E. Perhaps in a one line may have ended with none 
a and the next begun with perte. If so, it would seem that B was 
corrected from the original. 

i 65. doce P, doces ABCE Oxf. I suppose we must assume that 
P is a correction from doces in a. 

I 66. veri tamen similiora A, veri simili tamen similiora PB 2 
and (reading simile for simili) B ! E, veri simile tamen si meliora C. 
I think P represents a, the scribe of which began to write similiora 



KELATIONSHIP OF MSS. xli 

out of its place and then corrected it as A. B 1 and would then be 
emendations. 

i 67. otio A, ocio C, optio BEP Oxf. I think a must have had 
optio corrected in A and 0. 

punctis B Oxf., cunctis ACEP. 

i 68. ex atomis id natum ACE, ex atomi sit natum B 1 , ex atomis 
sit natum B 2 , ex atomis renatum P. 

i 70. dicere turpius BC, diceretur pius P Oxf., diceretur plus AE. 
Here /?, i.e. AP (and Y represented by Oxf.), seems to have misread 
the undivided text of a, rightly read by B and corrected by 0. 

(nimis callide), nisi collide CE, nisi valde ABP Oxf. 
I suppose a must have had an abbreviation of callide, misunderstood 
by the best MSS, but rightly rendered by 0. 

I 71. quid sit quasi corpus aut quasi sanguis B, quid sit quasi 
sanguis ACEP Oxf. Another proof that B is descended from a by a 
distinct line. 

i 72. crederem A 2 B 2 E, credem A B 1 and probably a, credam 
P Oxf., credemus C. 

olet B, floret ACEP. Forchhammer thinks B an emenda 
tion, perhaps a may have had ololet or loet. 

i 74. consulto dicis CE, consulta dicis ABP Oxf. Probably C is 
an emendation. 

i 76. nulla alia figura ACEP, nulla in alia f. B by emen 
dation. 

i 77. considera BE, consideras AGP Oxf. and probably a, 
B being here an emendation. 

I 80. ecquos A, etquos BCE. 

i 82. Apim ilium BCE, apud nullum C. 

i 95. bipes BCE, impes 0. 

I 107. Cercopis, Cerconis AE and (by corr. fr. Cratonis) C. B 
gives the more familiar cerdonis. 

i 1 1 4. ne intereat B with a, om. all others. 

II 9. peremnia B with a, perennia ACE. 

ii 10. crearet B 1 , recrearet AB 2 CE Oxf. Perhaps there may have 
been a dittographia of ere in a. 

ii 11. consules B, quos AC, om. E, vos Oxf. No doubt a had 
the abbreviated coss. 

ii 26. liquor aquae declarat C 2 , I. a. d. effusio APY, I. a. d. 
effusae B, 1. a. d. effusioque E, I. a. dederat effusio C 1 . Here effusio 
was probably a gloss on liquor, altered by B and E to make sense. 
M. C. III. d 



xlii INTRODUCTION. 

ii 37. cui nihil absit B, quo nihil absit ACEPV. The original 
must have had quoi altered by B and misunderstood by the others. 

ii 61. ipsa B, ipsa vis ACEV 2 , ipsa vi V 1 . It would seem that 
the vis of the previous line had got wrongly inserted here, B alone 
representing a. 

ii 65. planius quam B, planius quern AY 1 , planiusque V 2 E, 
pleniusque C. Quam was no doubt abbreviated in a and misread by 
all but B. 

caelo B, melo A CEPY, celo A 2 . Is B an emendation or 
the correct reading of a misread by the others ? 

ii 69. deflagravisse [CEP]V 2 , deagravisse A, deam migravisse Y 1 , 
demigravisse B (mi by corr.). Here I should suppose that A comes 
closest to the original, the letters fl being lost or obscured in a : Y 
would then be a bold emendation, and the true reading conjecturally 
restored in P. 

ii 112. cujus propter laevum genu CY, c. p. laeum genum A, 
at propter laevum genus omni ex parte locatas parvas B 1 , with cujus 
for at B 2 , with cujus and geny E. It is plain that E follows B and 
that B is taken from the Aratea, see n. in loc. 

ii 114. Ckelis B (probably corrected from Aratea), cetis AC. 

ii 117. sublimis sed B, sublimi sed ACPV. 

II 126. alvos ibes [P] Y 2 , alvos ibis CE with a, alvo sibis A, 
alvo sibi B, alvos hibis Y 1 . Here B is evidently an emendation. 

ii 131. varia et tarn Y 2 , variae tarn AY 1 , varie tarn B, varia tarn 
CEP. Probably AY represent a altered by B and the others. 

n 134. molitur B with a, mollitur ACEPY*. 

II 145. omnisque sensus antecellit [APC], omnesque s. ante- 
cellit EY 1 , omnesque s. antecellunt B, perhaps right. 

II 147. ex quo videlicet quid [ACPY], ex quo videmus quid BE, 
no doubt an emendation to explain construction. 

ii 159. fabricarier ensem et AE(er in ras. A) Y 2 , fabrieari ferens 
emet C, fabricariferensem et B (with re superscr. after fer\ fabrieari 
ferro ensem et Y 1 . Here it would seem that A^C all had substan 
tially the same reading which must have been that of a. B 2 and Y 1 
are attempts to improve on this. 

It appears from the above examination of the readings that we 
might arrange the MSS in a scheme as follows. 

* Deiter 1. c. says the true reading of B is mollitur. 



RELATIONSHIP OF MSS. 



xliii 




Laurent. 



UTLO 



This agrees fairly with Forchhammer s view (Nor disk Tidskrift 
for 1880, p. 23 foil.), except that he does not recognize any connexion 
between E and the 1st line of descent (/?), whereas many instances 
will be found above in which E agrees with A and C against B. 
I think also he is wrong in speaking of the group (y) as a,familia 
deterior. Almost all the inferior codices may I think be affiliated 
to P. Again, where B alone has the true reading, Forchhammer will 
not allow that this is due to its being itself copied from the arche 
type or even to its belonging to a better tradition : in all such 
cases he holds that the true reading is an emendation. I do not 
think any one who has taken the trouble to look through the 
readings given above will accept this view of B. On the other hand 
I cannot agree with Miiller (Neue Jahrbiicher 1864 pp. 127 147, 
261 281, 605631) and Vahlen (in the introduction to his edition 
of the De Legibus) in ranking B higher than A*. It is undoubtedly 
less trustworthy, and though it is more often the sole represen 
tative of the archetype, this may be only because, A being closely 
allied with CPY, where A is right, these are usually right with it. 

It may be worth while to add that the texts used by Priscian 
and Probus seem to have been in some respects better than our 
archetype, cf. n 117, 118 and 91 for Prob. 106, for Priscian. 

* See notes in my vol. i. p. Ixx. 



xliv INTRODUCTION. 



THE MEKTON CODEX OF CICERO S DE NATURA 
DEORUM. 

[Reprinted from the Journal of Philology, Vol. xn. pp. 248255.] 

As I have had occasion to spend a good deal of time upon this 
Codex, which was kindly lent to me by the authorities of Merton 
College with a view to my edition of the De Natura Deorum,! think 
it may be useful that I should put on record what I have learnt as 
to its history and character. 

We are told in the fly-leaf that it was given to the Merton 
Library by William Reade, a Fellow of the College, who was Bishop 
of Chichester from 1368 to 1385. He purchased it from Thomas 
Trilleck, who was Bishop of Rochester between the years 1364 and 
1372. It is curious that the British Museum contains a MS volume 
of Latin Sermons (Royal MSS 10 A xi) similarly purchased from 
Trilleck by Reade, and presented by him to the College * de Sancta 
Trinitate, founded by Richard Earl of Arundel at Chichester. 
Both volumes have Bp Reade s library mark, and the fly-leaf in both 
shows the same handwriting, probably Reade s own. 

The Merton Codex, which I have denoted as Oxf. in my 2nd 
and 3rd volumes, is a neatly written parchment volume consisting of 
134 leaves or 268 pages. There are two columns in the page, each 
column containing 37 lines, and each line containing on the average 
8 words. The words and sentences are divided. Abbreviations are 
frequent. It contains the three books of the De Officiis in 68 pages, 
two pages of EpitapJiia Ciceronis edita olim a duodecim sapientibus, 
the three books of the De Natura Deorum in 64 pages, the 1st book 
of the De Divinatione (here called the 4th De Natura Deorum) as 
far as 106 duros ulta labores in 21 pages, and the first four Philip 
pics as far as iv 15 quern habebat, amisit. The 3rd Philippic is 
made to end at in 27 victurum neminem, the latter half (from 28 
hodierno die to censuerint) appearing as the 4th, and our 4th as the 
5th. This completes the original codex ending at p. 200. The last 
68 pages, which are occupied with Palladius De Re Rustica in 13 
books, are written in a different hand belonging to the 13th century. 



THE MERTON CODEX. xlv 

Mr E. M. Thompson of the British Museum has kindly examined 
the volume for me and informs me that the original Codex was 
written in England towards the end of the 12th century. As there 
are only three MSS which are definitely stated to be of an earlier 
date, viz. the Vienna Codex Y of the 10th century, the imperfect 
Harleian K, and the Leyden Yossianus A of the llth, to which we 
may perhaps add the Palatine (P), called perantiquus in Baiter s ed., 
it is evidently deserving of a full collation*. The only other MSS 
which can rival it in age are two others in the Leyden collection, 
Orelli s B and C (Baiter s H) both of the 12th century, and two 
French MSS which seem never to have been collated, one in the 
National Library at Paris no. 15085, said to be written at the end 
of the 12th century, and one in the Library at Tours no. 688, said to 
belong to the same century. I mention these last in the hopes that 
I may be able to learn further particulars about them from some 
of my readers, and also that I may perhaps hear of other MSS of 
equal antiquity which have escaped my notice. Halm in his pre 
face to the Orellian edition of the philosophical treatises of Cicero 
mentions a Codex of the llth century contained in the Munich 
Library (MS 528), but I am informed by Mr Reid that he can learn 
nothing further about this from the present Librarian. 

Notwithstanding his neat writing, the scribe is undoubtedly very 
careless (1) in the division of words and sentences, (2) in mistaking 
uncommon for familiar words, (3) in repeating words or clauses, 
(4) in omissions arising from the recurrence of similar words or 
syllables. As examples of (1) I may cite quid jus for quidvis I 39, 
in situ for nisi tu I 57, video for in deo I 67, feres for se res in 66, 
hoc dicer etur pius esse for hoc dicer et turpius esse I 70, invidia for in 
India in 42, quid doceam for quid Oceani in 24, tarn utiles for 
tutelae in 74. Examples of (2) are carnales for Carneades in 29, 
triformis for Trophonius in 49, celsos for caesios I 83, teximus eo ede 
for Thelxinoe Aoede in 54, et amet for Aeetam et in 55. Examples 
of (3) are in 17, where, instead of plurima a te Balbe dicta sunt, we 
read plurima cum pulchritudine mundi B. d. s., the words cum 
mundi being taken from a few lines below, where they followed 
pulchra, which the copyist probably confounded for the moment with 
plurima, and never corrected his mistake, if indeed he ever became 



* For P and the Laurentian Codex 257 see the preceding Essay on Orelli s 
MSS. 



xlvi INTRODUCTION. 

aware of it. In the same way in in 33, instead of nullum igitur 
animal aeternum est, we read n. i. a. appetit quaedam aeternum est, 
without any attempt at sense, the words appetit quaedam being 
inserted from below, where they followed another animal; but the 
copyist writes on, apparently quite unconscious of his mistake. So 
in in 34, instead of quin id intereat, etenim ea ipsa, the copyist 
looking back a few lines sees another intereat followed by necesse est, 
and accordingly writes necesse est for etenim here : in in 71 (inita 
subductaque ratione nefaria scelera meditantes), the copyist on coming 
to ratione allows his eye to stray to another ratione some lines below 
and goes on there qui in amore summo summaque inopia, returning 
then to nefaria. 

The last kind of carelessness specified was the omission of clauses 
owing to the recurrence of similar words or syllables. The following 
may be quoted as examples. 

n 21 after non utitur om. nihil autem utitur. 

after esse mundum om. similiter esse mundum. 

32 after pluris esse om. necesse est pluris esse. 

36 after non sit deterior om. mundi homine deterior. 

43 after praestantem intellegentiam om. in sideribus intelle 
gentiam. 

46 after nihil sit melius om. mundo id sit imlius. 

47 after absit extremum quantum, om. idem a summo eruditum. 
64 after vacare voluerunt om. ea parte voluerunt. 

in 9 after facer em in om. causis facer em in, which is however 
superscribed in the same hand. 

18 after esset aliquid om. in rerum esse aliquid. 

29 after omne animal om. tale est omne animal. 

35 after corpora intereant om. non cum intereant. 

79 after valere sic om. non nemo sit. 

90 after penis om. luendis poetis. 

i 70 after alterum utrum om. esse verum concessit before esset. 

So in i 95 we read nisi nunquamne vidisti, instead of nisi num- 
quam vidi solem aut mundum beatum. Quid ! mundum praeter 
hunc umquamne vidisti ? 

In the great majority of the above quotations, if not in all, and 
in many similar cases the Merton Codex stands alone. While they 
show the carelessness of the copyist, they also show that he does 
not go wrong of malice prepense, like the writer of the Cambridge 
Codex, with the idea of improving on his original. He does not try 



THE MERTON CODEX. xlvii 

to make sense, and therefore his blunders are all of a mechanical 
nature. If we set aside these idiosyncrasies, the question arises, 
with which of the other MSS is this most closely connected. I think 
the instances given below, which might be multiplied to any extent, 
show conclusively that it is very nearly allied to the oldest known 
codex, Orelli s Y, written in the 10th century, and to the Harleian 
Codex 5114 M, written in the latter half of the 15th century. To 
the same group belong the Roman and Venetian editions of 1471. 
The relation in which it stands to Orelli s Y is curious. Where 
there is a second reading in Y, this is usually followed in the Merton 
Codex (Oxf.), but not by any means universally, not in general 
where it is specified that the correction or marginal reading in Y is 
written secunda manu, as in n 69, where Y 2 has the correct deflagra- 
visse, while Oxf. agrees with Y 1 in the reading deam migravisse. 
Sometimes an older reading is preserved in Oxf., which has been cor 
rected in Y, thus in n 18 Oxf. has apparent and ne cogitari, where 
Y has by correction apparet and nee cogitari ; in n 56 Y has emen- 
tita by correction, while Oxf. with MCR retains, what was probably 
the original reading of Y, ea mentita. Sometimes both readings are 
combined, as in n 27 where Y 1 has eisfervescunt, Y 2 effervescunt, Oxf. 
eis effervescent ; n 127 where Y 1 has cursu, Y 2 morsu, Oxf. incursu 
morsu. Sometimes we observe a general resemblance combined with 
slight and probably accidental variation, as in n 123 where AB V 1 
have data elephantos (doubtless representing an original elephantost), 
corrected to d. elephanto in B 2 , to d. elephantis in PY 2 HMR, and to 
d. elephanti in Oxf. ; in u 146, where ABEP read et parte tangendi, 
Y by corr. et arte tangendi^ and Oxf. arte et tangendi; in n 42, 
where BC rightly give id et, and A^Y 1 id est, Y 2 has id est que, 
E idem, and Oxf. MRCV idemque. The conclusion to which these 
things point, seems to be that Oxf. was copied from Y at a time 
when some, but not all the corrections, which are now found there, 
had been made. One would like to know whether Orelli s * secunda 
manus* always denotes the same handwriting and, if so, what is its 
date *. At the same time there are occasional difficulties in the way 
of this hypothesis : for twenty cases, say, in which Oxf. agrees with 
Y against the rest of Orelli s MSS, we find one, it may be, in which 
Oxf. approaches more nearly to some of them than to Y. Thus in 
II 86, where Baiter reads ecferant, AC have et ferant, B haec ferant, 

* On this point see Detlefsen in the Vienna Sitz. Ber. for 1856, p. 117. 



xlviii INTRODUCTION. 

E hecferantj Y eoferant, while Oxf. and M have necferant. Per 
haps here the true reading of Y may have been ec, misread eo by the 
collator, and then ec may have been changed to the more familiar 
nee by Oxf. In n 73 Y has locus, the other MSS locus est, Oxf. 
locutus est ; in n 64 BOY have caelestem, Oxf. BM caelestium, 
AECR caelestum; in n 50 Y with H3VIR has turn australis, while 
Oxf. has aut ciust. with ABCEPB. 

As Y wants the whole of Book i, my examples are necessarily 
confined to the 2nd and 3rd books. 

ii 27 subditis Y 2 Oxf. M Asc., subitis ABCEPY B. 

29 in quoque genere A 2 B Asc., in quoquo g. CB, in quo g. A PY 
Oxf. 

31 cum homines A 2 B 2 Y Oxf. Asc. HLMO, quin h. CEPB. 

33 prima ABEY Oxf. BMV Asc., primo CPHLO. 

34 in ulla Y 2 Oxf. LM, in nulla MSS generally, in ilia V Asc. 
38 id quod ACEGBH, quod BPV Oxf. M. 

in equo quam in eculeo V 2 (sec. in.) and MSS generally, nequaquam 
in eculeo Y 1 , nequaquam (contracted) in eq^ce Oxf. 

id in perfecto CPBM Oxf. (id corr. fr. is) AY, is in p. BE. 

41 omnium Y 2 (sec. m.) and MSS generally, om. Oxf. Y 1 . 

45 restat MSS generally, sane (repeated from sanae above) restat 
Y Oxf. MCV. 

47 extremum quantum Y 2 Oxf. Red. Asc., extremum MSS gene 
rally. 

48 potest indoctius ACEPY BH, potest esse indoctius BY 2 Oxf. 
Asc. LMO. 

49 quot CEPY 2 GH Oxf., quod AB Y BO, quid B 2 M. 
conficiat B by corr., confeciat A by corr., confectat CEPBL, 

confecta Y Oxf. MRV. 

51 Saturni by corr. BY also Oxf. HM, Satumis A, Saturnia 
CEB. 

56 versantur CBH, versatur ABEPY Oxf. MC. 

59 modum AEY Oxf., mundum B CB. 

venis et Oxf. B 2 V 2 MO, venisset B B, venis sed ACE, venis 
nee Y 1 . 

61 ea ipsa B, ea ipsa vis A GEY 2 Oxf. Mus.*, ea ipsa m Y 1 . 

vides vides Y 2 Oxf. MO, vides vide AY*B, vide vide 
CEB. 

* Mus. denotes the consensus of the MSS in the British Museum. 



THE MEKTON CODEX. xlix 

62 Semela Y Oxf., semele A 2 BCE, semel A 1 . 
mysteriis ABCEBO, ministeriis Y Oxf., LMR. 

65 planius quam BO, plcmius quern AY 1 Oxf., planiusque 
EY 2 BLMRV, pleniusque C. 

66 alteri A 2 , alterum A BCEV B, altero PV 2 Oxf. HM + . 

69 deflagravisse CEPV 2 (sec. in.) BH, deagravisse A, demigra- 
visse B by corr., deam migravisse Y 1 Oxf. 

abfuisset A 2 Y 2 , adfuisset Oxf., afuisse A^CPV 1 , affuisse E. 

70 ut cum gigantibus ABEY 1 Oxf. M, id est gigantibus Y 2 
(sec. m.). 

71 quos deos ABCEY 1 , fios deos Y 2 Oxf. 

76 sit necesse est melius ABCY 1 Oxf., sit necesse est esse me- 
lius Y 2 . 

80 nihil autem ABCEY 1 , nihil autem est Y 2 M + , nihil autem 
esse Oxf. CR. 

83 quacumque movemur BY Oxf. M, qua movemur ACE + . 

100 saxa nativis CEY Oxf. M, saxasanativis AB 1 , saxosana- 
tivis B 2 . 

101 spiritu BY 2 Oxf. M, spiritus ACEY 1 . 

Ill A ndromeda aufugiens Y Oxf. by corr. in A and B, Andro 
meda haudfugiens CP, Andromeda haut fugiens E. 

114 infernis e BOP, inferni se Y 1 !^, inferni de Y 2 Oxf., infernis 
deE. 

122 ea est BCE, eas et APY Oxf. M. 

humilitas BCEY 1 Oxf., humilatas AP, humiliatas Y 2 . 

123 alii generis bestiis P, aliis generis escis ABC 1 , aliis gen. estis 
Y 1 , alius generis escis Y 2 Oxf. 

126 purgantes O, purgante ABCY 1 , purgatione P, pur g are Y 2 
Oxf. M, purgantur E. 

127 morsu PY 2 M, cursu ABCEV 1 + , incursu morsu Oxf. 
129 aiunt Oxf. Y by corr., alunt ABCEPY. 

excuderunt ABCPY, excuderint EY 2 , excluserint Y marg. Oxf. 

131 varia et tarn Y 2 Oxf. Asc., variae tarn AY 1 , varie tarn B, 
varia tarn CEP. 

134 constrictis Y Oxf. MCR, constructs ABCEP. 

136 ducant ABC, adducant PY Oxf. M, abducant E. 

138 contagione ABCEP + , coagitatione Y Oxf. M. 

143 coniventibus PY Oxf. M, conluentibus ABCEBH, confluen- 
tibus LNO. 

150 ad tibiarum ABCEY 1 , ac tibiarum PY 2 Oxf. M. 



1 INTRODUCTION. 

admotione B CPY 2 Oxf., ad motionem AEY 1 , admonitions B 1 . 

151 consectione Y 2 Oxf. M> confectione B, confectionem ACEPY 1 . 

153 accipit ad cognitionem ABCEPY 1 , ace. ab Us cogn. Y 2 , ace. 
ab his cogn. Oxf. MRV. 

162 providentia (by corr. fr. prudentia) Y Oxf. M, prudentia 
ABCEP + . 

167 prosperae semper ACP + , prospere semper BEY 1 , prospers 
eveniunt semper Y 2 Oxf. RV. 

168 vobis ABCEPY 2 , quovis Y 1 Oxf. 
in 8 posses Oxf. Y 2 , possis ABCEPY 1 . 

9 coniveres edd., contuereris EY 2 Oxf. HMRV, contueres 
ABCPY 1 . 

11 praesentis ABGE, praesertis Y Oxf., praesentes Y marg. 

credis esse Y Oxf., credidisese A, credidisses B, credidisse CP, 
credisse E. 

13 rationes ACEY B, rationes requiro BY 2 Oxf. 

14 commemorabas BPY 2 Oxf., commorabas ACEV 1 !!. 

20 velles BPY 3 Oxf., veils ACEY BH. 

21 quid dicis melius ABCEPY 2 (sec. m.), om. Oxf. Y 1 MNCRV. 

23 erit mundus Y marg. (ead. m.) Oxf. MNCRV, om. 
ABCEPY. 

24 Jiabent ABCEP, om. Y 1 , hdbent vel servant Y marg, (sec. m.) 
Oxf. MCV. 

28 quasi consensus Oxf. and MSS generally (quldam superscr. sec. 
m. Y), quasi quldam cons. H. 

2$ ferundam edd., fruendam A BCEPV BL, ferendam A 2 Y 2 
Oxf. MCRV. 

35 dlceret Intellegl Oxf. Y 2 , dlceret quod Intellegl ABCEPY B. 

omnem vim ABCEPY marg., omnium Y by corr. Oxf., omnia 
unum MCR. 

38 nos ABCEP, non Y Oxf. HMNR. 

nihil est nee esse ABCEP, niktt esse nee esse Y, nlhll esse necesse 
Oxf. 

41 sermonls ABCEP, sermones Y 1 , sermone Y 2 Oxf. MCV. 

reddes ABCEPY^HL, redde Y 2 Oxf. M + . 

44 aiebat (2nd) ABCEPY 2 , agebat Y 1 Oxf. BM. 

morbus edd., modus ABCEPY^HL, motus Y 2 Oxf. M, metus 
NCR. 

45 Rhesus BEP, Hesus ACV^, Theseus Y 2 Oxf. MNCRV. 
48 duces A 1 , dices B, duds CEY ] B, diria A 2 PY 2 Oxf. M + . 



COLLATION OF MERTON MS. li 

49 Erechtheus OP, erectheus AB, eritheus E, eratheus V Oxf. M 2 , 
aratheus M 1 . 

60 aliaque edd., atque V Oxf. MRCV, et B 2 , om. AB CEP. 

79 confidt cur ABEP, confidt ut CB, conficitur V 1 , confidt 
utrum V 2 Oxf. 



COLLATION OF MERTON MS. (OXF. 0) FOR BK. I. 

[The readings of the Merton MS are in italics. Where it seemed desirable 
I have added the received text in brackets.] 

1 multae res in philosophia om. sint. agnitionem. quod tarn 
variae sint. hominum sententiae tamque discrepantes. ut id om. esse 
debeat sententias 2, om. 

2 (quod) quid. niliil agant om. (iis) his. primisque. dijudi- 
catur. 

3 (ab iis) ab his. (a dis) ab eis. (juvare) adjuvare. (ab iis) 
ab his. possit om. (item) ita. 

4 (ratione) oratione. (maturata) natura. (que quae) que. (ita) in. 
6 (autem) quoque. eff under et. relicto. (studio) studii. 

I (ea) earn. (otio) oratione. 

8 (minus) minimus. 

9 pertractandam by corr. fr. perpetrandam. aliae ex aliis nexae. 

10 auctores. (soleo id quod) sollempnia. 

II disciplinam om. ercesila. si om. (iis) Ms. 

12 ??i<2 non profiteer secutum esse in marg. judicandi om. existit. 
(iis) w 1 , 7ws 2 . 

13 videntur by corr. fr. dicuntur. ut in sinefebis. omnium once. 

15 c. cottam. (est) si. epicuri. peroportune. (mihi magna 
de re) de re magna. 

16 afgta. oportune. M enim (contracted) Piao. (peripateticis) 
hypatheticis twice. t We om. 

17 vero inquit om. 

18 solent om. intermundi is. 

19 (a deo atque aedificari) ad<?o aedificarique. efficiendum. 

20 palmaris. (physiologiam) philosophiam philiologiam. (aliquod) 
aliquid. pronoe vero si vestra est Lucili eadem requiro. 

21 (autem) enim. (conversione) convenientia. metiebantur. 
non potest. 

22 (at iste) ad ista. (potest esse oblect. ) potest obi. esse. 

23 (mereretur) meretur. venientia corr. fr. leni. naturam intelle- 
gentes. 

24 nee cogitari. (si minima) summa. est pars pars est etiam corr. 
fr. est pars etiam etiam. (pars obr.) parsque obr. 

25 (vero sint) vero ? est ut. si sine sensu di possunt esse. (eosque) eos. 



Hi INTRODUCTION. 

26 sed post axiaximcnes. deus sine ulla forma (superscr. fortuna). 
ac ratione ac vi. sensu. in infinito om. in. quo non ipsa. 
(animal aliquod voluit esse erit aliquid) an. esse vol. aliquod erit. (aliquid 
interius) int. al. 

27 (quod) quid. (Alcmaeo) alcineo by corr. fr. alcimeo. 

28 (item) ita. reprehenditur. conventicium quiddam corone simile, 
steplianem. continentem ardorem lucis orbem. cingit. revocat. 
(hoc omittantur) hoc comitantur. 

29 (sensu omni) sensu. (habere quod liqueat) qu. liq. scire. nonne 
deumfaciat in marg. aer qui. deo utitur. 

30 (anquiri) an quaeri. (aaw^arov] asamathon. (careat etiam) c. 
enim. et celurn repeated. 

32 unum om. (dicens tollit) dicens qua omnia regantur t. (from below). 

33 magistro uno. (dicit) dixit. designaret. demum. esse 
repeated after beatus. 

34 (de) in. (fabulis) famulis. tamen modo. vult corr. from tulit. 

36 (vi divina esse affectam) ut divinam esse ac perfectam. appellatur. 

37 (censeat) deceat. (deus animans) ne deus amans. deum mun- 
dum. (turn totius) cum t. qui aether. (delirans) deliberans. 
voluntatem. (turn nihil) cum n. divinius esse. 

38 (volumus) volumi?iis. (dicit)- dicunt. in deos om. 

39 veterrimus. (quidvis) quid jus. ea quae by corr. fr. earn quae. 

40 persequimur. 

41 fabulas. (poetae) posse poetae. (haec ne) nee. sint. 
partum Joins ortumque. 

42 in deos. (praeterea) praeterita. omni tempore intemperantia. 
immortali. 

43 (ignoratione) ignorantiae (so K). (venerari) vulnerare (so M and vul- 
nerari H). (et) ut. (habere debeat) haberi debeatur. enim est. 
quod om. prolemsim. 

44 esse before deos. (esse igitur deos coiifitendum est) est ig. con/, d. 
esse. fatemur. nomina om. prolemsim. 

45 (quod quae) quod quae que. (nullos...impendere) nullus...impediret. 
vitam et actionem mentis atque agitationem video. 

46 (ac) liac. (humanam) humanorum. 

48 (quoniamque) quoniam quia (so M). in om. 

49 causam. viderat. tractet ut manu doceat. (earn) tamen. 
ad deos. 

50 (infinitatis) infirmitatis. 

51 turn... turn. 

52 sive in ipso. 

53 vacatione numerum. fabrica tamque earn. facilem. negetis. 
natura om. 

54 (orarn) horam. (insistere) existere. invisibilium athomorum 
volitat. choerescunt. vestris. 

55 himarmanem. estimanda sit. 

56 libertate vindicati. metuimus. habenda mihi. 

57 atque. (nisi tu) insitu. (ducam) dicam. videri mihi. 



COLLATION OF MERTON MS. liii 

58 L. Crasso om. id uberius. difficillima. 

69 (solebat) accepissem from below. (ilia bene refellerentur) ille refel- 

lerentur. (venit) evenit, ineptes. acciderat. 

60 (quale) quare. mihi res. cetera qua. (quid eorum) qui 
deorum. 

61 (necne sint) necne. in consensu. 

62 deorum nulla suspitio sit. 

63 aperte. nam et. (quidern) qui et. neque ut non sint neque 
ut sint. (habeo) ho. aut Neptuni. fuisset om. 

64 (vultis) multis (so HN). 

65 doces. nihil inesse individuum. 

66 veri similia tamen similiora. partim autem angulata piramata quae- 
dam et quasi adunca. 

67 (ne in deo quidem) ne video. (otio) optio (so BEPL). punctis, 
an in. 

68 (quod enim) quia enim. (id natum aliquando est) sit n. a. sit. in 
dumeta. 

69 velud. (suopte) suo te. directa. 

70 (hoc dicere turpius est) hoc diceretur pius esse. devinctionibus. 
utrum esset ejus modi (omitting esse verum concessit). (aut etiam 2nd) aut 
negavit. (Arcesilas) Artopliilas. nisi valde. 

71 mirabilius quam vos. corpus aut quasi om. 

72 (equidem) quidam. credam. ne ex leutico. putent. neodes. 

73 (metuit) metivit. nausi fane. (si haec) si lex. inanes. 
eorumque. 

74 quasi corpus intellego om. (nee consulto) consulta. liqueat. 

75 (in Venere) invenere. (sanguis est) s. non est. Epicuro. (fac 
id) fads. deorum om. 

76 anticipatum. (quod) ut. debet. possit before quod. 

77 quicquid. consideras. (omnino caecus) omnium cetus. 
in deo. imperatorum. se om. (tu) in. quam sui. (aqui- 
lam) aliquam. 

78 enim dicam. vexat. corpori. naturae tanta. homini. 
difficili after similis esse by repetition from above. 

79 (cujus) culus. (formosus est) om. est. nevus in hasticulo delectat 
pueri. quintus Catulus. exorientem. (vestra) vera. visus. 
aderat. sicuti. falsum. 

80 et quos thrice. ac petulos. (nihil inter) om. nihil. 

81 (quid) quod. iste defendens. si. apparuisse. reliquos. 

82 et spoliata simulacra. nefando. egipto. cocodrillum. 
lavinis. 

83 (physicum) fuscum. ventilator emque. (caesios) celsos. esse 
Athenis. 

84 nescieris. istam effutientem (so M). at tu. (tui) tu. 
aut lunam om. 

85 humano quo docui. ergo. sigillatim numerantes. fecerit. 

86 iste. id esse immortale. ante te. (his ille) his ita 
religiones. 



liv INTRODUCTION. 

87 natura ponere. (in ulla) nulla. illustrationem. 

88 attingimus. nonne. mediterranei. vulpeculas lepuss 
culosque. 

89 quae. quod autem. 

90 factum est vultis. 

91 semina. (liberet) juberet. 

92 decreverunt. supervacaneum. loqueretur. quam interiora om. 

93 hermacus. (etiam Leontium) om. etiam (so HN). ausafuit 
superscr, sit. ortus. contumeliose. pJiedro. concideret. 
sillum. crisippam. 

94 ne ulla. impetraretis. (curatio) oratio. 

95 bipes. dicenda sunt. 

96 numquam praeter liunc om. numquamnc. (sescenta) sententia. 
(docebit) videbit. beata et aeterna quae om. divinae naturae sunt. 

97 elephante. 

98 in nomine (so A). loquare. 

99 hoc om. supervacaneum. ad ad om. membra om. 
quid ipsa pertinet om. 

100 (et) ad. liaec fecisset. talis esse. 

101 vivae noceant nee odore noceant. possunt. cochodrillorum. 

102 Epicurus existimant. 

103 oportet et, om. et. (sunt suus est cuique) sunt suus cuique est. 
inundat. supremwn aether. hora. (terrenae sunt) terrae ne sint. 

104 attigerit est ulcus. 

105 (nee esse) necesse. (eandem permanere) tandem permanare. 

106 ut igitur titum. inanem turn. octavi. turn pervener int. 

107 nunc etiam. quam omnium. incidere om. nee ex. 
(id est) quidem. incurrere. 

108 fuerunt potuerunt. 

109 (at) ad. co?itinenter quoquo modo. inquit. facient. 
eqilibram. (etiam esse) esse etiam. (sane) ea. 

110 quae nulla sunt om. (agitari) attigari. animare non, om. non. 

111 earundem. Epicuri. ne quidem. 

113 (at) ad. quibus quasi delicatas voluptates om. sapientior. 
(vestros) nostros (so H). 

114 (at) a. pulchro. quomodo videatur iste deus beatus. 

115 (P. Scaevolam) scevolanum (so ABE). ut Xerxes. 

116 elicere. voluptate. et scientia est. colendi sunt. 
accepto om. 

117 liberare. libuerit. 

118 prodigus chius. 

119 horarum. 

120 (fontibus) frontibus. ortulos. (in universitate) universitati. 
mentesque quae sunt. solent. (animantes imagines) an. virgines. 
(omnia) annua. 

121 dignos. is idem. 

122 inbecillitatem. nulla est, om. est. ductum. in nulla 
regentes. 



ANALYSIS OF BOOK III. lv 

ANALYSIS OF BOOK III. 
ACADEMIC CRITICISM OF THE STOIC THEOLOGY. 

Introduction. Cotta regards the Stoic doctrine as deserving of 
more serious attention than the Epicurean ; but is himself content to 
believe as his fathers did. If the Stoics profess to base their religion 
on grounds of reason, they must be prepared for criticism, ch. I 1 
ch. ii 6. 

Criticism distributed under four heads. 

A. The Divine Existence, ch. in 7 ch. vm 19. 

B. The Divine Nature, ch. vm 20 ch. xxv 64. 

C. Providential Government of the Universe, 65. (All but a 
few lines lost.) 

D. Providential Care for Man (beginning lost), ch. xxvi 66 
ch. xxxix 93. 

Conclusion. Cicero gives his vote in favour of the Stoic, as 
opposed to the Academic view. 



A. The Divine Existence, ch. in 7 ch. vm 19. 

Act. If the belief in the Divine Existence is necessary and uni 
versal, as the Stoics allege, it is worse than useless to attempt to rest 
it on argument, which simply raises doubts as to the validity of the 
belief. 710. 

Ab. It is not true that the sight of the heavens leads to a belief 
in the Stoic God of Nature. 10, 11. 

Ac. . General belief is a strange ground to allege for a philo 
sophical conviction, especially on the part of those who hold the vox 
populi to be the vox stultorum. 11. 

Ad. The epiphanies to which the Stoics appeal are mere 
rumour unconfirmed by evidence. 11 13. 

Ae. Divination is utterly fallacious, and would be of no bene 
fit, if true. It cannot therefore prove the Divine Existence. 
14, 15. 



Ivi INTRODUCTION. 

Af. Of the other arguments adduced by Cleanthes, the two 
which deal with the blessings of life and the order of the heavenly 
bodies will be treated of under C : the awe-inspiring phenomena of 
nature, though they helped to produce the belief in God, yet are far 
from proving the validity of that belief. 16, 17. 

Ag. The arguments of Chrysippus as to the power, beauty and 
harmony exhibited in the universe, the syllogisms of Zeno, and 
the physical proof of the divinity of the universe are reserved for 
the same section (C). 18, 19. (They are really treated of in 
section B.) 

B. The Divine Nature, ch. vm 20 ch. xxv 64. 
Ba. Criticism of particular arguments of Zeno, Chrysippus and 
Xenophon. 20 28. 

(1) When it is said the universe is best and therefore divine , 
there is an ambiguity in l best . Granted that it is most beautiful 
and admirably adapted to our wants, but how is it most wise ? If, 
as Zeno says, because what is wise is better than what is not wise, 
why not, on the same principle, inaKe the universe to be a mathe 
matician or musician 1 20 23. 

(2) Again, as to the argument that the regular movements of 
the stars prove them to be divine, this is simply the regularity of 
nature : on the same principle we should call the tides divine. 
23, 24. 

(3) Chrysippus uses better in the same vague way as Zeno, 
and does not distinguish between nature and reason. It is no pre 
sumption in man to believe that he is himself rational and that the 
stars are made of brute matter. The comparison of the universe to 
a house begs the question. 25, 26. 

(4) Nor is there more weight in the assumption of the Xeno- 
phontic Socrates, that the rational soul of man must have proceeded 
from a rational soul in the universe \ or in that (of Chrysippus) 
that the harmony of nature can only be explained on the suppo 
sition of one divine Governour. Both the harmony of nature and 
the soul of man are spontaneous products of nature acting according 
to her own laws. 27, 28. 

J3b. The argument of Carneades showing that no animal can 
be eternal (and therefore that the God of the Stoics is a figment). 
S 2934. 



ANALYSIS OF BOOK III. Ivii 

(1) Whatever is corporeal is discerptible. 29. 

(2) Whatever is animated is capable of feeling, and whatever is 
capable of feeling is liable to impressions from without, and therefore 
to destruction. 29. 

(3) Whatever is composed of changing elements is itself liable 
to change and therefore perishable ; but the four elements, of which 
all animals are composed, are changeable and perishable; therefore 
all animals are mortal. 30, 31. 

(4) Every animal is susceptible of pleasure and pain, but that 
which is susceptible of pain is susceptible of death. 32, 33. 

(5) Every animal has instinctive likes and dislikes for that 
which is in accordance with, and that which is contrary to its 
nature ; but that which is contrary to nature is destructive to life ; 
therefore every animal is liable to destruction. 33. 

(6) Sensation, whether pleasurable or painful, when it reaches a 
certain point is destructive to life. 34. 

(7) All things must be either simple, or compounded of different 
elements. A simple animal is inconceivable : in a compound each 
element has a tendency to fly apart to its proper sphere, so that de 
composition is inevitable. 34. 

Be. There is no reason to suppose that fire is more akin to 
Divinity than the other elements. 35 37. 

(1) It is not more essential to life than they are. 35, 36. 

(2) If it is the cause of feeling in man, it must itself be 
endued with feeling and therefore (by Bb. 4) liable to destruction. 
36. 

(3) Moreover fire is not self-existent, but needs fuel for its 
support. 37. 

Ed. Virtue, as we understand it, is incompatible with our idea 
of the divine nature. Yet it is impossible to believe in a Deity 
without virtue. The incompatibility of virtue with our idea of God 
is shown in the case of each particular virtue, prudence (1), justice (2), 
temperance (3), fortitude (4). 38. 

Be. Even if we grant the divinity of the universe, what ground 
is there for admitting a host of other gods? ch. xv 39 ch. xxv 
64. 

M. C. III. e 



INTRODUCTION. 

(1) The vulgar mythology is not more irrational than that of 
the Stoics, who make gods of the stars, and of food, and of dead men. 
3941. 

(2) Admitting the principle of apotheosis, how are we to pick 
out the true claimant from among the many pretenders to each 
divine name] (For details see the Appendix on the mythological 
section.) 42, 5360. 

(3) The sorites of Carneades shows that it is impossible to draw 
the line between what is divine and what is human or natural. 
4352. 

(4) No less absurd are the deified abstractions of the Stoics, and 
their whole system of allegorization with its strained etymologies. 
6164. 

C. Providential Government of the Universe. 65. [This sec 
tion is almost entirely lost.] 

D. Providential Care for Man, ch. xxvi 66 ch. xxxix 93. 
[A considerable portion of this section is lost, comprising probably 
(1) the argument founded on the endowments of man exclusive of 
his reason, which latter is considered below under Da } (2) that 
founded on the subordination of the animate and inanimate creation 
to man s good. Compare n 133146, 148153, 154162.] 

Da. The gift of reason is an injury rather than a benefit^ 
6678. 

(1) This shown by examples from tragedy, 66 68 j 

(2) by examples from comedy, 72, 73 ; 

(3) by examples from the law-courts, 74. 

(4) It is only right reason which is beneficial, and this is so rare 
that it cannot be derived from God, as he would never have been guilty 
of partiality in his dealings with men. 69, 70. 

(5) The objection is not met by the rejoinder that these evils 
are owing to man s abuse of reason ; for the Deity must have fore 
seen that these evils would flow from the bare gift of reason, and 
was therefore bound to prevent them by guarding it from error. 

70, 71, 7678. 



ANALYSIS OF BOOK III. JiX 

Db. If it be true that lack of wisdom is the greatest of evils, 
and that all men lack wisdom, how can it be said that man is the 
special favorite of Heaven 1 ? 79. 

DC. If God really cared for men, he ought to have made all men 
good, or at least to have rewarded the good and punished the bad. 
79-93. 

(1) Instances of suffering virtue. 80. 

(2) Instances of triumphant vice. 81 84. 

(3) Such a state of things is inconsistent with any moral govern 
ment. 85. 

(4) It is no answer to say that de minimis non curat lex. Life 
and liberty cannot be called minima. 86. 

(5) [If it be alleged that all external goods are minima in com 
parison with virtue], it is just these external goods which are at the 
disposal of Heaven. Virtue is what each man must win for himself, 
and is therefore never made the subject of prayer. Men have deified 
Virtue in the abstract, but in reality it is only a quality of their own 
nature. 8688. 

(6) It is only by shutting our eyes to the negative instances, 
that we can maintain that piety is regularly rewarded and impiety 
punished. 89. 

(7) Intentional neglect is a great fault in a ruler, and in a 
Divine Ruler there can be no such thing as unintentional neglect. 
90. 

(8) It is argued that vice is punished in the descendants of the 
guilty person : what should we say to such justice in a human ruler 1 
90. 

(9) "We need not have recourse to the Deity to explain such 
moral government as actually exists in the world. It is the natural 
result of human agency. 91. 

(10) Moreover how can God punish, if, as the Stoics assert, he 
is incapable of anger 1 He might however exert the power, of which 
you have given such elaborate proof, in helping the good. If he does 
not do this, it must be because either the will or the knowledge is 
wanting. 92. 

(11) You allow that his care does not extend to individuals : 
why should it extend to nations, or even to humanity at large? 

93. 



k INTRODUCTION. 

(12) Yet you are inconsistent enough to believe in divination 
and to encourage the offering of vows. 93. 

(13) With so many unemployed deities as you acknowledge, 
there seems no reason why supervision might not have been extended 
to the minutest detail of individual life. 93. 

Conclusion. Cicero avows his personal preference for the Stoic, 
as opposed to the Academic view of theology. 94, 95. 



ON THE SOURCES OF THE THIRD BOOK OF THE 
DE NATURA DEORUM. 

There can be no doubt that for the materials of this book Cicero 
was mainly indebted to the Carthaginian Hasdrubal, better known 
by his Greek name Clitomachus, who was born about 180 B.C. and 
went to reside at Athens about *155. He was for many years a 
disciple of Carneades and eventually became the head of the New 
Academy. Carneades himself having left no written remains (Diog. 
iv 65, Plut. Mor. p. 328), it was through the voluminous writings of 
his scholar, extending to more than 400 volumes, that his teaching 
was perpetuated, cf. Diog. IV 67 SteSe^aro TOV KapveaS^i/ KCU, TO. 
avrov /zaAiora Sta rwv (ruyypap^xuTcov ec^coTio ey, Cic. Acad. II 104 
explicavi paulo ante Clitomaclio auctore quo modo ista Carneades 
dicer et, ib. n 98 a Clitomaclio sumam (totam Carneadi sententiam) 
qui tisque ad senectutem cum Carneade fuit, Sext. Emp. ix 182 
i Se VTTO TOV KapyeaSov /cat croopemKoos ru cs (Aoyoi), ovs o 
avrov KXetro/xa^os cos cnrovSaLOTaTovs KCU avfTtKwrarofs aj/e- 
ypa^ei/ (referring to the arguments which Cicero has inserted below 
4352). We are told (Ac. n 102) that Clitomachus addressed 
two of his philosophical treatises to Romans, one to the satirist 
Lucilius, the other to Censorinus, consul in 149 B.C.; and that he 
was lecturing at Athens during the quaestorship of the orator Crassus 
110 B.C. (Orat. i 45). Cicero mentions a treatise Trept eVox^s in 
four books (Ac. n 98) and a consolatio written to his countrymen 
after the fall of Carthage (Tusc. in 54). Schwencke (Jakrb. f. 
class. Philol. 1879, 2 p. 141) conjectures that the title of the treatise 
employed here by Cicero was Trept 



SOURCES OF BOOK III. Ixi 

That Carneades was the great source of all criticism of Stoic 
doctrines and especially of Stoic theology is evident from Cicero s 
own words JV. D. 11 162 Carneades libenter in Stoicos invehebatur, 
Tusc. v 83 contra Stoicos, quos studiosissime semper refellebat et 
contra quorum disciplinam ingenium ejus exarserat, N. D. I 4 sunt 
autem alii philosophi qui deorum mente omnem mundum admini- 
strari censeant... contra quos Carneades ita multa disseruit, ut ex- 
citaret homines non socordes ad veri investigandi cupiditatem. We 
might therefore assume a priori that the argument of the Third 
Book was taken from him, even if it were not distinctly stated 
in regard to the proof that no animal can be eternal (ill 29), 
and in regard to the sorites showing the impossibility of drawing 
any line between the divine and human in the traditional my 
thology (in 44). The same thing appears from the 9th book of 
Sextus Empiricus Adv. Math, where we meet with many of the 
arguments used by Cicero. Thus, at the commencement of the 
discussion on natural causes, Sextus declares his intention not to 
dwell too much on points of detail or run to the immoderate 
length of Clitomachus in refuting the dogmatists, but to sum up 
the most important arguments on both sides and allow them to 
balance one another (ix 1). As the whole discussion is of inte 
rest for this as well as for the earlier books of our treatise, it may 
be worth while to give a short analysis, referring to the parallel 
passages in the N. D. The positive argument is probably taken 
in part at least from Posidonius, see Introduction on the Sources 
of the First Book, vol. I p. lii foil., and Schwencke Jakrb. f. cl. 
Philol 1879, 1 p. 57 foil. 

The discussion in Sextus may be divided as follows : (A) The 
origin of religious belief, (1) positive argument 13 28, (2) negative 
argument 29 47. (B) The fact of the divine existence, (1) 
positive argument 48 136, (2) negative argument 137 194. I 
give them in order below. 

(A) The origin of religion has been ascribed to the earliest legislators 
who desired to establish a check upon unrighteousness of thought as well 
as of deed 1416 (N. D. i 118). Euhemerus thought that the first rulers 
of mankind declared themselves divine in order to increase their own power 
17 (N. D. i 119); Prodicus that the ancients deified all that was useful 
to life, as the Sun, the rivers 18 (N. D. I 118) ; Democritus that images of 
vast size appeared to men and forewarned them of the future 19 (N. D. 
I 120) ; Aristotle derived the belief from the soul s prophetic faculty and 



Ixii INTRODUCTION. 

from the order of the heavenly bodies 20 22 (JV r . D. n 95) ; others by a 
process of amplification rose from the finite intelligence in man to the 
conception of a divine intelligence in nature 23 (^Y. D. n 33 38) ; 
others, among whom is also Democritus, from the terrible phenomena of 
nature 24 (X. D. il 14); Epicurus from visions of anthropomorphic 
deities 25 (J\ T . D. I 46) ; others from the orderly movements of the 
heavenly bodies, which suggest a creative and guiding intelligence no less 
than the movements of an army or a ship to the distant spectator 26, 
27 (ff. D. ii 85, 87) ; some of the younger Stoics say that it is a tradi 
tion handed down from the sages of the golden age 28 (^V. D. n 148, 159). 

On the negative side it is maintained that these opposing views are 
mutually destructive 29 (3 r . D. I 1, 5); but dealing with them separately 
we may ask, where did these early legislators get their own idea of deity ? 
30, 31. How did the differences of religious belief arise ? How were the 
various nations brought together to be instructed in religion ? If it be 
said each nation was independently taught , how did all agree in the same 
general idea of God? 32, 33. Keligion cannot have been an invention 
for the purpose of giving additional authority to living or dead rulers, for 
where did the idea itself come from ? and how could a mere imposture 
have taken such firm root ? 34 38 (^V. D. u 5). The deification of 
utility is even more absurd. How can it be supposed that men would 
make gods of what they ate and drank 1 There might be some reason 
for ascribing divinity to the power which holds together the earth and 
makes it fruitful, but, sooner than call rivers divine, we should deify 
philosophers, or even all animals that are of use to man 3941 (N. D. 
u 60, in 41). Democritus and Epicurus explain the easier by the more 
difficult 42, 43 (3 r . D. I 121) ; they utterly fail to account for the 
attributes of immortality and perfection 44. Those who fill up the 
conception of divinity obtained from visions and the celestial movements 
by amplifying their experience of human blessedness, are really guilty of 
arguing in a circle. They base their conception of divinity on blessedness 
(fv8aiiLovia\ but this in its turn involves the conception of deity (Sai /uew) 
4547. 

(B) The fact of the existence of the Gods is accepted as a matter of be 
lief and of practice, not of science, by the Sceptics 48, 49 (.V. D. I 62, 
in 5, 43). It is denied virtually or in terms by the so-called atheists, 
Euhemerus, Diagoras, Prodicus, Critias, Theodoras, and, as some hold, by 
Epicurus 5058 (^V. D. I 2, 63, 117119, in 89). The Sceptics on 
the contrary hold that the opposing arguments balance each other 59. 
Thus, on the positive side, four methods of proof are employed, () the 
general voice of mankind, (b) the order of the universe, (c) the absurdities 
which follow from the opposite view, (d) the refutation of objections 60. 
As to (a) it is affirmed that religious belief and worship are common to all, 
both Greeks and barbarians ; that, if this belief were false, it must have 
died out like other unfounded beliefs, whereas it has existed and will exist 



SOURCES OF BOOK III. Ixiii 

for ever ; that it is not confined to the vulgar, but accepted by the greatest 
poets and philosophers, and distinctly asserted even by Epicurus himself 
6165 (JV. D, i 43, ii 5, 12, in 7, 11, I. 85, 86). If it be said that there 
is a similar consensus on the part of poets and the vulgar in regard to 
the belief in Tartarus, yet that belief is self- contradictory, as may be 
seen in the case of Tityus and Tantalus ; for agony and immortality are 
contradictory ideas. But there is no such inconsistency in the belief in 
spiritual powers. We recognize that the spirit of man, which holds 
together the body during life, is not dissipated at death, but ascends 
upwards owing to its ethereal nature, and dwells in the lunar region, 
nourished by vapours from the earth ; if cxur spirit thus passes into the 
condition of a fiat /i<wi , why should we doubt the existence of those 
spiritual powers whom we know under the name of gods? 66 74 
(N. D. ii 5 on Tartarus). (6) The material universe is evidently a work 
of art modelled and set in motion by a power which pervades it, as the 
soul pervades the body. Is this power self-moving ? If not, we go back 
ad infinitum. It is therefore self-moving and has been so from eternity, 
therefore it is God 75, 76. That which produces what is rational 
must itself be rational; man is a product of the power which pervades 
the universe, therefore that power is rational 77 (N. D. n 22). The 
world is one, either in virtue of its original unity or from being composed 
of distinct parts, which may either have been compacted together as a 
ship, or remain separate, as an army. It cannot be the latter, for 
whatever happens in one part is felt in another part, e.g. the moon s 
influence in growth and in the tides (N. D. n 19, 50, 119), and sympathy 
of this kind belongs only to bodies originally united. Such an original 
union may be either that of cohesion, as in wood or stone, or of growth 
((frvo-if, nature), as in a plant, passing in its highest stage into a unity 
of life, as in animals. Things united by cohesion are scarcely liable to 
change, but the universe undergoes constant and violent changes, as from 
cold and heat. It has therefore a unity of nature, and that of the best 
nature, since it includes all natures in it. Hence, since the whole 
cannot be inferior to its part, it must be rational as including what 
is rational, and being best of all things it must be immortal, and there 
fore divine 7885 {N. D. n 32, 33, 82). If even the gross earth can 
foster animals capable of perception, how much more should the finer 
elements of air and ether, from which we men derive our thinking 
power, be inhabited by a divine order of beings? 86, 87 (N. D. 
II 17, 18, 42). Argument of Clean thes : if one animal is better than 
another, there must be some one which is best of all ; man is best of all 
animals on earth, but, as we see, he is full of defects ; the true best is an 
animal with none of these defects and unapproachable by evil ; and such 
is God 8891 (N. D. n 16, 3337). Argument of Socrates in 
Xenophon : man is a work of art testifying to the existence of an artist ; 
his nature is derived from elements without, flesh from earth, breath from 



Ixiv INTRODUCTION. 

air, and therefore reason from the great source of reason, i.e. from God 
(W. D. II 18). It is objected that we might similarly argue man has bile, 
therefore the universe must be bilious , but the argument applies only 
to pure elements, not to secondary compounds such as bile. Putting it 
in another way we might say if there were nothing earthy in the 
universe, there could have been nothing earthy in man ; so, if there were 
nothing rational in the universe, there could have been no reason in man 
92 98 (N. I), in 27). On seeing a statue we admire the skill of the 
sculptor, shall we not do the same when we think of the mind of man, 
which is so far more marvellous than any statue ? 99, 100 (N. D. n 87). 
Argument of Zeno : that from which the seeds of reason proceed must 
itself be rational, for all subordinate faculties testify to the character of the 
Yiyfp.oviK.ov from which they are derived ; since then the universe contains 
the seeds of all rational creatures, the ^ye/zoi/iKoi/ of the universe must 
be rational, and therefore divine 101103 (N. D. n 22, 29, 30). Argu 
ment of Zeno after Plato : since that which is animate and rational is 
superior to that which is inanimate and irrational, the universe, being 
supreme, must be a rational animal. The objection of Alexinus, that on 
the same ground the universe might be proved to be a poet and gramma 
rian, confounds the absolute and the relative best ; Archilochus was a 
poet, but he was not therefore superior to Socrates who was no poet 
104110 (N. D. II 18, 21). The Stoics prove the divinity of the world 
from its motion, which must proceed from nature or volition or necessity. 
It is certainly not the last, in the sense of an irrational vortex, such as 
Democritus held, for it is orderly, unchanging and harmonious. It is not 
caused by an unconscious nature, since this would be inferior to the 
rational natures included in the universe. It must therefore be caused by a 
rational nature. Further, voluntary movements are always more admirable 
than those which are involuntary. When we admire the sphere of 
Archimedes, it is not the moving frame we wonder at, but the rational 
volition of the astronomer. Again, the more wonderful the thing moved, 
by so much more wonderful is the moving force. Hence the force which 
moves the entire universe is the most admirable of all things, and being 
such it must be a rational and voluntary agent, i.e. God 111 118 
(jV. D. II 43, 44, 88). In every organism there is a centre of motion, the 
heart or the brain or, in plants, the root ; the rj-ytpoviicov or centre of motion 
of the universe is in God 119122 (N. D. u 29, 30). Absurdities 
arising from atheism (<?). If there are no gods, there is no such thing as 
piety, which is denned as eVior?^ Oeav depcnreias, for there can be no 
science of the non-existent 123 ; nor as holiness, for this is denned as 
SiKaioa-vvr) -rrpos deovs 124 (N. Z>. I 3, 4, II 153) ; nor as wisdom, denned 
as emo-T^/jLi] 0LO)v re KOI dvdpuTreitov 125 ; nor as justice, which springs 
from the fellowship existing between men and God 126 (tf. D. I 4). 
Pythagoras and others erroneously extended this fellowship to irrational 
creatures, with which it is true we are connected by common participation 



SOURCES OF BOOK III. IxV 

in the all-pervading spirit of the universe, but so we are with plants 
and stones, yet no one has ever imagined that there could be any tie 
of justice between us and them 127130 ; the reason why there is 
justice between men and gods is because both participate in reason 131. 
Again, there can be no divination if there are no gods, since it is the science 
of signs given by the gods to man 132 (iV. D. n 12). 

Sextus, having discussed objections as they occurred, has not reserved 
a separate section for their refutation (d\ but goes on, after another 
insignificant verbal quibble by Zeno, to state the negative argument in 
137. It is from this point that the comparison with N. D. in becomes 
important. If there are gods, they are animals, since animal nature is 
superior to all other nature ; but animals are defined by the property of 
sensation, and the gods, as the most perfect animals, will experience the 
greatest variety of sensations (as Carneades says) ; they will therefore 
have sensations of taste, such as bitter and sweet, pleasant and unpleasant ; 
but an unpleasant sensation implies possibility of change for the worse, 
i.e. implies mortality, and mortal gods are no gods 137 141 (cited 
as from Carneades in N. D. in 32). So, in regard to every sense, animals 
are liable to be affected in a manner which is either according to their 
nature or contrary to their nature ; but that which is contrary to nature 
is destructive to life, therefore again all animals are mortal. This shown 
in regard to eye-sight in particular 142 145 (N. D. in 33). Every 
sensation is an alteration; a deity who undergoes alteration is liable to 
change, therefore to death 146, 147. The deity must be either finite or 
infinite ; if infinite, it would be lifeless and motionless, for motion must 
be from place to place, which is impossible for that which fills all space ; 
again if held together by soul, this must be by means of centripetal 
and centrifugal movements, but the infinite has no centre 148, 149 
(N. D. II 115 n.). Nor on the other hand can the deity be finite, for the 
finite is contained in the infinite, as the part within the whole, so that 
there would be something greater and better than the deity 150. The 
deity is either bodied or bodiless ; if the latter, it can neither feel nor 
act ; if the former, it is liable to corruption 151. If there be a God, 
he must have all happiness and all virtue, but he is without eyKpdreia and 
KapTfpia, for there is nothing which he finds it hard to bear or to abstain 
from 152155 (JV. D. in 38). Further, if he has not got these 
virtues, he must have the opposite vices, since there is nothing in 
termediate 156. If there were anything hard for him to bear, it 
is evident that he would be liable to distress and therefore to destruction 
157. In like manner he is devoid of fortitude, which is defined as the 
knowledge of what is, and what is not, dangerous. For if there is some 
thing dangerous to him, he is liable to destruction 158 160 (N. D. 
in 38). Similarly for magnanimity, which consists in rising above the 
accidents of life, for, if he is exposed to such accidents, he is liable to 
destruction 161. So for prudence, the knowledge of good and evil and 



Ixvi INTRODUCTION. 

of things indifferent, among which things trouble is included. But the 
knowledge of trouble can only be gained by experience of trouble itself, 
not, as some say, from the experience of pleasure by imagination of the 
opposite. For pleasure, being only the removal of pain, is unknown to one 
who is ignorant of pain ; not to mention that being itself (as the Stoics 
say) a kind of dissolution it implies mortality 162 16G (^V. D. in 38). 
So for cvpov\ia, since all deliberation is of the uncertain, and if there are 
things uncertain to the deity, why may it not be uncertain to him whether 
the infinite may not conceal some power capable of destroying him ? Such 
uncertainty would naturally give rise to fear, which implies mortality 
167170. On the other hand, if nothing is uncertain to him, he must 
know everything by instinct without art ; therefore he must be without 
the art of life, which is virtue, and being without virtue he must have 
its opposite, vice 171 173. As to temperance (o-co^poo-^^), this 
cannot exist without prudence (<f)povrj<ris), as is shown by its name, and it 
has been proved that this virtue is inconsistent with deity. Again, tempe 
rance involves the existence of appetites to be resisted, which is contrary 
to our idea of deity 174, 175 (JV. D. in 38). If God is without virtue 
he is miserable, if he has virtue there is something superior to him (the 
perfection or virtue of a thing being superior to the thing itself) ; if neither 
of these contradictories is true, he must be non-existent 176, 177. 
Once more, God has either the faculty of speech or he has not ; the latter 
is absurd and contrary to universal belief ; but if he has speech, he must 
also possess all those parts of the body which conduce to speech, which is 
an idea only worthy of the Epicureans ; he must also speak in some 
particular dialect, and if so how will he express himself to those who 
use another tongue 1 Therefore, as before, he must be non-existent 178, 
179. So, if God has a body, it must be either simple or compound : the 
compound is liable to dissolution, the simple is inanimate and irrational 
180, 181 (N. D. in 34). 

We have also on this point the following sorites of Carneades preserved 
by Clitomachus. If Zeus is a god, so is his brother Poseidon ; if Poseidon, 
then Achelous and Nilus, and every river and torrent. But these are not 
gods, therefore neither is Zeus 182, 183 (N. D. in 43, 44). If the sun is 
a god, so is the day (which is only a name for the sun above the horizon) ; 
if the day, then the month, the year, the morning and evening 184 
(N. D. in 51). If Artemis, so is Enodia, &c. ; if Aphrodite, so Eros 
and other feelings of the mind, such as Pity and Fear 185 188 
(cf. N. D. in 47). If Demeter (=777 /wjrqp), then the earth, the hills, the 
promontories, every stone 189 (N. .D. in 52). Carneades adds many 
other examples, but the above will suffice to show the nature of the 
argument 190. 

Such being the variety of opinions among philosophers as to the divine 
existence, and such the grounds assigned on either side, the Sceptics have 
preferred to suspend their judgment, and they have felt themselves con- 



SOURCES OF BOOK III. Ixvii 

firmed in this course by the contradictions and impieties of the vulgar 
belief and of the mythological traditions collected by the poets and theo 
logians 191194 (cf. &. D. m 42, 5360). 

It is evident from the above analysis that Cicero and Sextus 
must have had the same book of Clitomachus before them, but that 
both must have used much freedom in omitting and abbreviating, as 
indeed Sextus avows 1, 190. Even in the paragraphs distinctly 
cited by both as taken from Carneades, viz, that on the necessary 
mortality of all animal nature (N. D. in 2934, Sext. 137147) 
and the Oarneadean sorites (N. D. in 4352, Sext. 182190), 
there are great divergences ; e.g. as to the sorites respecting Jupiter 
and his brothers, Cicero gives us his reductio ad absurdum through 
Orcus, Sextus his through Poseidon, both no doubt included in the 
original. A comparison of the argument, in Cicero and Sextus 
respectively, proving that virtue is incompatible with the divine 
nature, shows what liberty the former allowed himself in cutting down 
his original. The difficulty is to understand on what principle he 
acted : sometimes, as here and at the end of the second book, he 
omits what is interesting and important, or gives it in such a con 
densed form as to make it barely intelligible, while at another time 
he wearies out the patience of the reader with the futility of the 
mythological section. 

It is worthy of note that the two arguments for which alone 
Cicero cites the name Carneades are just the two for which he is also 
named by Sextus. At first sight this would suggest that the 
remaining arguments in both must have been taken from some 
other source than Clitomachus ; but it seems more probable that the 
latter, and perhaps Carneades himself in his lectures, brought 
together sceptical arguments from all quarters, assigning each to its 
original author, as for instance Alexinus is cited by Sextus 108 ; 
so that all I should infer from the above coincidence is that Car 
neades claimed these two arguments as his own special property. 

There is another treatise, besides that of Sextus, which in certain 
points strongly resembles this book of Cicero s, and that is his 
own treatise De Divinatione written immediately after it. From my 
notes on 14 it will be seen that the argument on the groundlessness 
and uselessness of divination is almost exactly the same in both 
treatises, but the name of Carneades is prefixed to the corresponding 
portion of the latter treatise (Div. u 9, cf. ib. 15 25). Clitomachus 
is further cited by name Div. n 87, and Hartfelder detects his pen in 



INTRODUCTION. 

the reference to Punic soothsayers, Div. n 28, with which may be 
compared the references to Carthage in our treatise in 42, 91. 

May we then assume that the whole of our treatise is taken from 
Clitomachus 1 Schwencke notices a difference in the mode of referring 
to the Stoic doctrines, which he would use as a clue to distinguish 
between what is taken without alteration from Clitomachus and what 
is added or modified by Cicero. In 6 28 we have the Imperfects 
dicebas, commcmorabas, videbatur, with evident reference to the 
former book ; in 29 38 we have dicitis, dicere soletis, vobis videtur, 
placet, referring to the doctrines of the Stoics generally. But I 
think we can only gather from this, that Cicero began his 3rd book 
with the idea of meeting the Posidonian argument of the 2nd book 
with detailed criticism borrowed from Clitomachus and supplemented 
by himself; that, on finding this to be irksome or impracticable, 
inasmuch as the work of Clitomachus was written in reference to the 
elder Stoicism and was not adapted to the exposition of Stoical 
doctrine subsequently put forward by Posidoiiius, he in 17 and 18 
abandons the intention announced in G, 7, 10, of following the 
exact order of the previous book, and proposes to defer the chief 
part of the discussion on the divine existence to the section 011 Pro 
vidence. As he thus breaks loose from the order of the second book, 
adopting instead the independent arrangement of his authority, it 
is natural that he should gradually discontinue the Imperfect of refer 
ence, especially where the argument borrowed from Clitomachus is 
altogether irrespective of anything urged by Posidoiiius, e.g. in 
2934, 70 foil. Towards the end of the book the 2nd person plural 
of the present is used indifferently, whether the argument discussed 
had or had not been employed by Posidoiiius, see notes 011 sic enim 
dicitis 86, and haec tecinn 93. At times the Academic criticism 
is obscure as being directed against arguments or illustrations which 
do not appear in the second book, cf. notes on Hipponax and Cri- 
tolaus 91; at times doctrines are attributed to the Stoics which are 
in flat contradiction with the doctrine put forward in that book, cf. 
93. 

Turning now to the earlier part of the book, there can be little 
doubt that 1 13 with their light bantering tone and illustra 
tions from Homan history are purely Ciceronian. The argument 
against divination in 14 we have seen to be probably taken from 
Carneades, and the illustration from medicine and the use of the 
word o-rparyjyrjfjLa suggest a Greek original for the following para- 



SOURCES OF BOOK III. 

graph. It is strange that, after announcing his intention of postponing 
the arguments of Cleanthes, Chrysippus and Zeno to the 3rd head of 
his discussion, Cicero in 20, 21 merely commences his reply to the 
2nd head (n 45, 46) and then falls back on the arguments of Zeno 
and Chrysippus, dealing with the same point. Schwencke proposes 
an ingenious explanation of Cicero s change of plan. He thinks that 
the title of Clitomachus treatise was vrept Trpoi/oias ; and that, when 
Cicero, feeling himself unable to carry out his original intention of 
answering each argument of Posidonius in its proper order, spoke of 
deferring certain arguments to the section on Providence, his real 
meaning was to set aside altogether the Posidonian order and follow 
that of Clitomachus instead. Further he supposes Clitomachus to 
have commenced his treatise with a preliminary argument on the 
divine existence, just as Posidonius commences his own defence of 
the belief in Providence (n 75) by showing that it follows necessarily 
from our conception of God. Hence it might well include the 
Carneadean argument for the mortality of all animal nature (ill 29 
34) as well as the criticism of the above-mentioned arguments of 
Zeno and Chrysippus. There can be little doubt that Cicero has 
borrowed the criticism of these in 21 26 from his Greek original; 
the argument in 23 is, as we have seen, cited by Sextus as from 
Alexinus. It may be asked why the argument of the Xenophontic 
Socrates is discussed out of chronological order in 27, 28, though 
it was not mentioned along with the others in 18. But so it is also 
in ii 18. In both it comes in as an appendage to the argument from 
Chrysippus : it is probable therefore that it was cited by Chrysippus 
and criticized as a part of his argument by Clitomachus. Schwencke 
finds a confirmation of his surmise as to the title of Clitomachus 
work in in 65, where Cicero, at the commencement of the section on 
Providential Government, uses the words de quibus accuratius dis- 
serendum puto. So far I am disposed to agree with him, but I see no 
reason for doubting the Carneadean origin of 39 65 because of 
occasional allusions to the former book. It is not pretended that any 
of the topics treated of are uiisuited to Carneades, and however 
careless Cicero may have been, he was surely capable of remembering 
whether the same topic had been touched on in the previous book, 
and, if so, of adding to the verisimilitude of the dialogue by making 
a reference to it. Nor can I agree with Schwencke when he says that 
it would be hazardous to assume the pure Carneadean origin of any 
portion which is not supported by a parallel in Sextus. Sextus being 



Ixx INTRODUCTION. 

a professed philosopher was far less likely than Cicero to be tied to 
one authority ; and we have already seen that, where Sextus and 
Cicero are both copying Carneades, Cicero occasionally supplies 
details which are wanting in Sextus. I have myself little doubt that 
the whole argumentation of the 3rd book is taken from Clito- 
machus. 

A further question may be asked as to the original author of the 
mythological section, which I presume to have been included in the 
treatise of Clitomachus. In the Appendix on that section it is 
suggested that it may have come from Mnaseas. Clemens Alex- 
andrinus, quoted under Apollo, names Aristotle as his authority, 
but this is supposed by Hose (Arist. Pseudepigraphus p. 615 foil.) to 
be a mistake for Aristocles, a contemporary of Strabo. One can 
scarcely imagine that any philosopher would take the trouble to 
make out such a catalogue of mythological inanities, but it would be 
an appropriate work for an erudite Alexandrian Euhemerist, such as 
Mnaseas, and might then be seized upon for polemical purposes by the 
Academics, whom Timon condemns for TrAarup^/xocrw^j avaAicrrov 
their saltless prolixity (Diog. iv G7). -Supposing this to be so, are we 
to assume that Cicero himself translated it ? We might rather gather 
from what he tells us in his letters, as to his method of composition, 
that in subordinate details of this kind he was accustomed to make 
use of the services of others. Thus for the 3rd book of his De officiis 
he writes to Athenodorus Calvus to send him an abstract of the 
treatise of Posidonius on the same subject (Att. xvi 11), and he tells 
us of Tiro that he was most useful to him in his studies; see my 
notes on N.D. in 40 sane -multi videntur, and 42 ut jam docebo. 



EDITIONS AND ILLUSTRATIVE WORKS. 

As regards the text, the Orelli-Baiter edition of 1862 renders 
all that precedes obsolete; but an editor is bound to remember 
with gratitude the names of those who contributed most to raise 
the text from the state in which it was left by Ascensius in 1511 
to that in which it now appears. If we take the 1st edition of 
Davies (Camb. 1718) as our dividing line, Victorius, Paulus Manu- 
tius, Lambinus, Ursinus and Gulielmius (the last in Grater s ed. of 
1619) may be named, among the earlier editors, as those who did 



EDITIONS AND ILLUSTRATIVE WORKS. Ixxi 

most to clear away the corruptions of the first printed text. The 
earliest edition known to me, in which the dislocation of Bk II is 
rectified, is that of Hervagius (Basil 1534), but Marsus in the 
collection of Annotations on the Philosophical Treatises of Cicero , 
published at Basil in 1544, claims to have done the same in his 
edition of 1508, which I have been unable to meet with. There 
were also commentaries by Marsus and Betuleius (Basil 1550) chiefly 
confined to historical and mythological allusions, and in 1660 Lescalo- 
perius brought out his Humanitas Theologica, a commentary filling 
737 folio pages. This being written for the edification of the Jesuit 
students, more than one half of it is occupied with panegyrics of the 
Virgin and other extraneous matters, but it has the virtue of being 
a labour of love and may be reckoned among the few editions which 
show real research and an intelligent interest in the argument. 
Davies and Olivet speak contemptuously of Lescaloperius, the latter 
especially in the words si ce qui lui vient de ses predecesseurs etoit 
revendique, et qu en. merne temps on ne laissat, dans ce qui est 
de lui, rien de superflu ni de puerile, son in-folio seroit reduit, ce me 
semble, a un volume tres portatif. (Entretiens de Cicero sur la 
nature des dieux p. xvi, ed. 1721.) Bouhier gives a fairer judgment 
(ib. vol. Ill p. 212), quoique je sois bien eloigne d approuver en tout 
1 enorme et monstrueux commeiitaire du P. Lescalopier, il faut 
neanmoins convenir qu il a assez bien discute et medite ce que ces 
Entretiens coiitiennent de philosophique... Cela meritoit done bien 
qu on eut quelque egard pour lui et qu on ne le traitat pas a tout 
propos avec tant d indignite . The advance made by Davies, president 
of Queens College, Cambridge (edd. 1718, -23, -33, -44, reprinted Oxf. 
1807, and by Rath and Schuetz, Halle 1819), consisted, beyond the 
collection of the notes of earlier editors, in three points, chiefly 
in the illustrations supplied from his wide classical reading, 2ndly in 
the collations of his six MSS, none of which however seem to have 
been of any great value, and 3rdly in the emendations, partly by 
himself and still more by John Walker, Fellow of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, many of which have been incorporated into the accepted 
text. Shortly after followed the French translation by Joseph Olivet 
with notes by himself and the President Bouhier (1721, -32, -49 
&c.). Both were me*n of sense, and some of. the emendations of the 
latter have found their way into the accepted text. Editions of 
Cicero cum notis variorum were also brought out by Olivet 1746 
(notes reprinted separately Lond. 1819, Oxf. 1824) and Verburgius, 



INTRODUCTION. 

Amsterdam 1724, both adding considerably to the collection of 
Davies. 

In 1777 some slight improvements in the text were made in 
Ernesti s edition, but the first edition of importance after Davies is 
that by Heindorf 1817. He was a sound scholar with an open eye 
and independent judgment and, though he relied too much on inferior 
codices, especially on his Codex Glogavianus, and was too much 
disposed to alter, yet, if I am not mistaken, an examination of my 
critical notes will show that a larger number of accepted emendations 
have proceeded from him than from almost any other single editor. 
The edition of Moser and Creuzer cum notis variorum Leipzig 1818, 
and the smaller edition by Moser 1821, are both very disappointing. 
Moser is laborious, but he appears to me to have been the least 
intelligent of the editors whom I have consulted, and Creuzer had 
no critical judgment. Their Apparatus Criticus, which professes to 
contain the collations of twenty new MSS, is very confused and care 
less, as may be seen by comparing it with Baiter s collations. The 
notes of F. A. Wolf and Wytteiibach given at the end are mostly of 
an elementary character. The great improvement in the text was 
commenced by Orelli in his first edition 1826 1830. Allen (Alanus) 
brought out an edition with Latin notes, London 1836. These are 
chiefly grammatical and critical, containing some good emendations 
e.g. nimis collide i 70, venantis 11 126. The edition with German 
notes by G. F. Schomami 1850 (4th and last in 1876), is deservedly 
the most popular up to the present time. He is a sensible scholar, 
who had shown his interest in the theology of the Ancients by a 
variety of essays and commentaries, and he has made good use of the 
notes of Davies. He was also the first to notice many of the 
difficulties of the text, but he complains that it was impossible for 
him to give full explanations within the limits allowed him, and it 
would certainly be too much to say that he had succeeded in clearing 
up all difficulties. Some of his emendations have been generally 
accepted, e.g. afficiendum for efficiendum in i 19, of which he was the 
first to offer a rational explanation, as he was also of n 9 by changing 
the reading of the MSS nulli viri into nulla cum viri. With his 
edition should be consulted his papers oil the text contained in 
his Opuscida vol. in pp. 274 384, iv pp. 336 359 (de Epicuri theo- 
loyia) and J\ T . Jahrb. for 1875 pp. 685 695. It is scarcely worth 
while to mention the text of Ast 1829, and the elementary German 
editions by Seibt 1834, and Freund in his Schiiler-Bibliothek. The 



EDITIONS AND ILLUSTRATIVE WORKS. Ixxiii 

latter is the more recent and much the fuller of the two, but neither 
has contributed anything of his own to the elucidation of the book. 
Reinhold Klotz did a good deal to improve the text in his edition 
1869, and his Adnotationes Criticae ad M. Tullii Ciceronis librum de 
N. D. primum in 4 parts, Leipzig 1867 1869. He is the author of 
the excellent emendation a parvis enim for apparuisse in I 80. But 
no scholar has done so much as Madvig in his Opuscula and his 
edition of the De Finibus to improve both the text and the interpre 
tation of Cicero. We may perhaps be of opinion that only a small 
proportion of his conjectures are likely to find a place in the final 
text, but the arguments by which they are supported are always 
full of instr action. The best existing texts are those of Baiter 1864 
and C. F. W. Miiller 1878, on which more is said in the Introduction 
to my first volume. 

Besides Olivet s French translation already noticed, may be men 
tioned the German translations by Meyer (with useful notes) ed. 2, 
1832, by Schroder 1841, by R. Kiihner 1863, with analysis and notes, 
which are perhaps less original than might have been expected from 
so distinguished an editor and grammarian, but which do not seem 
to me to deserve the contempt with which die neueste Uebersetzung 
is constantly alluded to by Schomann. A still later translation by 
J. H. Kirchmann (Leipzig 1875) is a very ignorant and unscholarly 
performance. Two English translations may be named, as fairly idiom 
atic ; both are anonymous, but the latter (London 1741) is understood 
to be by Thomas Francklin, Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
It is what the Germans call a * Tendenz-schrift by a follower of 
Shaftesbury (see the notes on pp. 4, 87, 263). The older translation 
appeared in 1683. It is written from the ordinary point of view 
and contains copious explanatory notes of an elementary kind. 

I proceed to give a list of illustrative works. 

Fdbricatio hominis a Cicerone libro secundo de Natura Deorum 
descripta cum annotationibus Alberti Novicampiani 1551 Cracoviae. 
(In the British Museum. The writer compares Cicero with Galen, but 
makes no attempt to explain the obscurities of the former.) 

Uranologion of Petavius. Paris 1630. (Contains the ancient 
astronomers referred to in my notes on the Aratean section of the 
Second Book.) 

F. Gedike. M. Tullii Ciceronis Historia philosophiae antiquae. 
Berlin 1782. pp. 364. 

M. C. in. f 



Ixxiv INTRODUCTION. 

Kindervater. Anmerkungen und Abhandlungen philosophischen und 
philologischen Inhalts uber C. s Biiclier von der Natur der Goiter. 
1796. (No t of much value. ) 

The publications of this century are arranged in alphabetical 
order, the more important being marked with an asterisk. 

A. Becker. Comm. Grit, ad Cic. i N. D. Budingen 1 865. 

Ernst Behr. Der Octavius des Minucius Felix in seinem Verhdltniss 

zu Cicero s Biichern de N. D. Gera 1870. See on the same 

subject Ebert below. 
C. M. Bernhardt. De Cicerone Graecae j)hilosophiae interprete. 

Berlin 1865. 
Birkholtz. Cicero Medicus 1806. (Merely a Clirestomathia Cicero- 

niana.) 
*A. Brieger. Beitrdge zur Kritik einiger pliilosopliisclien Schriften 

des Cicero. Posen 1873. 
*By water. Aristotle s Dialogue on Philosophy in J. of Philology vii 

p. 6487. Cambridge 1876. 
Victor Clavel. De Cicerone Graecorum interprete. Paris 1869. (Of 

very little value.) 

Cobet. Variae Lectiones pp. 460 463. Leyden 1873. 
*Deiter. In Ehein. Mus. 1882 pp. 314 317 Zum codex Vossianus 86. 

(Contains corrections and additions to Baiter s collation of B.) 
De Ciceronis codice Leidensi 118 denuo collato. Emdae 1882. 
De Ciceronis codicibus Vossianis 84 et 86 denuo excussis. Auricae 

1885. (I only know of these two from Deiter s review of my 

edition in the Berliner pJbilologischer Wochenschrift 30 May 

1885.) 
*Detlefsen. In the Wiener Sitzungs-Berichte vol. 21 (1856) p. 117. 

(Describes codex V.) 
Dietrich. C ommentationes criticae de locis quibusdam Ciceronis 1850. 

(Not seen.) 
*H. Ebeling. Handschriftliches zu Cicero de divinatione in Philo- 

logus XLIII. 4, pp. 702 707. 
*A. Ebert. (Cicero and Minucius Felix.) In Abhandl. d. sdchs. 

Gesellschaft d. Wiss. (phil. hist. Kl.) for 1868 pp. 328 foil., 354 

foil., 367 foil. 
P. J. Elvenich. Adumbratio leguin artis criticae cum var. crit. in Cic. 

deN.D. Bonn 1821. 



EDITIONS AND ILLUSTKATIVE WOEKS, Ixxv 

*J. Forchhammer. Annotationes Criticae ad Ciceronis de. Natura 

Deorum libros in the Nordisk Tidskrift for Filologi. Copen 
hagen 1880 pp. 2353. 
C. Fortsch. Quaestiones Tullianae. Naumburg 1837. (Contains a 

careful examination of N. D. i 11, 25, in 84.) 
G. S. Francke. Geist und Gehalt der Cic. Bucher von der Natur der 

Gdtter. Altona 1806. (A discussion as to Cicero s own sentiments 

on theology.) 

J. A. Froude. Divus Caesar in vol. 3 of Short Studies 1884. 
Halm. Zur Handschriftenkunde der Ciceronischen Schriften. Munich 

1850. 
N. Jahrb. for 1859 pp. 759 778. (On the MSS of the Leges. A is 

described as full of erasures, B as utterly disordered, one page 

sometimes made up of four unconnected fragments.) 
Heidtmann. Zur Kritik und Interpretation der Schrift Cicero s de 

Natura Deorum. Neustettin 1858. (Learned and intelligent 

but rather too bold.) 
*B. Hirzel. Untersuchungen zu Cicero s philosophischen Schriften. 

1 Theil. De Natura Deorum. Leipzig 1877. (An excellent 

book on the Sources of the Dialogue.) 
Hbfig. C. s Ansicht v. d. Staatsreligion. Krotoschin pp. 75. (I have 

not seen this.) 
Horstig. Die Gottheit : was sagt Cicero in seine Schrift daruber als 

Heide und Philosoph ? Leipzig 1823. 
*Krahner. Grundlinien zur Geschichte des Verfalls der romischen 

Staatsreligion. Halle 1837. 
*A. B. Krische. Die theologischen Lehren d. griechischen Denker. 

Gottingen 1840. (A very learned and able examination of 

the Epicurean sketch of early philosophy contained in N. D. 

i 25 41.) 
R. Kiihner. M. Tullii Ciceronis in philosophiam ejusque partes 

merita. Hamburg 1825. (A book which might very easily be, 

but has not yet been, superseded.) 
Lengnick. Ad emendandos explicandosque Cic. 1. de N. D. quid ex 

Philodemi Trept evcre/3eias redundet. Halle 1872. 
A. Matthiae. Observatt. de nonnullis locis libri i de natura deorum 

in his Vermischte Schriften. Altenburg 1833. 
Meniere. Ciceron Medecin. 1862. (Very slight.) 
*0. F. W. Miiller in Fleckeiseris J. B. 1864 pp. 127147, 261 

281, 605631. (Important for the text.) 



Ixxvi INTRODUCTION. 

O. M. Miiller. Ciceronis libris de JW. D. non extremam manum 
accessisse. Bromberg 1839. 

Peter. Comm. de Ciceronis N. D. i 19. 1861. 

Philodemus. For the literature see vol. I p. xlii foil, and Lengnick 
above. 

E. Reinhold. De Interpretations rrjs TrpoX^eoos Epicureae in Cicero 
nis libro I de N. D. Jena 1840. 

Schultze. Specimen variarum lectionum e codd. Lagomarsinianis 
librorum Ciceronis de N. D. descriptarum. 1847. 

*Schwencke in Jahrb. f. class. Philol 1879 pp. 49 66, 129142. 
(On the sources of N. D. criticising Hirzel.) 

*Schwencke in N. Jahrb. f. Philol. u. Padag. 1882. pp. 613 633. 
(On N. D. i 49. Both articles deserve careful attention.) 

W. Scott in Journal of Philology vol. xn pp. 212247 on The phy 
sical constitution of the Epicurean Gods. (An able defence of 
Lachelier s view mentioned in my vol. i p. 147 n.) 

Stamm. De Ciceronis libro de N. D. inter polationibus. Breslau 
1873. 

Thiaucourt. Essai sur les Traites Philosophiques de Ciceron et leurs 
sources grecques. Paris 1885. (A convenient summary of the 
latest investigations.) 

*Vahlen. Zu Cicero s philosophische Schriften in Zeitschrift f. d. 
Osterr. Gymn. 1873 pp. 241247. (On N. D. n 6, 147, 111 35. 
Among other things proves the correctness of the title De 
Natura Deorum as opposed to Baiter s Deorum Natura.) 

Vaucher. In Ciceronis libros philosophicos curae criticae. Lau 
sanne 1865. 

Wessele-Scholten. Dissertatio de philosophiae Ciceronianae loco qui 
est de divina natura. Amsterdam 1783. (Not seen.) 

*Wopkens. Lectiones Tullianae, ed. Hand, 1829. 

*Zeller. Religion u. Philosophic bei den Rdmern. Berlin 1867. 

(For other books on the religious philosophy of the Ancients see my 
Guide to the Choice of Classical Books under the head of Mytho 
logy and Religion.) 



ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA. Ixxvii 



ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA TO VOLS. I. II. III. 

LIB. I. 

p. xli. On Balbus, see Digest i 2 1. 2 41, where it is stated that he 
studied under the pontifex Scaevola. He was the instructor of Sulpicius (Brut. 
42, Digest i 2 1. 2 43). See also Brut. 154. 

In 1. 21 omit as in the De Eepublica and De Oratore . 

p. li, last line but six. Forchhammer (p. 33) agrees in thinking that Philo- 
demus and Cicero both copied from Zeno. 

p. 2 1. 7, actione vitae. According to Deiter (Eh. Mm. 1882 p. 314) the true 
reading of B is de actione v., which is certainly more natural. 

p. 11 1. 9 continente ardore. According to D. 1. c. the true reading of B 
is continentem ardorum einen zusammenhangenden Kreis von Lichtstrahlen . 
I doubt ardorum being so used. 

p. 49. Mr Swainson s Collations on 2. I find from inspection of the MSS 
that BK omit from esse debeat 1 to sententias 2, so that they are erroneously 
cited in favour of the reading vehimur. 

In Commentary on i 1, ad agnitionem animi. Cf. Hippol. Eef. Haer. x 36 
TOUT&TTI rb yv&di ffeavrbv, eiriyvovs rbv TreTrooj/coTa 6e6v. Calvin Instit. I 1 
hominem in puram sui notitiam numquam pervenire nisi prius Dei faciem sit 
contemplatus. 

ib. tarn variae inscientiam. Add Acad. i 41 inscientiam ex qua exsisteret 
opinio, and Ac. n 116 148. 

2 sunt in varietate. Cf. Madv. on Fin. n. 47. 

4 on ita. For Plato i 241 read P. i 239 . 

5 plus una vera sit. Plus or plusquam is used to qualify a numeral without 
affecting case number or gender, cf. plus pars dimidia caesa est Liv. xxxvi 40, 
apes numquam plus unum regem patiuntur Sen. Clem, i 19, Roby 1273, Madv. 
305. In the parallel passage Ac. n 147 we find the less idiomatic construction 
cum plus uno verum esse non possit. 

6 quid certi. Cf. Div. n 8, and Halm on Eosc. Am. 83 id erit signi. 

diffiderent. Atticus seems to have been one of these, see Fin. v 96 quoted by 
Reid Acad. i 14. 

necopinatum to be taken predicatively with susceptum. 

invidos vituperatores [add Brut. 254, J. E. B. M.] 

ib. floruit. Cf. Eosc. Am. 15 hospitiis florens hominum nobilissimorum. 

requirunt. Cf. below 20, Leg. n 62, Div. n 126 illud autem require cur. 

9 animi aegritudo. Add to exx. of hypallage Cic. Leg. Man. 22 (membrorum) 
collectio dispersa. 

11 orbam. Cf. Acad. n 11 ea quae nunc prope dimissa revocatur. All the 
younger Academics followed Antiochus, see Zeller iv 608 and quotation from 
Aenesidemus in p. 610. 

12 omnino. [followed by tamen Plin. Ep. n 19, 6, J. E. B. M.] 

13 in civitate. In 2nd 1. of quotation read nevolt for non vult, and cf. Naev. 
90 Ribb. numquam quisquam amico amanti arnica nimisjietjidelis. 



Ixxviii INTRODUCTION. 

15 in Stoicis, cf. Brut. 114. On progressus cf. Eeid Acad. i 20. 

16 missus est. The treatise was perhaps that entitled Sosus after a Stoic 
compatriot, see Acad. n 12 and Zeller iv 597 foil. 

magnitudine et quasi gradibus non genere differrent (T<$ fj.a\\ov /cat fJTTOv, 
oi /c ei Sei cua0epet). Cf. Verr. in 203 quasi ea res et ea... inter se genere injuriae, 
non magnitudine pecuniae differat. 

17 me intuens. [see Wyttenb. on Euiiap. p. 227, J. E. B. M.] 

quae res agatur. [cf. Fin. n 3 omnis autem in quaerendo, quae via quadam et 
ratione habetur, oratio, praescribere prlmum debet, ut quibusdam informulis, ea res 
agetur , J.E.B.M.] 

nisi molestum est. See Keid on Ac. i 14. 

nihil scire. Cf. Sen. Ep. 88 4 Academici novam induxerunt scientiam, nihil 
scire. 

aequum. Fin. n 119 ejuro iniquum liac quidem de re : tu enim ista lenius, hie 
Stoicorum more nos vexat. 

18 ex deorum concilia. Cf. Div. i 49, Euseb. Pr. Ev. xiv 27, Justin M. Coh. 
ad Gent. p. 6 B, Luc. Jup. Trag. 45. 

aedificatorem mundi. [cf. Wetst. on Hebr. xi 10, J.E. B. M.] 

de Timaeo. Aristotle (de Anitna i 3) refers to the dialogue as though it were 
written by Timaeus. 

19 quibus oculis. Justin M. Cohort. 5 B. 

apte cadere. In 4th 1. of note for just below read below 23 . 

optata. Add Arist. Pol. iv 11 iroXiTeiav rrjv /car ev Xflv ytvofjt.ei>r]i> II 1, iv 1 
uxnrep evxbfj.evoi [and cf. Dobree Advers. i 254, J. E. B. M.]. 

20 physiologiam. For the clause beginning id est, cf. Eeid Acad. i 5, 8, 32. 

21 exstiterint. [For the arg. cf. Acad. n 119 from Aristotle, Diels Doxog. 
p. 300, Zeller Vortriige (Ser. 2), p. 546, August. Con/, xi 10 foil., C. D. xi 4 foil., 
Jourdain Thomas Aquinas u p. 267, J. E.B. M.] 

spatio tainen. I am now inclined to agree with Wyttenbach and Vaucher (Cur. 
Grit. Lausanne 1865) in transposing the words which are treated in the note as 
a gloss. For the language cf. Off. i 9 in deliberationem cadere ; in rationem 
utilitatis c. ; Off. in 17 in nostram intellegentiam c. 

22 signis. We have the same comparison of stars to statues in the Aris 
totelian quotation n 95. The quotation from the Orator in n. is from 134, 
not 131. 

quae si esset. On the reason for Creation see Theodoret Provid. p. 507 Sch. 

24 hactenus. Cf. Att. vi 2 de isto hactenus dixerim, me vel plura vincla 
optare, and passages cited in L. and S. s. v. in B. 

celeritate. Cf. Ac. u 82. 

inhabitabiles. Panaetius doubted this (Zeller iv 568) and Posidonius (Bake 
p. 91 foil.) blamed Aristotle for speaking of the torrid zone as uninhabitable, 
cf. Bunbury Anc. Geog. i p. 625, Strabo n 5 13, Cleom. i 6 32. 

25 text, et mente, mentem cur aquae adjunxit ? menti autem cur aquam 
adjunxit, si Or. Ba., et mente, cur aquae mentem, menti autem cur aquam ad 
junxit, si Sch. Mu. 

vacans corpore. See below 30 on OLVUHOLTOV [and cf. Tusc. i 50, J. E. B. M.]. 

27 aperta simplexque. pure unbodied spirit . 

quod plcrisque contingeret. The depreciatory view of mankind in general here 



ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA. Ixxix 

attributed to Pythagoras (this is implied by the subjunctive) is witnessed to in 
the lines cited by lamblichus (V. P. 259) TOVS /J.ev ercu pous rjyev Zo~ov fj.ai<dpeo-<rt 
Oeoccri roi)s d d \\ovs ^yelr OVT ev \6yij} OVT ev dpid/jt,$. 

28 Xenophanes. Cf. Nicolaus Dam. ap. Diels, p. 481; and for the phrase 
omne quod esset, Div. u 33 physici omne quod esset unum dixerunt ; for the 
Epicurean polemic, Sext. Emp. ix 149 el aireipov earc rb Qelov, otfre Kivelrai 
ovre %/Ji\l/vx6v ecmv. 

29 in deorum numero. Correct this n. by that on n 54. 

30 in Timaeo. Philemon frag. inc. 26 and 86 Mein. rl effnv 6 debs ov 
deXei ae /j.avddveii> acre/Sets rbv ov BeXovra ^avddveiv 6e\wv. Forchhammer makes 
the same transposition as I have done, only placing a comma after censeat. 

a,(rufj.a.Tov. In Acad. i 39 Cic. translates this by non corpus, [cf. Le Nourry 
on Tertull. Apoc. c. 7 art. 4, J. E. B. M.] 

32 vim quandam. For predicate read subject , and for 28 read 27. 

34 refert in deos. See on n 54. 

35 signis. Read sidus as contrasted with Stella . 

36 naturalem legem. Cf. n 79 [Fin. iv 11, J. E. B. M.]. 

Otoyovlav. Many Stoic annotations are contained in the existing Scholia 
to the Theogony. See Flack Gloss, u. Schol. p. 29 foil. 

37 mundum deum. See the Stoic proof in Bk n 19 47 [and cf. Tertull. 
Apol. 24, Tatian c. 3, Lact. iv 9, J.E.B. M.]. 

quasi delirans. Cf. Reid on Acad. n 14 quasi mente incitati, ib. n 74 quasi 
irati. 

38 honore afficere. For 33 read 36. 

quorum esset futurus. Cf. in 49, and Firmicus 6 in istis profanis religionibus 
sciatis esse mortes hominum consecratas ; ib. 7 miscetis terrena caelestibus ; dolores 
hominurn divinis honoribus consecrantur ; ib. 8 si di sunt quos colitis, cur eos 
lugetis ? si lacrimis digni sunt, cur eos divino honore cumulatis ? 

40 Neptunum. So Xenocrates in Stob. Eel. i 3, 5, Flack Gloss, p. 78. 

42 vincula. Tertull. Apol. 14. 

43 quae est gens. Arist. Eth. x 2, 4 6 yap iraac doKei TOVT elvai (pd^ev. 

44 maneat consensio. [same word in Minuc. 8, J. E. B. M.] 

insitas. See however n 12 n. on innatum est. 

de quo necesse est. [cf. Tusc. i 35, J.E.B. M.] 

rebus novis nova nomina. [Fin. in 3, J. E. B. M.] 

45 quod beatum. Add Diog. L. vn 123 ov ydp &\\ovs pXa-rrreiv ovd avrovs 
(of the Stoic sage). [Tertull. adv. Marc, i 25 si aliquem de Epicuri schola deum 
affectavit Christi nomine titulare, ut quod beatum et incorruptibile sit neque sibi 
neque aliis molestias praestet, &c., J. E. B. M.] Just the opposite was said of 
Alexander (Arrian vn 1, 8) TT pay para eyjjiv re /cat irapexuv &\\ois. For the 
Kvpiai dofct the ref. should be to Diog. x 27, 138, Luc. Pseudon. c. 47. 

48 ratio figura, Cf. Max. Tyr. Diss. vm. 

49 quasi. Sen. Ira i 2 non est ira sed quasi ira. 

non sensu sed mente. The ref. to Lucr. in n. should be to the quotation given 
under occurrit 46. 

p. 146 1. 7. For 714 read 774. 

mentem intentam. Cf. Ac. n 30 mens naturalem vim habet quam intendit ad 
ea quibus movetur, ib. 46 defigunt animos et intendunt in ea quae perspicua sunt. 



Ixxx INTRODUCTION. 

cum infinita affluent. Gell. v 16 (Epicurus holds) affluere semper ex omnibus 
corporibus simulacra quaedam. 

p. 148 1. 4 nothing more . So Sext. Emp. ix 19 fjnjdevbs &\\ov Trapa ravra 
6i>ros TOV dtpdaprov <f>v(n.v ^%OVTOS. 

50 aequabilem. Arist. Meteorol. I 3 TroXi) yap ai> virepfiaXXoi. rfy i<r6-n?ra TTJS 
KOIVTJS avaXoyias Trpds ra ffvffroix^ ffufJ-ara (the other three elements) ; Philo 
Tncorr. Mund. 21 rrjv virapxovffav icrovo/jLiav rep K6fffj.it}, and below, r?}s avroKparovs 
ia-ovo[j.ias returns del ^uXarro/i^s; also Plato s doctrine of avraTrodoffis (Phaedo 
70 foil.). 

51 nihil agit. [of. Off. n 4, Aesch. Pera. 606 Blomf., J. E. B. M.] 

52 dixerimus. [No example of this potential force in the plural is found in 
writers before Cic. and only one other in him (dixerimus in Tusc. in 7), if videri- 
mus is regarded as fut. exact. J. H. Schmalz compares also Quintil. vi 2 17, 
Colum. ii 2 3, in 1 2, xni 1 2, and fourteen other exx., one each from Livy, 
Petronius, and perhaps Tacitus (Germ. 29 numeraverimus), the others mostly 
from Ulpian, Jerome, Augustine, Gregory, see Arcliiv f. lat. Lexikogr. i pp. 347, 
348, 1884. J.E.B.M.] 

54 vis atomorum. Caes. B. C. n 26 vis magna pulveris, in 5 vimfrumenti. 

55 fiavTiK-^. Cf. ii 162. 

57 non tarn facile, &c. cf. below 60, 91 [Athenag. Ees. ii p. 51 b, 
J.E.B.M.]. 

58 cum te. Cf. ii 24 animadversum est cum cor palpitaret. 

59 coryphaeum. Dig. xxvn 1 1. 13 2 Ulpian is called Kopvcpcuos rwv 
vofjiLK^v, so Simplicius of Theophrastus (Wimmer s ed. vol. 3 p. 176). 

Zenonem audiebam frequenter. This use of frequenter ( repeatedly , over 
and over again ) is somewhat rare in C. I think it is the most appropriate in 
ii 136 frequenter ducatur (of breathing), though we might take that to mean in 
large draughts ; and it is plainly required in Orator 221 non modo non frequen 
ter, verum etiam raro in veris causis circumscripte numeroscque dicendum est, 
Caecina 77 is qui adesse nobis frequenter in hac causa solet, C. Aquillius. We 
find it joined with creber in Orat. 81 (orator) tralatione fortasse crebrior, qua 
frequentissume sermo omnis utitur, Plane. 83 liaec frequenter in me congessisti, 
saneque in eo creber fuisti, te idcirco &c., which seems to show that it had not 
quite broken loose from its earlier meaning. In Orat. n 156 Carneadem et 
Critolaum et Diogenem..,et a se et ab aliis frequenter auditos, it seems more 
natural to understand it, after et a se, in the later sense, than in the earlier 
( in large numbers ) with Prof. Wilkins. 

bona venia. [add to exx. in lexx. Pronto p. 291 Naber quod bona venia 
pietatis tuae dictum sit, ib. p. 25, Mamertin, Paneg. Maximin. Aug. 6, 
J.E.B.M.] 

60 quid non sit. Cic. speaking in his own person (Tusc. i 70) says we know 
the existence of God, but not his form or abode. 

Simonides. Plut. Pyth. Orac. 409 D, Bentley Remarks p. 307. 

61 credo si. So Stilpo being asked whether the gods were really pleased 
with the worship offered to them, answered do not ask me in the street but 
alone (Diog. n 117) ; cf. N. D. frag. 1 non esse ilia vulgo disputanda, Herenn. 
iv c. 18 qui in sermonibus et conventu amicorum verum dixerit numquam, eum 
sibi in contionibus credis a mendacio temperaturum ? 



ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA. Ixxxi 

ego is. [cf. Shilleto on Dern. F. L. 77, citing, among other passages, Cic. 
ad Q. Fr. i 6 qui modo fratre fuerim beatissimus, is . . .possim, J. E. B. M.], also 
Ac. ii 66, E.P. i 7. 

62 quae communia sunt. Fin. iv 24 quae sunt communia vobis cum antiquis, 
Us sic utamur ut concessis. 

63 Protagoras, [see Chrys. Horn. 4 in 1 Cor. p. 30 with Field s n. 
J.E.B. M.] 

habeo dicere. Cf. Eeid on Acad. n 43. 

combusti. Cf. Aug. G. D. vn 34 with the nn. of Vives. 

66 corpuscula. [cf. Tmc. i 22, J. E.B. M.] 

levia alia aspera rotunda alia partim. I propose now to repeat partim and 
transpose the 2nd alia, placing it before levia, some smooth, some rough, partly 
round, partly angular . 

ante enimjudicasti. Cf. Acad. n. 8 ceteri ante tenentur adstricti quam quid 
esset optimum judicare potuerunt foil. 

67 omnibus minimis. [Cluent. 137, J. E. B. M.] 

68 text. Forchhammer (p. 38) proposes to read non igitur aeterni (quod 
enim ex atomis, id natum aliquando est) ; si nati, nulli del ante quam nati. 

71 text, hoc mirabilius quod vos inter vos risum tenere possitis. Forch 
hammer (p. 38) gets nearer to the MSS by inserting quam before quod. 

nee (after negat). [see Hand Tursell. iv 124, J. E. B. M.] 

74 quid est quod. The 4th line in this n. has a quotation from Plin. Ep. 
in (not n) 16 where see Mayor s n. and add Sen. N. Q. n 47, Apul. Apol. 1. 
For the thought, add Fin. 11 13 ergo illi intellegunt quid Epic, dicat, ego non 
intellego ? 

76 text. I think Allen and Forchhammer are right in retaining the MS 
order possit quod nulla aliafigura domicilium mentis esse. The position of possit 
shows that it is the clinching argument. 

77 deos ipsos. Dion Chrys. Or. xn p. 405, Tholuck Heathenism Eng. Tr. 
p. 20. 

auxerunt opijkes. [Philostr. Apoll. vin 7 22, Plut. Mor. p. 167, J.E.B. M.] 

78 ingeniis. Or at. i 6, 106, 115, Fin. iv 62, Or. 48, N. D. n 126. I observe 
that Prof. Wilkins takes the pi. sermonum in Hor. A. P. 69 to mean style or 
language . This would form a parallel to my interpretation of orationibus here. 

homo nemo. See n 81 and n. on n 96. 

79 et quidem. Add to exx. of ironical use of et, in 82 et praedones. 

hujus. See Plin. Ep. in 5 2 with Mayor s n. 

collegae, as one of the pontifices. 

Auroram. Cf. Job xxxi 27 and Apost. Constit. n 59 ra tQvt} e VTTVOV Kad 
rj^pav dva<TTai>Ta r/^xet ^TTI ra el SwAo, \arpeijeiv avrois. 

80 ecquos. Varro Men. 344 de Venere paeta strabam facit. 

81 barbaria. [Tusc. v 77, Sen. Ep. 28 4, Lamprid. Alex. 58 5, Ammian. 
xxxi 4 and 9, J. E. B. M.] It is also used of particular nations, as in 11 88. 

82 fando. [cf. Plin. Pan. 86 2 fando inauditum, J. E. B. M.] 

Sospitam. Liv. vni 14 Lanuvinis civitas data sacraque sua reddita cum 
eo ut aedes lucusque Sosp. Jun. communis Lanuvinis municipibus cum populo 
Romano esset. For the Ace. see Madv. on Fin. n 8, 88. 

scutulo. [aTr. Xe7- in this its literal sense, J. E. B. M.] 



Ixxxii INTRODUCTION. 

repandis. [see Archiv. f. latein. Lexikographie i 321 foil. (1884), 
J. E. B. M.] 

83 laudamus. Leg. n 8 lex recte est laudata ; Plin. N. H. x 4 eodem loco 
Liber Eutychidis laudatur, there is a famous statue of Bacchus by Eutychides . 

84 conftteri nescire. Cf. Ac. n 128 considerare amittere with Keid s n., 
also ib. i 7 and 18. The omission of the subject seems to me to emphasize the 
meaning of the verb, making it equivalent to an abstract noun. 

85 text. For visu Forchhammer reads corpore sunt di; for ita, item. On 
pleonastic ita after Eel. see Madv. Fin. v 77. 

87 numquidnam. Or. n 13 numquidnam, inguit, novi? Ter. Eun. n 1, 41. 
For the argument see below 96. 

88 ut 11011 crederes. In quotation from n 86 read dicat for dicet. 

(97) rubro mari. Arrian Indica c. 30, Philostr. V. A. in 57, Bunbury Anc. 
Geog. i 534 It is not uncommon for a steamer bound from Aden to Bombay to 
encounter a school of whales similar to that which caused such alarm to the fleet 
of Nearchus . 

90 video. So audio Tusc. n 46, Eosc. Am. 58. 

91 cognationem. Div. i 64. 

92 itaque nulla ars. Arist. Eth. n 6 9. 

habebit igitur linguam. The argument against the human form of the gods 
may be compared with that of Origen against the crude view of the resurrection 
of the body (ed. Lomm. vol. 17, p. 61), quo enim membra genitalia, si nuptiae non 
erunt ? quo denies, si cibi non molendi sunt ? .quo venter et cibi, sijuxta Apostolum 
et hie et illi destruentur ? 

93 cumvexarit. For vexo cf. 73 (not 78). 

94 adhibetur homini. I think this must be treated as Dat. of Agent, on 
which see Index. It is softened down by the preceding gerundive and probably 
by the frequent use of the Dat. of Object with adhibeo, see below on n 124. 

97 Not. Grit. 1. 18 for 84 read 88. 

canis nonne similis lupo ? Eeid on Ac. n 50 cites Plato Soph. 231 /ecu 701/3 
Kvvi (Trpcxreoi/ce) \VKOS, aypidraTOv ^tiepwrdry. 

98 sortiri quid loquare. Cf. Fabricius on the use of d,7ro/cAr7/)WTt/c6s in Sext. 
Emp. P. H. m 79. 

101 text. There should be a full stop after cons ecrav erunt. 

102 On cessatio see above 51 and Fin. n c. 13. Perhaps it is better to 
take sic with volumus, is our wish to give the gods a holiday really based on a 
fear that happiness is inconsistent with activity? 

103 Schwencke considers this and the following paragraphs to be an 
unaltered fragment of the original Stoic treatise followed by Cic.; that then 
in 105, finding it inconvenient to continue the subject, he suddenly recurs to 
the topic of 49, and has forgotten to erase the unfinished part. 

quae sedes. Cf. Sen. V. B. 31 deus sedens opus suum spectet an tractet ? 
utruinne extrinsecus illi circumfusus sit an toti inditus ? Tert. Apol. 47. 

104 postremo. I now think there is no occasion to change this to porro. 
A careless lastly is very intelligible in hasty composition ; and here the repe 
tition is veiled by the intervening denique. For postremo followed by denique cf. 
Ac. ii 136 where Reid refers to the triple repetition of denique in Orator 74. 
Similarly we find a thrice-repeated deinde in Sex. Eosc. 130. 



ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA. Ixxxiii 

105 Hippocentauro . To the exx. of its use add Dig. 45. 1. 97, and Chrysost. 
ad Col. horn. 7 passim. We find the form Centaurus in 51, 70. 

109 inquit. Forchhammer p. 43 foil, limits and classifies the exx. of 
this use. 

110 actuosa. [add to lexx. Sen. Tranq. 4 8, Ira 11 19 2, Arnob. n 8 
and cf. Lucian Hermot. 79 -f\ ptv aperf h tyyois drj TTOV eartv, J. E. B. M.] 

112 perfundas. Fin. n c. 34. 

ut poetae. Fin. n 23 adsint formosipueri qui ministrent. Epicurus attributed 
to his gods the enjoyment of such feasts, see on 49 and Euseb. Pr. Ev. 
xiv 27. 

locupletior hominum natura. [cf. Sen. Ep. 76 25, J. E.B. M.] 

113 neque nunc reprehendo quod referaniur, sed doceo. Cf. Plane. 44 neque 
ego nunc consilium reprehendo tuum quod eas tribus non edideris,sed doceo; N. D. 
in 21 won quod difficile sit; Roby 1738, 1744. 

114 satin. Cic. does not seem to use this colloquialism elsewhere, but we 
find ain in the letters (Fam. ix 21, Att. iv 5). 

mihi pulchre est. Cf. bene est, belle se habere, and nn. on Petron. c. 34 fin. 

cogitat. [For the Sing. cf. Odyss. iv 692 and Kiihner 430, J. E. B. M.] 

119 colere precari venerarique. See Weissenborn on Liv. xxxix 15. 

Ennius. [cf. August. Consens. Evang. i 32, J. E. B. M.] 

Samothraciam. See Contemp. Rev. May 1882, Conze Arch. Unters. auf Samo- 
thrake Vienna 1875. 

quibus explicatis. Merkel Fasti p. CLXXXIX. 

120 hortulos. [cf. Leg. i 39, 54, J. E. B. M.] 

122 verbum amoris ( a term of affection , cf. n 72 laudis nomen, Flacc. 11 71071 
jurisjurandi sed laedendi verba meditatur, Plane. 34 quae umquam Plancii vox 
fuit contumeliae potius quam doloris ? 

Text, quod ni ita sit. I see no reason for the Subj. and should prefer 
to read est. 

124 I am indebted to my old pupil Mr W. F. Smith, feUow of St John s 
College, Cambridge, for the following note : this was a favourite illustration of 
Shilleto s on Phaedo 95 A, ra ^lv Apftovias i Xea TTWS ytyove, the word i Xews being 
used for the ceremonious farewell to a deity, while xcupe denotes the farewell 
to a mortal. Consequently the opposition of valeat to propitius sit implies 
I deny his divinity . Compare Thucyd. in 104 dXX ayed 1X77x01 i&v ATroXXwi/ 
Aprtfudi &v, %atpere 5 vpe is Traaai, Plat. Rep. 496 E, Eur. Hel. 1007 ". Add to 
these Plato Leg. xi 923, Euthyd. 273, Epin. 975 (a corrupt passage in which 
ifXeus and %cu />ct, are brought into connexion), Cic. Att. n 9 patria propitia sit 
farewell to my country , Nonnus Dionys. vni 73 ovpavbs IXrjKoi, XLIV 170 ovpavbs 
da-rep60otros e/xr? TroXts i\a.Te Qrj^ai. 

LIB. II. 

Text p. 14 1. 19 Not. Grit, after sed est add edd. 

p. 16 1. 24. Schwencke in Jbr. f. cl. Alterth. vol. 35 p. 92 says that A is now 
found to agree with the other MSS in omitting est. 

p. 18 1. 11. Schwencke 1. c. s&yspotest esse is written in ras. in B. 
p. 24 1. 23. For qui L. Miiller reads quin. 



Ixxxiv INTRODUCTION. 

p. 25 1. 15. Schwencke 1. c. states that A agrees in the corrupt recidant. 

p. 31 1. 31. The note should be on p. 32 1. 6. 

p. 32 1. 17. Faciet is the reading of Orelli s B, not of B. 

p. 38 1. 6. spiritu. Transpose V 1 and V 2 . 

p. 40 1. 7. A agrees in admiscetur , Schw. 1. c. 

p. 52 Deiter 1. c. says B has mollitur not molitur. 

p. 53 1. 1. A has recipit not recepit\ Schw. 1. c. 

1 conturbor. Cf. Acad. u 10 bis. 

corona. Cf. Fin. iv 74 non ego tec urn jam ita jocabor, ut isdem his de rebus 
cum L. Murenam te accusante defenderem. Apud linperitos turn ilia dicta sunt ; 
aliquid etiam coronae datum; nunc agendum est subtilius. 

4 aspice. Compare with hoc i 95 solem ilium. Subl. candens, lit. this 
that dazzles on high . 

6 Castor et Pollux. On the mediaeval belief in the interposition of heavenly 
warriors, cf. Burton Melancholy p. 671. 

cum equis. Caes. B. C. i 26 naves cum tabulatis Kraner s n. 

7 p. 75 last 1. but 2, for N. D. 153 read N. D. m 14 n. 

10 atqui. om. i 19 . 

11 tenetis. I now think that with jus this must mean maintain , not 
understand . 

12 signapeccavit. Cited by Amm. Marc, xxi 1 12. 

omnes omnium. [CLPhilipp. n 76, Gael. 14, Plin. Ep. m 11 7 n., J. E.B.M.] 

16 desipientis arrogantiae est. This argument may be illustrated from the 
writings of a modern Stoic: "shall we poor earthworms have sublimer thoughts 
than the universe, of which we are poor chips mere effluvia of mind shall we 
have sublimer thoughts than that universe can furnish out into reality?" Life 
of George Eliot, i p. 194. 

17 an nonpossis. Add to exx. Div. n 123 an Serapis potest,.,Neptunus non 
potest ? 

18 spirabilem n. On the microcosm cf. Nemes. i 26 ris o$v dtws 0au/m<reie 
rrjv evyevei.ai> TOVTOV rov tyov, rov vvvoeovros ev eavry ra dvrjra rols adavdroLS... 
rov <pepovros V Ty /ca$ eavrbv (fivaei rrjs Traces 0u<rea>? r\]v el/cova 5i a /ecu /it/epos 
/CCKT/XOS eipTjTai ; [See also N. Ferrar pp. 239, 240, Bacon Adv. of Learning 109, 
134, 290, 295, J. Davies ed. Grosart p. 98, Philo i 334, 444, n 608, Clem. Al. 
Protr. i 5, Hieron. in Koheleth 9. 14 seq., Chalcid. in Tim. p. 202. J.E.B.M.] 

19 p. 104 1. 6. For 34 read 54. 

20. For other exx. of the pi. of convicium Keid (Ac. u 34) cites Att. u 18, 
Fin. i 69, Cluent. 39, &o. 

angustia. For the sing. cf. blanditia Lael. 91 with Eeid s n. 

23 dixeram. On the pluperfect, cf. Ac. u 76 quaesieras, 79 dixeram, with 
Eeid s ma. and Draeg. 130 B. 

conjirmari. For other exx. of the passive Inf. used where we should have 
expected the active, cf. Acad. i 2 occultari velit, i 32 explanari volebant, n 42 
obscurari volunt with Eeid s n., Plaut. Capt. i 2, 72 te vocari ad cenam volo (for 
te voco), Gas. prol. 30 comoediai nomen dari vobis volo (for dabo}. 

quae alantur. For the lowest stage read this includes all stages . 

25 ea in terris. [Wopkens Advers. n 68, Drakenb. on Liv. i 3 9, 
J.E.B. M.] 



ADDENDA AND COREIGENDA. Ixxxv 

maria tepescunt. Arist. Probl. xxxvm 2 17 0dXarra dep^ Kal 



5toi T- 

27 quam similitudinem. Add in 8 eafacultas. 

35 reruminstitutione. Cf. Reid Acad. i 23 on descriptio naturae. 

39 est autem perfectius. For the change from indirect to direct construc 
tion cf. Index and Acad. i 42 viae reperiuntur, where Eeid cites Madv. Fin. i 30, 
in 50. 

41 confector. [Sen. Ira in 43 2, Tac. Ann. xiv 39, Vopisc. Aurelian 19, 
Isid. Orig. xvm 2, Firmic. Matli. iv 7, J.E.B. M.] 

consumptor. [Ambr. Hex. n 14 ignis omnis consumptor unions est, J. E. B. M.] 

42 animantium ortus. Add Hippolyt. Ref. Haer. x 33. 

43 cibo quo utare. Mr Eoby has sent me another ex, of the use of cibo 
as a predicative Dat. at the beginning of the clause, Plin. N. H. xxix 3 48 
(speaking of eggs) Cibo quot modis juvent notum est, as food, in how many 
ways they are useful is well known . 

interesse ad mentis aciem. Sen. Ep. 108 22 abstinere animalibus coepi et 
anno peracto non tantum facilis erat milii consuetudo sed dulcis : agitatiorem 
milii animum esse credebam. 

45. Schwencke 1. c. remarks that praesentio, praesensio are intended to 
represent Trp6\7)\l/L<;. 

46 quam volet. Add to exx. Place. 35. 

49 bis bina. Add Galen IT. \f/vx- /* 59 the geometer knows his Euclid as 
well as another man knows TO. 5ts duo r^rrapa elvai . [Aug. Conf. i c. 13 jam 
vero unum et unum duo, duo et duo quattuor, odiosa cantio milii erat, J. E. B. M.] 

51 magnum annum, [cf. Aug. Gen. ad litt. imp. 38, J. E. B. M.] 

52 a terra abest. On the position of the planets cf. Hippolytus Eef. 
Haer. iv 6. 

triginta annis. [Sen. N. Q. i Prol. 13, vn 29 1, J. E. B. M.] 

53 unius signi. Ace. to Hippol. 1. c. v. 13 tyfaov 30 (AoTpai, fjt.o tpa = 60 



64 x/)6vos. [Aug. Cons. Evang. i 34, J. E. B. M.] 

69 atque ex ea potius venustas. I believe Cicero wrote estque not atque. 

73 magnus sane locus. So magnifica vox Off. in 1. 

causa incognita, [cf. Verr. Act. i 39, Act. n 1 25, n 81, 105, v 41, 
Cluent. 130, Dom. 20, Lactant. v 1 2; re incogn. Cluent. 76, Caec. 29, 
J. E.B. M.] 

74 ut si quis. Cf. above on 15 [and Tusc. n 12, 67, Seyffert Schol. Lat. i 
186, ii 92, J. E. B. M.] We have a different use below 86, and i 88. 

[natio. So n. candidatorum, Mur. 69 and Piso 55, philosophi credula natio 
Seneca N.Q. vi 26, of historians ib. vn 16; also Minuc. 8 4, Sulp. Sev. Dial. 8 
4, Chalcid. Tim. p. 19 d poetica. J. E. B. M.] 

in te unum. Cf. Ac. n 62 provide ne uni tibi istam sententiam minime liceat 
defendere, which Eeid translates you of all men . 

75 ab animantibus principiis. Lucr. gives the opposite theory in n 865, 
nunc ea quae sentire videmus cumque necesse est ex insensilibus tamen omnia con- 
fiteare principiis constare; see n. on frag. 3 below, 

76 majore vi. For exx. of mixture of constructions after necesse est, see m 
36 id necesse est sentiat venire. 



Ixxxvi INTRODUCTION. 

77 p. 191. The summary C b (3) should come immediately before ch. 

XXXI. 

81 via progredientem. For seminibus read seminis vim. 

83 nobiscum videt, contributes to our sight . 

86 dentes et pubertatem. Cf. Plato Tim. 64 ravra 5e irepl ocrra /cat r/n xas 
ecrTt Kal ocra aXXa yjjiVa TO ir\eiffTov exof^ev iv TJ/JUV /wpia, Varro ap. Aug. (7. D. vil 
23 (on the three grades of life, the lowest being without sensation) hanc vim in 
nostro corpore dixit permanare in ossa ungues capillos, sicut in mundo arbores 
sine sensu coluntur, &c. 

ut. [cf. Off. i 32, in 107, J. E. B. M.] 

si qui dicat. Cf. Off. i 52 si qui velit, 144 ut si qui meditetur, Off. in 19 si qui 
tyr annum occidit, ib. 93, and Dumesnil on Leg. n 49. 

87 cursum navigii. This is the illustration ridiculed by Lucian Imp. Trag. 
46 foil. 

89 spiritu. Used of the hissing of a serpent Culex 1. 180. 

92 multis partibus. On the celestial magnitudes cf. Hippol. Eef. Haer. iv 8. 

94 quern ad modum. For the attraction of the principal verb into the 
subordinate construction, cf. Tusc. i 37 itaque commemorat faciendum, Jelf s 
Gr. Gr. 898, and Krueger Unters. p. 455. 

99 stirpium asperitate. Div. i 75 in Lysandri statua corona exstitit ex 
asperis herbis atque agrestibus, n 68 herbam asperam avium congestu exstitisse. 

100 quae species. So Quint, p. r. 4 quae species Italiae !.. .quae forma 
regionum ! ... quae pulcliritudo urbis ! 

101 determinatio. [Tertull. adv. Marc, i 34, Iren. in 12 9, J.E. B. M.] 

admirabilitate. This word, like admirabiliter (n 132), seems to be only used 
by Cic., cf. above 90 and Off. n 38 liaec animi despicientia admirabilitatem 
magnam facit. 

103 interpositu. The only other example quoted is from Plin. N. H. n 10 
47, perhaps copied from Cicero. 

104 ex notarum. Add Hippol. Eef. Haer. iv 6 and 27, 

106 Draco. Some connect with this constellation the allusions in the 
book of Job (in 8, xxvi 13) to the celestial leviathan which causes the eclipse of 
the sun and moon. 

107 cum totius. At the end of n. read Allen for Ba. 

obstipum. The line I have cited from Lucilius is assigned to Caecilius 
(Imbrii 1. 99) by Eibbeck, who gives it in a different form resupina obstipo 
capitulo sibi ventum facer e tunicula. 

108 id autem caput. Hippolytus (Eef. Haer. iv 47) mentions that certain 
heretics made Engonasin the First Adam, and Ophiuchus the Second Adam. 

111 Cynosurae. Ovid (Trist. v 3, 7) has stellis Cynosuridos Ursae. 

aquilonis. Cf. below 112 aq. fiamina pulsant, 114 quam flatu permulcet 
spiritus Austri. 

115 ad medium. The quotation from Nemesius continues /cat r^v [ikv els 
TO ew peyeduv /cat TTOIOT^TW^ aVoTeXecm/c??! eZVat, ryv 5 ei s TO Zcru evwa-eus /cat 
ovfftas. Cf. Zell. p. 131 n. 3, p. 118 from Philo Deus immutab. 298 D. 

120 tamquam manibus. [Ambr. Hex. in 49, J. E. B. M.] 

123 ut in araneolis. In quotation from Arist. H. A. ix for OVK read ovx 
before 



ADDENDA AND COKKIGENDA. Ixxxvii 

124 bestiis cibus quaeritur. Cf. Off. in 38 honesta bonis viris quaeruntur. 
Comparing Cluent. 70 mihi ipsi praeter periculum quid quaeretur, and the Active 
quaerit sibi cibum bestia, we shall see that this Dat. is closely connected with 
that of Advantage . See above on i 94 adhibetur homini, Madv. Fin. i 11, 
Draeg. 189. 

exclusi. [Tert. adv. Valent. 25 and 36, Ampel. 2 12, Hygin. Fab. 197, 
Ambr. Hex. v 9, J.E.B. M.] 

127 cervae. See Periz. on Ael. V. H. xiil 35. 

128 eoque saeptum. Cf. Orig. de Resurrect. Lomm. vol. 17 p. 62 foil. 

ut intellegamus. Insert i, before 17. 

129 pisces. Schwencke 1. c. refers to Chrysippus ap. Pint. St. Rep. p. 1038 
ev Tip irpwTLp irepl AiKaiofftivys Kal ra drjpia, (frycri, (TVjU/xerpws rfj %petct T&V eitybvuv 
iKei&<r6a.i 717)65 CLVTOL TT~\^V r&v l^dvwv avra yap ra /cy^uara rpe0ercu St avr&v . 

130 Indus. [Liv. xxi 31 10, Philostr. Apoll. n 18, Strabo xv 1 25. 
Ukert ii (1) 46, J. E. B. M.] 

135 tonsillas. The ref. in Festus should be to p. 536. 

atque agitatione. There is a pleonastic is after atque in Off. in 94 optavit 
(Phaethon) ut in currum patris tolleretur : sublatus est, atque is, antequam con- 
stitit, ictufulminis deflagravit. 

136 aspera arteria. [Lucian Hist. Conscr. 7, Plut. Qu. Symp. vn 1, 
Macrob. Sat. vn 15, Plin. N. H. xi 66, J.E.B. M.] 

assimilis spongiis mollitudo. For the abbreviated comparison, of. n 153 
similis deorum n.,Xen. Cyrop. v 1 6fj.olav rcus dotiXais ei%e r-ffv eadijra, Nitzsch on 
Od. ii 121, Krueger Gr. Sprachl. 48. 11. 9, Sen. Benef. iv 27 aciem habent 
Lynceo similem, Tusc. v 73 Epicurus non multum differens a judicio ferarum, 
Holden on Off. i 76 legibus confer endi sunt, Wilkins on Or. i 15 ceteris hominibus. 

139 nervi. In the 8th 1. from the end of this note, read 136 for 128. 

140 erectos. Stob. Flor. ii 26 a. 

in arce. [Macrob. Somn. Scip. i 6 81, J. E. B. M.] 

141 vicinitatem. Cf. Att. x 18 Formias nunc sequimur, Orat. i 28 umbram 
secutus est Socrates. 

amandavit. [cf. Off. i 126 quae paries corporis ad naturae necessitatem 
datae aspectum essent deformem habiturae atque foedum, eas contexit (natura) 
atque abdidit, J. E. B. M.] 

144 a quo. See n. on 134 ab Us. 

flexuosum iter. [cf. Gels, vm 1 in aure quoque primo rectum et simplex iter, 
procedendo flexuosum, juxta cerebrum in multa et tenuia foramina diducitur ; 
the word flex, is already used by Cato R. R. 33. 1. J. E. B. M.] 

irrepere seems to me better suited to minima bestiola than the irrumpere of 
MSS, compare however Ac. n 125 imagines in animos nostros per corpus irrumpere, 
ib. 136. 

tegendi causa factae...et ne voces laberentur. [For the change of construction, 
cf. Liv. xxi 51 5 consult litterae de transitu Hannibalis et ut collegae ferret 
auxilium missae, J.E. B. M.] 

ex tortuosis locis. Clem. Al. Strom, vi 33 alrta d , olfj.ai, Travis TJXOUS rj re 
AeioT7?s Ttov Toiruv Kal TO avrpwdes. 

149 plectri similem. Plin. N. H. vn 15 primores denies concentu quodam 
excipiunt ictum linguae. [Cf. Clem. Recog. 8 29, J. E. B. M.] 



Ixxxviii INTRODUCTION. 

153 accedit ad cognitionem. Cf. Acad. n 7 and 36 ad verum accedant, ib. n 
86 sine magnis artificiis ad quae pauci accedunt, Nepos 18. 1. 4 (Eumenes) ad 
amicitiam accessit Philippi, Virg. G. n 483 naturae accedere partes. 
160 sus. [Aug. Tract, in Joh. vm 2, J. E. B. M.] 
161 bdlicac. [Wyttenb. ad Pint. Mor. p. 8 d, J. E. B. M.] 
165 inagnam. On this cf. Theopompus ap. Ael. V. II. in 18. 
Gracchum, the father of the famous tribunes, cf. above 10, Fin. iv 65, Off. 
ii 43. 

167 nemo. For the inspiration of genius cf. Arch. 18. 



LIB. III. 

23 ullam vim esse. Perhaps nil am may be retained, if we translate has no 
such power as to . 

earum artium homines. Cf. Orat. i 124 ceterarum artium liomines, ib. n 37 si 
qui aliarum artium. 

43 age porro. Cf . Verr. v 56. 

59 Syria Cyproque concepta. The passage in which Tacitus describes the 
visit of Titus to the shrine at Paphos (Hist, n 3) supplies another example of 
the ablative after conceptus, and suggests the thought that possibly Cinyraque, 
rather than Cyproque, may be the true correction of the Cyroque of MSS : fama 
recentior tradit a Cinyra sacratum templum deamque ipsam conceptam marl hue 
appulsam. 



M. TULLII CICERONIS 

DE NATUKA DEOKUM 



LIBER TERTIUS. 

I. QUAE cum Balbus dixisset, turn arridens Gotta, Sero, 1 
inquit, mihi, Balbe, praecipis, quid defendam. Ego enim te 
disputante, quid contra dicerem, mecum ipse meditabar, neque 
tarn refellendi tui causa quam ea, quae minus intellegebarn, 
5 requirendi. Cum autem suo cuique judicio sit utendum, difficile 
factu est me id sentire, quod tu velis. Hie Velleius, Nescis, 2 
inquit, quanta cum exspectatione, Cotta, sim te auditurus. 
Jucundus enim Balbo nostro sermo tuus contra Epicurum fuit ; 
praebebo igitur ego me tibi vicissim attentum contra Stoicos 

10 auditorem. Spero enim te, ut soles, bene paratum venire. 
Turn Cotta, Sic mehercule, inquit, Vellei ; neque enim mihi 3 
par ratio cum Lucilio est ac tecum fuit. Qui tandem ? inquit 
ille. Quia mihi videtur Epicurus vester de dis immortalibus 
non magnopere pugnare; tantum modo negare deos esse non 

15 audet, ne quid invidiae subeat aut criminis. Cum vero deos 
nihil agere, nihil curare confirmat membrisque humanis esse 
praeditos, sed eorum membrorum usum nullum habere, ludere 

2 inquid A 1 also in 7, 11, 12, p. 2 1. 12, and often. 6 factu [BVjMO 

Asc., factum ACEBC Oxf., fatu Bed. N. 11 sic edd. after Lamb., si ABEV 

UOxf. ASC. + , sine CB Eed., sed Mars., sim Bouh. Ern., sum GHT Heind. 
12 par ratio corr. ex paratio AB. 13 quia MSS generally, quam VUC, 

quoniam Oxf. 

M. C. III. 1 



2 DE NATUHA DEO11UM. 

videtur satisque putare, si dixerit esse quandam beatam naturam 

4 et aeternam. A Balbo autem animadvertisti, credo, quam 
multa dicta sint quarnque, etiam si minus vera, tameii apta 
inter se et cohaerentia. Itaque cogito, ut dixi, non tain refellere 
ejus orationem quam ea, quae minus intellexi, requirere. Quare, 5 
Balbe, tibi permitto, responderene mihi mails de singulis rebus 
quaerenti ex te ea, quae parurn accepi, an universam audire 
orationem meam. Turn Balbus : Ego vero, si quid explanari 
tibi voles, respondere malo ; sin me interrogare non tarn intelle- 
gendi causa quam refellendi, utrum voles, faciam, vel ad singula, 10 
quae requires, statim respondebo vel, cum peroraris, ad omnia. 

5 Turn Cotta, Optime, inquit. Quam ob rem sic agamus, ut nos 
ipsa ducet oratio. II. Sed ante quam de re, pauca de me. 
Non enirn mediocriter moveor auctoritate tua, Balbe, oratio- 
neque ea, quae me in perorando cohortabatur, ut meminissem 15 
me et Cottam esse et pontificem ; quod eo, credo, valebat, ut 
opiniones, quas a majoribus accepimus de dis immortalibus, 
sacra, caerimonias religionesque defenderem. Ego vero eas 
defendam semper semperque defend!, nee me ex ea opinione, 
quam a majoribus accepi de cultu deorum immortalium, ullius 20 
umquam oratio aut docti aut indocti movebit. Sed cum de 
religione agitur, Ti. Coruncanium, P. Scipionem, P. Scaevolam, 
pontifices maximos, 11011 Zenonern aut Cleanthem aut Chrysip- 
pum sequor, liabeoque C. Laelium, augurem eundemque 
sapientem, quern potius audiam dicentem de religione in 25 
ilia oratione nobili quam quemquam principem Stoicorum. 
Cumque omnis populi Romani religio in sacra et in auspicia 
divisa sit, tertium adjunctum sit, si quid praedictionis causa ex 
portentis et monstris Sibyllae interpretes haruspicesve monu- 
erunt, barum ego religionum nullam umquam contemiiendam 30 
putavi mihique ita persuasi, Romulum auspiciis, Numam sacris 



7 pamm BLO, parvam AEV 1 , parva CV 3 Oxf. B + . accepi [BCEV] Oxf. 

Asc., accipe A, cepi or perccpi Madv. 9 sin [ACEJBO, si BVC Oxf. 

13 ducet edd. after Heind., ducit MSS. 22 Ti. edd. after Manut., t. A 2 BO, 

tune E, om. A ] CV Mus. Coruncanium [BCEJV-L Oxf., Coruncanum V ] 0, 

quorum canium AB. 24 C. Laelium BEM, clelium AY 1 , ddium Oxf., 

C. Lelium V 2 OV, glelium B, lelium C (after erased letter). BO ego AYMO 

Oxf. Asc., ergo BCEB, see p. 3 1. 4. 



LIB. Ill CAP. I IV 39. 

constitutes fundamenta jecisse nostrae civitatis, quae numquam 
profecto sine summa placatione deorum immortalium tanta 
esse potuisset. Habes, Balbe, quid Gotta, quid pontifex sentiat ; 6 
fac nunc ego intellegam, tu quid sentias. A te enim philosoplio 
5 rationem accipere debeo religionis, majoribus autem nostris 
etiam nulla ratione reddita credere. III. Turn Balbus, Quam 
igitur a me rationem, inquit, Gotta, desideras ? Et ille, Quadri- 
pertita, inquit, fuit divisio tua, primum ut velles docere decs 
esse, deinde quales essent, turn ab iis mundum regi, postremo 

10 consulere eos rebus humanis. Haec, si recte memini, partitio 
fuit. Rectissime, inquit Balbus ; sed exspecto, quid requiras. 

Turn Cotta, Primum quicque videamus, inquit ; et, si id est 7 
primum, quod inter omnes nisi admodum impios convenit, mihi 
quidem ex animo exuri non potest, esse deos, id tamen ipsum, 

15 quod mihi persuasum est auctoritate inajorum, cur ita sit, nihil 
tu me doces. Quid est.. inquit Balbus, si tibi persuasum est, cur 
a me velis discere ? Turn Gotta, Quia sic aggredior, inquit, ad 
hanc disputationem, quasi nihil uinquam audierim de dis im- 
mortalibus, nihil cogitaverim ; rudem me et integrum discipulum 

20 accipe et ea, quae requiro, doce. Die igitur, inquit, quid requi- 8 
ras. Egone? primum illud, cur, quod in ista p&rtitione ne 
egere quidem oratione dixisses, quod esset perspicuum et inter 
omnes constaret, de eo ipso tarn multa dixeris. Quia te quoque, 
inquit, animadverti, Cotta, saepe, cum in foro diceres, quam 

25 plurimis posses argumentis onerare judicem, si modo earn facul- 
tatem tibi daret causa. Atque hoc idem et philosophi faciunt 
et ego, ut potui, feci. Tu autem quod quaeris, similiter facis, 
ac si me roges, cur te duobus contuear oculis et non altero 
comveam, cum idem uno assequi possim. IV. Turn Cotta, 9 

1 fundamenta cicitatis om. A 1 (from homceoteleutoii). 3 potuisset IV, 

potuissent. X. Oxf. BOU + . 4 eyo Lactant. n 6, ergo X Mus., om. T. 6 red 
dita, Lact. 1. c. adds rationis est. 11 Balbus sed exspecto, here P. begins. 
14 exuri XBLM Oxf., exire HNRVGIUT Eed., exui CO, eximi anon. ap. Dav. Cobet 
V. L. (p. 463) Sch. Or. Ba., end Walker, excuti Lamb. Mu., see Comm. 21 
quod in ista partitione Heind. Or. Mu. Sch., quod perspicuum in istam partem 
MSS (Ba. after Dav. brackets persp. partem), cum istam partem Forch. p. 52. 
25 posses [V 2 ] Oxf. LO, possis ABCEPV^H, posse V Asc. 27 quod quaeris XUBM 
Oxf. + Forch. p. 25, qui id q. V l Herv. Dav. Or. Ba. Sch. Mu. Allen, quid q. V. 
29 conivcam edd. after Madv. cf. below 14, contm T, tm LO, contuear MSS 

12 



4 1)E NATURA DEOKUM. 

Quam simile istud sit, in quit, tu videiis. Nam ego neque in 
causis, si quid est evidens, de quo inter omnes conveniat, 
argumentari soleo ; perspicuitas enim argumentation elevatur ; 
nee, si id facerem in causis forensibus, idem facerem in hac 
subtilitate sermonis. Cur coniveres autem altero oculo, causa 5 
non esset, cum idem obtutus esset amborum, et cum rerum 
natura, quam tu sapientem esse vis, duo lumina ab animo ad 
oculos perforata nos habere voluisset. Sed quia non confidebas 
tarn esse id perspicuum, quam tu velles, propterea multis argu- 
mentis deos esse docere voluisti. Milii enim unum sat erat, ita 10 
nobis majores nostros tradidisse. Sed tu auctoritates contemnis, 

10 ratione pugnas. Patere igitur rationem me meam cum tua 
ratione contendere. Affers haec omnia argumenta, cur di sint, 
remque mea sententia mini me dubiam argumentando dubiam 
facis. Mandavi enim memoriae non numeruni solum, sed etiam 15 
ordinem argumentorum tuoruin. Primum fuit, cum caelum 
suspexissemus, statim nos intellegere esse aliquod numen, quo 
haec regantur. Ex hoc illud etiam : 

Aspice hoc sublime candens, quern invocant omnes Jovem. 

11 Quasi vero quisquarn nostrum istum potius quam Capitolinum 20 
Jovem appellet aut hoc perspicuurn sit constetque inter omnes, 
cos esse deos, quos tibi Velleius multique praeterea ne animantes 
quidem esse concedant. Grave etiam argumentum tibi vide- 
batur, quod opinio de dis immortalibus et omnium esset et 
cotidie cresceret. Placet igitur tantas res opinione stultorum 25 
judicari, vobis praesertim, qui illos insanos esse dicatis? V. At 
enim praesentes videmus deos, ut apud Regillum Postumius, in 
Salaria Yatinius ; nescio quid etiam de Locrorum apud Sagram 

generally, et non altero conic earn om. Cobet (Ba. notes that the word is often 
corrupted, as in n 143 conluentibus, Catil. n 27, Leg. Ayr. n 77, Ilarusp. Eesp. 
38 and 52). 

2 de quo inter omnes conveniat, om. Cobet V. L. p. 463. 5 coniveres edd. 

after Madv., contueres ABCPV^B, contuereris EV 2 Oxf. HM + . 9 velles 

edd. after Ern., veils MSS Draeg. 152. 2, see below 20. 12 me meam 

Ed., meam MSS and edd. see Cornm. 19 sublime MSS, sublimen Sell. Or. Ba. 

see on n 4. candens Oxf. [BCEP], cadens AWB. 23 concedant, conce- 

dercnt Kayser. 25 cotidie CV Oxf., cottidie AB, quottidie E. 27 

praesentes V-[ABCE]BOM, praescrtis V 1 Oxf., pracseritis P. 28 ratiniux 



LIB. Ill CAP. IV VI 9 14. 5 

proelio. Quos igitur tu Tyndaridas appellabas, id est homines 
homine natos, et quos Homerus, qui recens ab illorum aetate 
fuit, sepultos esse dicit Lacedaemone, eos tu cantheriis albis 
nullis calonibus ob viam Vatinio venisse existimas et victoriam 

5 populi Komani Vatinio potius, homini rustico, quam M. Catoni, 
qui turn erat princeps, nuntiavisse ? Ergo et illud in silice, 
quod hodie apparet apud Regillum tamquam vestigium ungulae, 
Castoris equi credis esse ? Nonne mavis illud credere, quod 12 
probari potest, animos praeclarorum hominum, quales isti Tyn- 

10 daridae fuerunt, divinos esse et aeternos, quam eos, qui semel 
cremati essent, equitare et in acie pugnare potuisse ? aut, si hoc 
fieri potuisse dicis, doceas oportet, quo modo, nee fabellas aniles 
proferas. Turn Lucilius, An tibi, inquit, fabellae videntur ? 13 
Nonne ab Aulo Postumio aedem Castori et Polluci in foro dedi- 

1 5 catam, nonne senatus consultum de Yatinio vides ? Nam de 
Sagra Graecorum etiam est vulgare proverbium, qui, quae affir- 
mant, certiora esse dicunt quam ilia, quae apud Sagram. His 
igitur auctoribus nonne debes mover! ? Turn Gotta, Rumoribus, 
inquit, mecum pugnas, Balbe, ego autem a te rationes require. 

20 VI. . . .sequuntur, quae futura sunt; effugere enim nemo 14 
id potest, quod futurum est. Saepe autem ne utile quidem est 
scire, quid futurum sit ; miserum est enim nihil proficientem 
angi nee habere ne spei quidem extremum et tamen commune 
solatium, praesertim cum vos idem fato fieri dicatis omnia, quod 

25 autem semper ex omni aeternitate verum fuerit, id esse fatum. 
Quid igitur juvat aut quid affert ad cavendum scire aliquid 
futurum, cum id certe futurum sit ? Unde porro ista divinatio ? 
Quis invenit fissum jecoris ? quis cornicis cantum notavit, quis 

edd. after Heind., Vatienus XBMCR, so Vatieno p. 5 11. 4 and 5 but see on p. 
5 1. 15. Sagram [AV 2 ]M Asc. Oxf., sacram BCEPV ] BO + . 

3 eos tu BM Asc., eos tuq. V, eosq. tuq. Oxf., eos tu quae AC, eosque tu EOUT, 
eos tuque PB. albis PVM Oxf., aluis A, alius CEB, ab Ms BLO. 6 et, 

etiam Ba. 8 credis esse V Oxf. Asc., credidisese A, credissesse B 1 , credi- 

dissesW, credidisse CPUTBHLO, credisse E. 14 ab Aulo GHMC Asc., ab 

Aulio V, aulo XBIO Oxf., A R, paulo H and I of Moser, ab A. edd. 15 Va 

tinio AB ] CV Oxf. B, Vatieno PC, vaticinio E. 16 Sagra Oxf. Asc. M, sacra 

ACEPVBO, sacris B. 17 Sagram BM Oxf. [ABEV], sacram CPO. 19 re- 

quiro BV 2 Oxf. Asc. Mu. Sch., om. ACEV^ Ba. Or. Forch. p. 27. 20 sequun 
tur V 2 Oxf. [Mus. CP], secuntur BV 1 ! Or., recuntur corr. in reguntur A, per- 
cunctor eorum E. 22 scire quod futurum est P. 



DE NATURA DEORTTM. 

sortes ? Quibus ego credo, nee possum Atti Navii, quern com- 
memorabas, lituum conternnere ; sed qui ista intellecta sint, a 
philosophis debeo discere, praesertim cum plurimis de rebus 

15 divini isti mentiantur. At mcdici quoque (ita enim dicebas) 
saepe falluntur. Quid simile medicina, cujus ego rationem 5 
video, et divinatio, quae unde oriatur, non intellego ? Tu autem 
etiam Deciorum devotionibus placatos deos esse censes. Quae 
fuit eorum tanta iniquitas, ut placari populo Romano non 
possent, nisi viri tales occidissent ? Consilium iliud impera- 
torium fuit, quod Graeci crrpari^^^a appellant, sed eorum 10 
imperatorum, qui patriae consulerent, vitae non parcerent ; re- 
bantur enim fore ut exercitus imperatorem equo in citato sc in 
hostem immittentem persequeretur, id quod evenit, Nam 
Fauni vocem equidem numquam audivi ; tibi, si audivisse te 
dicis, credam, etsi Faunus omnino quid sit nescio. r 5 

VII. Non igitur adlmc, quantum quidem in to est, Balbe, 
intellego deos esse ; quos equidem credo esse, sed nibil docent 

16 Stoici. Nam Cleanthes, ut dicebas, quattuor modis formatas in 
animis hominum putat deorum esse notiones. Unus is modus 
est, de quo satis dixi, qui est susceptus ex praesensiorie rerum 20 
futurarum, alter ex perturbation ibus tempestatum et reliquis 
motibus, tertius ex comnioditatc rerum, quas percipimus, et 
copia, quartus ex astrorum ordine caelique constantia. De 
praesensione diximus. De perturbationibus caelestibus et mari- 
timis et terrenis non possumus dicere, cum ea fiant, non esse 25 
multos, qui ilia metuant et a dis immortalibus fieri existiment ; 

17 sed non id quaeritur, sintne aliqui, qui deos esse putent, di 
utrum sint necne sint, quaeritur. Nam reliquae causae, quas 
Cleanthes affert, quarum una est de commodorum, quae capimus, 
copia, altera de temporum ordine caelique constantia, turn 






1 Atti Navii C 2 \ T1 , Atti navi AB^EV^B, Attinavi Oxf. commemomlas 

Oxf. M[V 2 BP] Asc., commorabas ACEV^. 2 intellecta MSS generally, 

intettegenda Oxf. + . sint [P]M, aunt ABCEYB+ , om. Oxf. 4 divini 

GHI Moser s M edcl. after Walker, divini* X Oxf. +. mentiantur C, mcnti- 

untur MSS generally. at, ad AW 1 . 8 placari BEPV 2 Oxf. OM, placeri AV 1 , 

placere CB. t) imperatorium [X]B. imperatorum IMRV Oxf. 10 arpa- 

rriy^fjia Hervag., Lat. MSS. 12 eqno, acquo AV. 14 audivi tibi .si 

[ACVjBM Oxf., audivi tu si THO, audivit Quam si B (Q in ras. ?/ superscr.), 
audivi Bis se E, audivit tu si P. 



LIB. Ill CAP. VI VIII 14 21. 7 

tractabuntur a nobis, cum disputabimus de providentia deorum, 
de qua plurima a te, Balbe, dicta sunt ; eodemque ilia etiam 18 
differemus, quod Chrysippum dicere aiebas, quoniam esset all- 
quid in rerum natura, quod ab homine effici non posset, esse 
5 aliquid homine melius, quaeque in domo pulchra cum pulchri- 
tudine mundi comparabas, et cum totius mundi convenientiam 
consensumque afferebas, Zenonisque breves et acutulas conclu- 
siones in earn partem sermonis, quam modo dixi, differemus, 
eodemque tempore ilia omnia, quae a te physice dicta sunt de 

10 vi ignea deque eo calore, ex quo omnia generari dicebas, loco 
suo quaerentur, omniaque, quae a te nudius tertius dicta sunt, 
cum docere velles deos esse, quare et mundus universus et sol et 
luna et stellae sensum ac mentem haberent, in idem tempus 
reservabo. A te autem idem illud etiam atque etiam quaeram, 19 

15 quibus rationibus tibi persuadeas deos esse. VIII. Turn Balbus : 
Equidem attulisse rationes mihi videor, sed eas tu ita refellis, 
ut, cum me interrogaturus esse videare et ego me ad responden- 
dum compararim, repente avertas orationem nee des respondendi 
locum. Itaque maximae res tacitae praeterierunt, de divina- 

20 tione, de fato, quibus de quaestionibus tu quidem strictim, 
nostri autem multa solent dicere, sed ab hac ea quaestione, 
quae nunc in manibus est, separantur. Quare, si videtur, 
noli agere confuse, ut hoc explicemus hac disputatione, quod 
quaeritur. 

25 Optime, inquit Cotta. Itaque quoniam quattuor in partes 20 
totam quaestionem divisisti de primaque diximus, consideremus 
secundam; quae mihi talis videtur fuisse, ut, cum ostendere 
velles, quales di essent, ostenderes nullos esse. A consuetudine 
enim oculorum animum abducere difficillimum dicebas, sed, 

30 cum deo nihil praestantius esset, non dubitabas, quin mundus 
esset deus, quo nihil in rerum natura melius esset. Modo pos- 
semus eum animantem cogitare vel potius, ut cetera oculis, sic 
animo hoc cernere ! Sed cum mundo negas quicquam esse 21 

11 omniaque quae a te BV 2 Oxf., omnia quaeque a te CB, omnia quae a te 
APV 1 (with d erased after a in AV), omnia que a te E (cf. below 47). 
19 tacitae, tacite ACB Asc. 23 ut MSS generally, et Madv. 28 velles 

BPV 2 Oxf. Asc., veils ACEV^H. See above 9. 29 enim VM Oxf., om. 

ABCEPUBO. 31 quo X, quod Oxf. R Allen. 



8 DE NATUEA DEORUM. 

melius, quid dicis melius ? Si pulchrius, assentior ; si aptius ad 
utilitates nostras, id quoque assentior; sin autem id dicis, nihil 
esse mundo sapientius, nullo modo prorsus assentior, non quod 
difficile sit mentem ab oculis scvocare, sed quo magis sevoco, eo 
minus id, quod tu vis, possum men to comprehendere. IX. Nihil 5 
est mundo melius in rerum natura. Ne in terris quidem 
urbe nostra ; num. igitur idcirco in urbe esse rationem, cogita- 
tionem, mentem putas ? aut, quoniam non sit, nuiii idcirco 
existimas formicam anteponendam esse huic pulcherrimae urbi, 
quod in urbe sensus sit nullus, in formica non modo sensus, sed TO 
etiam inens, ratio, memoria ? Videre oportet, Balbe, quid tibi 

22 concedatur, non te ipsum, quod velis, sumerc. Istum enim 
locum totum ilia vetus Zenonis brevis et, ut tibi videbatur, 
acuta conclusio dilakatum a recentioribus coartavit. Zeno enim 
ita concludit : Quod ratione utitur, id melius est quam id, 15 
quod ratione non utitur ; nihil autem mundo melius ; ratione 

23 igitur mimdus utitur. Hoc si placet, jam efficies, ut mundus 
optime librum legere videatur. Zenonis enim vestigiis hoc 
modo rationem poteris concludere : Quod litteratum est, id est 
melius, quam quod non est litteratum ; nihil autem mundo 20 
melius ; litteratus igitur est mundus. Isto modo etiam disertus 

et quidem mathematicus, musicus, omni denique doctrina eru- 
ditus, postremo philosophus erit mundus. Saepe dixti nihil 
fieri nisi ex eo, nee illain vim esse naturae, ut sui dissimilia 
posset effingere; concedam non modo animantem et sapientem 25 
esse mundum, sed fidicinem etiam et tubicinem, quoniam earum 

I quid dicis melius A 2 Y 2 [BCE], quid dices in. HTP, om. V 1 Oxf. MNCR. 
2 id quoque A 2 (in ras.) [BCEY 2 ] L Oxf., ut quoque PV 1 . 3 quod difficile B 2 

and MSS generally, quo difficile B 1 Ba. (Mu. compares Div. n 150 non quod eo* 
maxime contcmuamus, sed quod videntur, Tusc. u 56 non quod doleant, sed quia 
... corpus contenditur). 12 velis [BCEPV 2 ], vellis AV 1 . 14 dilatatum 

a recentioribus coartavit Ed., dilatavit AW 2 MSS generally, dilatalavit A 2 , dilata 
lacit V 1 , dilatabit Sell. 22 et quidem MSS, atque idem Ba. Sch. after Orelli. 

23 philosop V 1 , filoso A 1 , pliilosoplius A 2 V 2 . erit mundus V marg. ead. m. 

MNCRV Oxf. Mu., om. XGBHILO Ba., in brackets Or. Sch. dixti C Ursinus, 
dixi MSS generally, dixisti CG Eed. 24 -nisi ex eo Heind. Madv. (Adc. n 2-i3) 

Mu. Sch. in App., sine dco MSS generally Or. Sch. Ba. illam Walker Heind. 

Mu. Sch. in App., ullam MSS Or. Ba. 20 fidicinem MSS generally, julicineam 

A, fidicianem V 1 , jlduciorem Oxf., fidicinam C. tubiciuem ABCV Oxf. B, 

tibicinem HIRVEP, cf. n 22. 



LIB. in CAP. vin x 21 25. 9 

quoque artium homines ex eo procreantur ? Nihil igitur affert 
pater iste Stoicorum, quare mundum ratione uti putemus, ne 
cur animantem quidem esse. Non est igitur m undue deus, et 
tamen nihil est eo melius ; nihil est enim eo pulchrius, nihil 
5 salutarius nobis. nihil ornatius aspectu motuque constantius. 
Quodsi mundus universus non est deus, ne stellae quidem, quas 
tu innumerabiles in deorum numero reponebas, quarum te 
cursus aequabiles aeternique delectabant, nee mehercule injuria ; 
sunt enim admirabili incredibilique constantia. Sed non omnia, 24 
10 Balbe, quae cursus certos et constantes habent, ea deo potius 
tribuenda sunt quam naturae. X. Quid Chalcidico Euripo in 
motu identidem reciprocando putas fieri posse constantius ? quid 
freto Siciliensi ? quid Oceani fervore illis in locis, 

Europam Libyamque rapax ubi dividit unda? 

15 Quid ? aestus rnaritimi vel Hispanienses vel Britannici eorumque 
certis temporibus vel accessus vel recessus sine deo fieri non 
possunt ? Vide, quaeso, si omnes motus omniaque, quae certis 
temporibus ordinem suum conservant, divina dicimus, ne terti- 
anas quoque febres et quartanas divinas esse dicendum sit, 

20 quarum reversione et motu quid potest esse constantius ? Sed 
omnium talium rerum ratio reddenda est. Quod vos cum facere 25 
non potestis, tamquam in aram confugitis ad deum. 

Et Chrysippus tibi acute dicere videbatur, homo sine dubio 
versutus et callidus (versutos eos appello, quorum celeriter mens 

25 versatur, callidos autem, quorum, tamquam manus opere, sic 
animus usu concalluit) ; is igitur, Si aliquid est, inquit, quod 
homo efficere non possit, qui id efificit, melior est homine ; homo 
autem haec, quae in mundo sunt, efificere non potest ; qui potuit 

2 ne cur edd. after Lamb., nee cur MSS. 8 delectant Cobet p. 463. 

10 habent [ABCEPJBO, habent vel servant V 2 Oxf. TJCMV, habent vel conservant 
N, om. V 1 . 13 Siciliensi MSS generally, siilicensi AV 1 , sicilicense V 2 . 

fervore coir, exferbore AV. 16 non I^C, nonne AB 2 CEPVB Oxf. + , mini- 

me N. 17 quae om. CEBC. 19 quoque edd. after Lamb., quidem MSS, 

item Muretus. 22 aram [BCE]BO, arama A, aranam V 1 , arenam V 2 Oxf. 

MC, aram aut P, harenam RV, harena N. confugitis HILNCRO 2 , confugistis 

XBMV Oxf. (cf. i 53), fugitis O 1 . 25 quorum concalluit cited in Nonius 

p. 90, Grammat. de gen. nom. n. 58. 27 qui id [BCE]A 2 , quid A^BHO, 

quicquid id V in ras. UMCR Cxf. 



10 DE XATFRA DEOKUM. 

igitur, is pracstat he-mini; homini autcm praestare quis possit 
nisi dens ? est igitur dens. Haec omnia in eodem, quo ilia 

26 Zenonis, errore versantur. Quid enirn sit melius, quid praesta- 
bilius, quid inter naturam et rationem intersit, noil distinguitur. 
Idemque, si di non sint, negat esse in omni natura quicquam 5 
homine melius ; id autcm putare quemquam homincm, nihil 
liomine esse melius, summae arrogantiae censet esse. Sit sane 
arrogantis pluris se putare quam mundum ; at illud non modo 
non arrogantis, sed potius prudentis, intellegere se habere sensum 

et rationem, haec eadem Orionem et Caniculam non habere. 10 
Et : Si domus pulchra sit, intellegamus earn dominis, inquit, 
aedificatam esse, non muribus ; sic igitur mundum deorum 
domum existimare debemus. Ita prorsus existimarem, si ilium 
aedificatum, non (quern ad modum docebo) a natura con 
form at um putarem. 15 

27 XI. At enim quaerit apud Xenopliontem Socrates, unde 
animum. arripuerimus, si nullus fuerit in mundo. Et ego quaere, 
unde oratioriem, unde nurneros, unde cantus ; nisi vero loqui 
solem cum luna putamus, cum propius accesserit, aut ad har- 
moniam canere mundum, ut Pythagoras existimat. Naturae 20 
ista sunt, Balbe, naturae non artificiose ambulantis, ut ait Zeno, 
(quod quidem quale sit, jam videbimus) sed omnia cientis et 

28 agitantis motibus et mutationibus suis. Itaque ilia mihi pla- 
cebat o ratio de convenientia consensuque naturae, quam quasi 
cognatione continuatam conspirare dicebas. Illud non pro- 25 
babam, quod negabas id accidere potuisse, nisi ea uno divino 
ppiritu contineretur. Ilia vero cohaeret et permanet naturae 



1 liomini . liomini [ACEPjV 2 , liomini liomine BBC, liomini s JiominisV 1 , homines 
liominem Oxf. U. 5 idemque A (post ras.) EV 2 Oxf. M, cidemque BCPV J BO. 

nihil liomine esse melius in brackets Or. Ba. after Dav. 10 Orionem BG, 

om. Oxf., oruem H, omtionem other MSS. 11 inqnis Forch. p. 44. 14 aedi 
ficatum ACEPV Oxf. + Or. Ba., aedificatum esse BHL Mu. Sell. a Oxf. 
M[ABV], om. CEPBO. conformation [P] Hervag., confirmatum ABCEV 
Oxf. BHCV + . 17 animum [PV]0. animam ABCEMRVB Oxf. nullus [X], 
nulla BV. 20 naturae ista [CEPV] Oxf., naturae ste A, natura istae B. 
22 cientis [B]C, scientis MSS generally. 25 cognatione continuatam MSS 
generally Allen, cognatione continuata E Sch. Mu. Dav., coqnationem continua 
tam E Or. Ba. Hcind. after Lamb. non probabam MSS generally, non probem 
V 2 MC Oxf. Asc., inprolam V 1 , non probe V, probabam B. 27 contineretur 



LIB. Ill CAP. X XII 2530. 11 

viribus, non deorurn, estque in ea iste quasi consensus, quam 
av/jLTrddeiav Graeci vocant; sed ea, quo sua sponte major est, eo 
minus divina ratione fieri existimanda est. 

XII. Ilia autem, quae Carneades afferebat, quern ad modum 29 
5 dissolvitis ? si null am corpus immortale sit, nullum esse corpus 
sempiternum ; corpus autem immortale nullum esse, ne indi- 
viduum quidem, nee quod dirimi distrahive non possit. Ergo 
itidem, si omne animal secari ac dividi potest, nullum est eorum 
individuum, nullum aeternum. Cumque omne animal patibilem 

10 naturam habeat, nullum est eorum, quod effugiat accipiendi 
aliquid extrinsecus, id est quasi ferendi et patiendi, necessitatem, 
et, si omne animal tale est, immortale nullum est ; atqui omne 
animal ad accipiendam vim externam et ferendam paratum 
est ; mortale igitur omne animal et dissolubile et dividuum sit 

15 necesse est. Ut enim, si omnis cera commutabilis esset, nihil 30 
esset cereum, quod commutari non posset, item nihil argenteum, 
nihil aeneum, si commutabilis esset natura argenti et aeris : 
similiter igitur, si ea, e quibus constant omnia quae sunt, muta- 
bilia sunt, nullum corpus esse potest non mutabile ; mutabilia 

20 autem sunt ilia, ex quibus omnia constant, ut vobis videtur; 
omne igitur corpus mutabile est. At si esset corpus aliquod 
immortale, non esset omne mutabile ; ita efficitur, ut omne 
corpus mortale sit. Etenim omne corpus aut aqua aut aer aut 
ignis aut terra est aut id, quod est concretum ex his aut ex 

25 aliqua parte eorum ; horum autem nihil est, quin intereat. 



XB Oxf. + , continerentur TMRV Heind. Ba. cohaeret permanet MSS gene 

rally, cohaerent permanent Eed. Heind. Ba. 

2 avfjiTradeiait Edd., sympathiam PR, synpathiam ACB, simpatiam B Oxf. V, 
synpatiam EV. 4 ilia MSS generally, illam A^. 5 esse corpus MSS, 

esse animal Ba. after Madv. 7 ergo aeternum after immortale nullum est 

(12) in all MSS and edd., ergo is bracketed by Or. Ba. 12 omne animal 

itidem si (8) om. V 1 Oxf. MCR. tale Heind., om. HG, mortale MSS generally. 

13 ferendam Oxf. MCRVA 2 V 2 Sch., fruendam A^CEPV 1 , femndam Or..Ba. Mu. 
(but all give ferendi in 11). 18 si ea e quibus constant omnia quae sunt Ed., 

si omnia quae sunt e quibus cuncta constant MSS (Mu. brackets quae sunt, Sch. 
would do the same or read si omnia e quibus quae sunt cuncta constant with 
Heind.), si ea e quibus cuncta constant Ba., si omnia e quibus cuncta quae sunt 
constant Dav., si ea ex quibus omnia constant Kayser. 24 his BEP Sch. 

Mu., Us A 1 CVB Or. Ba. 



12 DK XATURA DEOKUM. 

31 Nam et terrcnum omne dividitur, et umor ita mollis est, ut 
facile premi collidique possit; ignis vero et aer omni pulsu 
facillime pellitur naturaque cedens est maxime et dissipabilis. 
Praetereaque omnia haec turn intereunt, cum in naturam aliam 
convertuntur, quod fit, cum terra in aquam se vertit, et cum ex 5 
aqua oritur aer, ex aere aether, cumque eadem vicissini retro 
commeant. Quodsi ea intereunt, e quibus constat omne animal, 

32 nullum est animal sempiternum. XIII. Et ut haec omit- 
tamus, tarn en animal nullum inveniri potest, quod neque natum 
umquam sit et semper sit futurum. Omne enim animal sensus 10 
habet ; sentit igitur et calida et frigida et dulcia et amara, nee 
potest ullo sensu jucunda accipere, non accipere contraria ; si 
igitur voluptatis sensum capit, doloris etiam capit; quod autem 
dolorem accipit, id accipiat etiam interiturn necesse est ; omne 

33 igitur animal confitendum est esse mortale. Praeterea, si quid T 5 
est, quod nee voluptatem sentiat nee dolorem, id animal esse 
non potest ; sin autem, quod animal est, id ilia necesse est 
sentiat, et, quod ea sentit, non potest esse aeternum, et omne 
animal sentit ; nullum igitur animal aeternum est. Praeterea 
nullum potest esse animal, in quo non-et appetitio sit et decli- 20 
natio naturalis ; appetuntur autem, quae secundum naturam 
sunt, declinantur contraria ; et omne animal appetit quaedam 

et fugit a quibusdam ; quod autem refugit, id contra naturam 
est ; et, quod est contra naturam, id habet vim interimendi ; 

34 omne ergo animal intereat necesse est. Innumerabilia sunt, ex 25 
quibus effici cogique possit nihil esse, quod sensum habeat, quin 

id intereat ; etenim ea ipsa, quae sentiuntur, ut frigus, ut calor, 



1 mollis est CEV 2 (Ills est om. V 1 ) Oxf. B, molle est A 2 B 2 PO, mollest A 1 , molest 
B 1 (see Introduction on MSS). 2 premi EPV Oxf. HCV, prami A 1 , 

praemi A 2 BCBMN, comprimi ILO. pulsu MSS generally, impulsu ILOV Sell. 

4 praetereaque ABCPV Oxf. BT, praeterea E + . 6 ex aere ABEPV Oxf. 0, 

et ex aere C, et ex aer B, et cum ex aere M Asc. Sch. 7 intereunt constat. 

HILNOG Bed. edd. after Heind., inter e ant constet X BMCRV Oxf. 17 quod 

annual MSS Or. Ba. Sch., quid animal Heind. Mu. 18 et quod ea sentit Or. 

Ba. Mu., om. CBO, et quod ea sentiat Sch. Oxf. and MSS generally (judging from 
the older edd. Orelli says nothing as to his ABEPV). 27 ut frigus ut calor 

ut voluptas ut dolor ut cetera A 2 BG (ut voluptas ut dolor superscr. in B) and 
(omitting ut before voluptas) A*V Oxf., ut friaus et calor ut voluptas et dolor ut 
cetera E, ut frigus ut calor voluptas ut cetera P. 



LIB. Ill CAP. XII XIV 3136. 13 

ut voluptas, ut dolor, ut cetera, cum amplificata sunt, interi- 
munt ; nee ullum animal est sine sensu ; nullum igitur animal 
aeternum est. XIY. Etenim aut simplex est natura animantis, 
ut vel terrena sit vel ignea vel animalis vel umida (quod quale 
5 sit, ne intellegi quidem potest), aut concretum ex pluribus 
naturis, quarum suum quaeque locum habeat, quo naturae vi 
feratur, alia infimum, alia summum, alia medium. Haec ad 
quoddam tempus cohaerere possunt, semper autem nullo modo 
possunt ; necesse est enim in suum quaeque locum natura 

10 rapiatur. Nullum igitur animal est sempiternum. 

Sed omnia vestri, Balbe, solent ad igneam vim referre, 35 
Heraclitum, ut opinor, sequentes, quern ipsum non omnes inter- 
pretantur uno modo ; qui quoniam quid diceret intellegi noluit, 
omittamus ; vos autem ita dicitis, omnem vim esse ignem, itaque 

15 et animantes, cum calor defecerit, turn interire, et in omni 
natura rerum id vivere, id vigere, quod caleat. Ego autem 
non intellego, quo modo calore exstincto corpora intereant, non 
intereant urn ore aut spirit u amisso, praesertim cum intereant 
etiam nimio calore. Quam ob rem id quidem commune est de 36 

20 calido ; verum tamen videamus exitum. Ita vultis, opinor, 
nihil esse animale extrinsecus in natura atque mundo praeter 
ignem. Qui magis quam praeter animam, unde animantium 
quoque constet animus, ex quo animal dicitur ? Quo modo 
autem hoc, quasi concedatur, sumitis, nihil esse animum nisi 

25 ignem ? probabilius enim videtur tale quiddam esse animum, ut 
sit ex igni atque anima temperatum. Quodsi ignis ex sese ipse 
animal est nulla se alia admiscente natura, quoniam is, cum 



1 interimunt [ABCVjB, interimant MCR Oxf., intereunt EPTO. 3 aut A. 

in ras. B[BCE], ut PV Oxf. R. 5 concretum MSS generally Or., concreta est 

GR Heind., concreta Ba. Mu. after Dav., concretum est Sell. 7 feratur edd. 

after Lamb., efferatur MSS generally. 12 non omnes modo MSS, in brackets 

Ba. (perhaps rightly), non enim omnes modo Vahlen.- 13 qui V (doubtful) 

GUM Oxf. Asc., om. ABCEPBH Ba. diceret intellegi Oxf. M, diceret quod 

intellegi XBO (quod erased in V). 14 ignem MSS generally, igneam L Heind. 

Or. 21 nihil, nullum Eed. animale Lamb. Or. Ba., animal Sch. Mu. 

MSS, exc. animali UTLO, animum Walker. extrinsecus MSS, intrinsecus Or. 

Mu. Ba. Sch. after Bouh., et sentiens Wytt. 23 animal edd. after Lescalop., 

anima MSS generally, omnia E. 24 hoc, by corr. fr. ho AV. 27 animal 

by corr. fr. anima B. 



14. DE XATURA DE011UM. 

iucst in corporibus nostris, efricit, ut sentiamus, non potest ipse 
esse sine sensu. Rursus eadem dici possunt : quicquid est 
onirn, quod sensum habeat, id neccsse est sentiat et voluptatem 
ct dolorem ; ad quern autem dolor veniat, ad eundem etiam 
interituin venire. Ita fit, ut ne ignem quidem efficere possitis 5 

37 aeternum. Quid enim ? 11011 isdcm vobis placet omnem ignem 
pastus indigere nee pernianerc ullo modo posse, nisi alatur ? ali 
autem solem, lunam, reliqua astra aquis, alia dulcibns, alia 
marinis ? Eamque causam Cleanthes affert, 

cur so sol referat noc longius progrediatur 10 

solstitial! orbi 

itemque brumali, ne longius discedat a eibo. Hoc totuni quale 
sit, mox ; nunc autem concludatur illud : quod interire possit, 
id aeternum 11011 esse natura; ignem autem interiturum essc, 
nisi alatur; non esse igitur natura ignem sempiternum. 15 

38 XV. Qualem autem deum intellegere nos possumus nulla 
virtute praeditum ? Quid enim ? prudentiamne deo tribuemus, 
quae constat ex scientia rerum bonarum et malarum et nee 
bonarum nee malarum? Cui mali niliil est nee esse potest, 
quid huic opus est dilectu bonorum et malorum ? quid autem 20 
ratione ? quid intellegentia ? quibus utimur ad earn rem, ut 
apertis obscura assequamur; at obscurum deo nihil potest esse. 
Nam justitia, quae suum cuique distribuit, quid pertinet ad 
dcos? homiimm enim societas et communitas, ut vos dicitis, 
justitiam procreavit. Temperantia autem constat ex praeter- 25 
mittendis voluptatibus corporis, cui si locus in caelo est, est 
etiam voluptatibus. Nam fort is deus intellegi qui potest ? in 
dolore ? an in labore ? an in periculo ? quorum deum nihil 

30 attingit. Nee ratione igitur utentem nee virtute ulla praeditum 
deum intellegere qui possumus ? 30 

Nee vero vulgi atque imperitorum inscitiam despicere pos- 

11 solstitiali [BCEPV 2 ] Oxi ., sulistitiali AV 1 (Orelli gives instances of same 
form in other ancient MSS), solisticiali B. orbi ACPV Oxf. B, orbe BEHNV 

Sch. 16 nos [ABCEP], non V Oxf. HMNR, om. CO. 19 nihil est nee 

csse, nihil esse nee esse VO, nihil esse necesse Oxf. M. 20 dilectu ABEPB 

Oxf. + , delectu CV + . 23 distribuit MSS generally Or. Sch. Mu., tribuit 

E Ba. 27 intellegi qui corr. fr. intcllequi A, om. qui CBC. 31 innci- 

tiain corr. fr. inscitam AV. 



LIB. Ill CAP. XIV XVI 3641. 15 

sum, cum ea considero, quae dicuntur a Stoicis. Sunt enim 
ilia imperitorum : piscem Syri venerantur ; omne fere genus 
bestiarum Aegyptii consecraverunt ; jam vero in Graecia multos 
habent ex hominibus deos, Alabandum Alabandis, Tenedii Ten- 
5 nem, Leucotheam, quae fuit Ino, et ejus Palaemonem filium 
cuncta Graecia; Herculem, Aesculapium, Tyndaridas, Romulum 
nostri aliosque complures, quos quasi novos et ascripticios cives 
in caelum receptos putant. XVI. Haec igitur indocti ; quid 40 
vos philosophi ? qui meliora ? (Omitto ilia ; sunt enim praeclara : 
10 sit sane deus ipse mundus. Hoc credo illud esse 

sublime candens, quern invocant omnes Jovem. 

Quare igitur plures adjungimus deos ? quanta autem est eorum 
multitude ! [Mihi quidem sane multi videntur.] Singulas enim 
stellas numeras deos eosque aut beluarum nomine appellas, ut 

I 5 Capram, ut JVepam, ut Taurum, ut Leonem, aut rerurn inani- 
marum, ut Argo, ut Aram, ut Coronam.) Sed ut haec con- 41 
cedantur, reliqua qui tandem non rnodo concedi, sed omnino 
intellegi possunt ? Cum fruges Cererem, vinum, Liberum dici- 
mus, genere nos quidem sermonis utimur usitato, sed ecquem 

20 tarn amentem esse putas, qui illud, quo vescatur, deum credat 
esse ? Nam quos ab hominibus pervenisse dicis ad deos, tu 
reddes rationem, quern ad modum id fieri potuerit aut cur fieri 
desierit, et ego discam libenter. Quo modo nunc quidem est, 
iion video, quo pacto ille, cui in monte Oetaeo illatae 



4 Alabandis ( AXafiavde s) Bouh. (as G in 50), Alabandi MSS, Alabandei 
Heind. see Comm. Tenedii Marsus, Tenedi MSS, except tenendi A ^IIILN. 

Tennem E Oxf. + , Tennen AB 2 PV, Tenen B^BL. 5 Leucotheam BV 1 , 

Leuchotheam ACEV J B, leuchoteam Oxf. 6 Asclepium C 1 , also in 45, 57, 

83. 7 nostri MG Asc., nostrum XB Oxf. Forch. p. 52. quos, nostri 

Forch. ib. 8 quid vos philosophi, qui philosophi duos P. 11 sublime 

MSS, sublimen Or. Ba. after Kitscbl, see above 10. 13 mild videntur, see 

Comm. 14 numeras appellas, numeratis appellatis HGU, numeramus 

appellamus Halm. eosque, easque PUTNV. 15 Nepam Ursinus, lupam 

MSS generally, lupum G Ked. + . inanimarum ABW 1 , inanimatarum B 2 V 2 E 

Oxf. HLM + , animarum CB. 19 ecquem edd. after Lamb., haecquem X 

(except hecquem E) BM Oxf., eccum quern C, die quern E, hie quern V, see on 
i 80. 22 reddes XBHL, redde V 2 0xf., redda* Sch. id [BEPV^O, idem 

ACV 2 Oxf. B + . 24 Oetaeo illatae CBM, moetaeo ill. AEPV, metaeo ill. B, 

metaoemlate Oxf. (Perhaps the archetype may have had in montcm Oetaeum.} 



in 1)E XATUilA DEORUM. 

lampades fuerunt, ut ait Accius, c in domum aeternam 
patris ex illo ardore pervenerit ; quern tamen Homerus apud 
inferos conveniri facit ab Ulixe, sicut ceteros, qui excesserant 

42 vita. Quamquam, quern potissimum Herculem colamus, scire 
sane velim ; plures enim tradunt nobis ii, qui interiores scru- 5 
tantur et reconditas litteras : antiquissimum Jove natum, sed 
item Jove antiquissimo ; (nam Joves quoque plures in priscis 
Graecorum litteris invenimus) ; ex eo igitur et Lysithoe est is 
Hercules, quern concertavisse cum Apolline de tripode acce- 
pimus. Alter traditur Nilo natus Aegyptius, quern aiuiit Phry- 10 
gias litteras conscripsisse. Tertius est ex Idaeis Digitis, cui 
inferias afferunt Coi. Quartus Jovis est et Asteriae, Latonae 
sororis, qui Tyri maxime colitur, cujus Karthaginem filiam 
ferunt. Quintus in India, qui Belus dicitur. Sextus hie ex 
Alcmena, quern Juppiter genuit, sed tertius Juppiter, quoniam, 1 5 
ut jam docebo, plures Joves etiam accepimus. 

53 XXI. Dicamus igitur, Balbe, oportet contra illos etiam, qui 
hos deos ex hominum genere in caelum translates non re, sed 
opinione esse dicunt, quos auguste omnes sancteque veiieramur. 
Principio Joves tres numerant ii, qui theologi nominantur, ex 20 
quibus primum et secundum natos in Arcadia, alterum patre 
Aethere, ex quo etiam Proserpinam natam ferunt et Liberum, 
alterum patre Caelo, qui genuisse Minervam dicitur, quam prin- 
cipem et invcntricem belli ferunt, tertium Cretensem, Saturni 
filium, cujus in ilia insula sepulcrum ostenditur. kioa-Kovpou 25 
etiam apud Graios multis modis nominantur : primi tres, qui 

1 fuerint BCEV Oxf. BM Sch. Mu., fucrunt AO Or. Ba. (printed as part of 
quotation by edd. I have followed Ribbeck). aeternam MSS generally, 

aetheriam A. 4 vita quamquam [BCEV]BO (and with ta in ras.) A, vix 

aquam quam P, vix aliquem H, juxta aquam N. 8 Lysithoe edd. after 

Creuzer, lysithoE, lijsito ACPVB, lisito E Oxf. LM + . 9 Hercules Oxf. 

[BCPV-], Her culls AY 1 . 12 Coi. Quartus Jac. Gronov. Ba. prob. Mu., cui 

quartus X Oxf. BH+, quartus MCRV Or. Sch., Cr&tes. Quartus Dav. et 

Asteriae CO edd. after Heind., astcrlae MSS generally. 13 Karthaginem [BP] 

Oxf. H, Carthaginem A, Cartaginem CVB + , Kartaginem E (below 91 Kartha;/. 
[CP], Carthay. ABV, Kartay. E). 16 accepimus [CE]V 2 Oxf., accipimm 

ABPV 1 (cf. 47). 17 dicamus 53 revertamur 60 transposed by Ed. 

see Comm. 18 hos MSS, eos Or. Ba. 20 ii [ACEV], hi BP. 25 Aw- 
crKovpoi, Dioscuroe R, diescoure 0, dioscorce AV 2 M, dioscorte CEV^ Oxf., dio- 
sc jree B 1 (-ae B 2 ), dioscoride V marg., dioscoridae PHLV. 



LIB. in CAP. xvi, xxi, xxii 41, 42, 53 55. 17 

appellantur Anactes Athenis, ex rege Jove antiquissimo et 
Proserpina nati, Tritopatreus, Eubuleus, Dionysus ; secundi Jove 
tertio nati et Leda, Castor et Pollux ; tertii dicuntur a non 
nullis Alco, Melampus, Eviolus, Atrei filii, .qui Pelope natus 
5 fuit. Jam Musae primae quattuor Jove altero natae et..., 54 
Thelxinoe, Aoede, Arche, Melete ; secundae Jove tertio et Mne 
mosyne procreatae novem ; tertiae Piero natae et Antiopa, quas 
Pieridas et Pierias solent poe tae appellare, isdem nominibus et 
eodem numero, quo proximae superiores. Cumque tu Solem, 

10 quia solus esset, appellatum esse dicas, Soles ipsi quam multi a 
theologis proferuntur ! IJnus eorum Jove natus, nepos Aetheris, 
alter Hyperione, tertius Vulcano, Nili filio, cujus urbem Ae- 
gyptii volunt esse earn, quae Heliopolis appellatur, quartus is, 
(quern heroicis temporibus Acanto Rhodi peperisse dicitur, 

15 lalysi, Camiritinde Rhodi, "f 1 quintus, qui Colchis fertur Aeetam 
et Circam procreavisse. XXII. Vulcani item complures, primus 55 
Caelo natus, ex quo et Minerva Apollinem eum, cujus in tutela 

1 Anactes MSS generally, dW/ces Swainson, Anaces Sch. Mu. after Victorias. 
2 Tritopatreus Oxf. MRV, trito patreus X B, Tritopatores, Zagreus Hemsterhuis, 
Tritopatores, Triptolemus Einck. Eubuleus Oxf. [ABCEP], eubulaeus V. 

Dionysus edd. after Dav., dionysius MSS (with i or y). secundi, secundi duo 

C Eeg. Sch. Swainson with Dav. and Heind. 4 Alco et Melampus edd. and MSS 

generally, om. et A. Eviolus CPVMR, oviolus A, oivolos B by corr., evio Us Oxf. , 
emolus EBILV, et Emolus C, et Tmolus edd. after Dav. 5 Jove altero natae 

et... Thelxinoe Aoede Ed., natae Jove altero nata Aethei xinoneoede A, n. J. a. 
n. et theixinoneoede B (ex corr.) VM, n. J. a. n. et teximus eo ede Oxf., n. J. a. et 
theixi neoe de P, nate J. a. nate et thei xinone cede CBE (except that E has, 
after 2nd nate, ethei xinoneoe de), natae J. a. Thelxinoe Aoede Heind., n. J. a. 
et Neda Thelx. Aoede Creuzer, n. J, a. et...Thelx. Aoede. Klotz, J. a. natae 
Thelx. Aoede Mu. Sch. Or. Ba. 6 Mnemosyne [BP], nemosine E Oxf. BMR+ , 

nemo sine A (in ras.) CV. 7 tertiae edd. after Gronov., tertiae Jove tertio 

MSS generally. Piero, Pierio PHV. 8 Pierias C, plerias ABEB Oxf., 

proelias PO, pleridas V. 9 quo [BEP], quos ACVB Oxf. proximae 

IM Heind. Mu. after Mars. Victor. Lamb. &c. (see on u 53), proxime or proxume 
MSS Or. Ba. Sch. 10 appellatum [ACEP], appellatus BVM Oxf. 14 quern 
[X] Oxf., cui Dav. Creuz. Swainson, qui LMCR. Acanto Ehodi, acantor 

hodi ABCV, Achanto rhodi E, acantii rhodi P, see Eng. MSS and Comm. 15 

lalysi cameritinder hodi MSS with slight variations, Idly sum Camirum Lindum 
Victorius Hervag., avum lalysi Cameri et Lindi et Ehodo Mars, and (with 
Rliodi for et Eli.) Thanner., pater lalysi Gamin et Lindi Dav. Aeetam, 

aetam ABCPV, oetam EMV. 16 Circam MSS generally, Circem EV, Circen 

R. 17 Apollinem eum, Apollinum is Dav. 

M. C. III. 



18 DE NATURA DEORUM. 

Athenas antiqui historic! esse voluerunt, secundus Nilo natus, 
Phth&s, ut Aegyptii appellant, quern custodem esse Aegypti 
volunt, tertius ex tertio Jove et Junone, qui Lemni fabricae 
traditur praefuis.se, quartus Mcmalio natus, qui tenuit insulas 

56 propter Sicilian!, quae Vulcaniae nominabantur. Mercurius 5 
unus Caelo patre, Die matre natus, cujus obscenius excitata 
natura traditur, quod aspectu Proserpinae commotus sit, alter 
Valentis et Phoronidis films, is qui sub terris habetur idem Tro- 
plionius, tertius Jove tertio natus et Maia, ex quo et Penelopa 
Pana iiatum ferunt, quartus Nilo patre, quern Aegyptii nefas 10 
habent nominare, quintus, quern colunt Pheneatae, qui Argum 
dicitur interemisse ob eamque causam Aegyptum profugisse 
atque Aegyptiis leges et litteras tradidisse. Hunc Aegyptii 
Theuth appellant, eodemque nomine anni primus mensis apud 

57 eos vocatur. Aesculapiorum primus Apollinis, quern Arcades 15 
colunt, qui specillum invenisse primusque vulnus dicitur obli- 
gavisse, secundus secundi Mercurii frater ; is fulmine percussus 
dicitur humatus esse Cynosuris ; tertius Arsippi et Arsinoae, 
qui primus purgationem alvi dentisque evulsionem, ut ferunt, 
invenit, cujus in Arcadia non loirge a Lusio flumine sepulcrum 20 
et lucus ostenditur. XXIII. Apollinum antiquissimus is, quern 
paulo antea e Vulcano natum esse dixi, custodem Athenarum, 
alter Corybantis films, natus in Greta, cujus de ilia insula cum 
Jove ipso certamen fuisse traditur, tertius Jove tertio natus et 
Latona, quern ex Hyperboreis Delphos ferunt advenisse, quartus 25 
in Arcadia, quern Arcades Nd/uov appellant, quod ab eo se leges 

1 Athenas, Athenae sunt Forch. p. 53. Nilo MRV, in Nilo MSS generally. 

2 Phthas Gale (Iambi. Myst. vin 3), opas ABPV Oxf. + , opos CB, opis E, 
Apis C. 4 Memalio MSS generally, see Comm. 5 nominantur Lamb., 

perhaps text may be due to dittogr. of na. 8 Phoronidis P Oxf. HR + , 

foronidis ABCVB + , foronidos E, Coronidis edd. after Dav. 9 Maia [CEP], 

mala ABVB Oxf. Penelopa Pana natum A^BCEV] Oxf., Pen. natum A 2 THLNO, 
Penelopam natam P. 11 A-ryum [A 2 BCE]BO, argentum A. 1 PV Oxf. HM. 

12 Aegyptum profugisse [CE]B, in Acg. prof. Lact. i 6, Ba., Aegyptum profuisse 
AB 1 V 1 , Aegypto praefuisse B-PV 2 LN + , Aegyptum praefuisse Oxf. MR. 13 

Aeyyptiis corr. ex Aegyptis AV. Aegyptii [PA 2 ], Aegypti A^CEV. 

14 Theuth edd. (from Plato), tlieyn AE, theinE l PL+, tlieunW, theyr CVBM, 
their CR Oxf. + , Thoijth Lact. 1. c. , Theutatem Herv. 17 Mercurii A 2 C 2 [EPV], 
Hercuri A^C 1 . 18 Cynosuris [BP], gynosuris ACEB Oxf., ginosuris "V^M, 

cinosuria V V. 26 Xo/xtoj/. Huet, nomionem MSS generally. 



LIB. in CAP. xxn, xxin 55 60. 19 

ferunt accepisse. Dianae item plures, prima Jovis et Proser- 58 
pinae, quae pinnatum Cupidinem genuisse dicitur, secunda 
notior, quam Jove tertio et Latona natam accepimus, tertiae 
pater Upis traditur, Glance mater; earn saepe Graeci Upim 
5 paterno nomine appellant. Dionysos multos habemus, primum 
Jove et Proserpina natum, secundum Nilo, qui Nysam dicitur 
interemisse, tertium Cabiro patre, eumque regem Asiae prae- 
fuisse dicunt, cui Sabazia sunt instituta, quartum Jove et Luna, 
cui sacra Orphica putantur confici, quintum Niso natum et 

10 Thyone, a quo Trieterides constitutae putantur. Venus prima 59 
Caelo et Die nata, cujus Eli delubrum vidimus, altera spuma 
procreata, ex qua et Mercurio Cupidinem secundum natum 
accepimus, tertia Jove nata et Diona, quae nupsit Yulcano, sed 
ex ea et Marte natus Anteros dicitur, quarta Syria Cyproque 

15 concepta, quae Astarte vocatur, quam Adonidi nupsisse proditum 
est. Minerva prima, quam Apollinis matrem supra diximus, 
secunda orta Nilo, quam Aegyptii Saitae colunt, tertia ilia, 
quam a Jove generatam supra diximus, quarta Jove nata et 
Coryphe, Oceani filia, quam Arcades Koplav nominant et 

20 quadrigarum inventricem ferunt, quinta Pallantis, quae patrem 
dicitur interemisse virginitatem suarn violare conantem, cui 
pinnarum talaria affigunt. Cupido primus Mercurio et Diana 60 
prima natus dicitur, secundus Mercurio et Venere secunda, 
tertius, qui idem est Anteros, Marte et Venere tertia. Atque 

25 haec quid em aliaque ejus modi ex vetere Graeciae fama collecta 
sunt, quibus intellegis resistendum esse, ne perturbentur reli- 
giones. Vestri autem non modo haec non refellunt, verum 

1 accepisse, accipisse BE. 3 tertiae pater natum accepimus 59, om. CB. 
tertiae pater, tertia e patre E, tertia patre B 2 . 4 saepe Graeci, Graeci saepe 

UT Sch. 6 Nysam, see Comm. 7 Cabiro Jac. Gronov., caprio ABEPCV 

Oxf., capryo V. 8 cui Sabazia Manut., cujus abazea AEMR Oxf. +, cujus 

abazaea BPV. 9 confici corr. ex confeci AV. Niso, Nyso Swainson. 

11 Eli delubrum B^MV Ba., elidelubrum AV, elidulubrum Oxf., helis delubrum 
E, heli d. B 2 , Elide delubrum Or. Sch. Mu. 13 accepimus, accipimus P. 

14 Syria, sitia V 2 , sirio Oxf. Cyproque V 1 Creuzer, cyroque ABCPVBHO, 

tyroque E, siroque Oxf. 17 Saitae edd. after Mars., salaetae A, saletae 

BC, salete EVMCR + , solete Oxf., saletem P. 18 a Jove ABCP, jove 

EV Oxf. Sch. 19 Kopiav Or. Ba. Mu., Corian AB 2 CEVB3V[R, Coriam Oxf. + 

Sch. 24 qui idem est edd. after Dav., quidem est MSS. 25 aliaque edd. 

after Dav., atque V Oxf. MCR + , et B 2 , om. AB 1 CEPBH + , cf. 62 p. 24. 

22 



20 DE NATURA DEORUM. 

etiam confirmant interpretando, quorsum quicque pertineat. 
Sed eo jam, unde hue digress! sumus, revertamur. 

43 XVII. Quando enim me in hunc locum deduxit oratio, 
docebo meliora me didicisse de colendis dis immortalibus jure 
pontificio et more majorum capedunculis iis, quas Numa nobis 5 
reliquit, de quibns in ilia aureola oratiuncula dicit Laelius, 
quam rationibus Stoicorum. Si enim vos sequar, die, quid ei 
respondeam, qui me sic roget : Si di sunt isti, suntne etiam 
Nymphae deae ? Si Nymphae, Panisci etiam et Satyri. Hi 
autem non sunt ; ne Nymphae [deae] quidem igitur. At earum 10 
templa sunt publice vota et dedicata. Ne ceteri quidern ergo 
di, quorum templa sunt dedicata. Age porro, Jovem et Nep- 
tunum deum numeras; ergo etiam Orcus, frater eorum, deus, 

et illi, qui fluere apud inferos dicuntur, Acheron, Cocytus, 

44 Pyriphlegethon, turn Charon, turn Cerberus di putandi. At id 15 
quidem repudiandum, Ne Orcus quidem igitur. Quid dicitis 
ergo de fratribns ? Haec Carneades aiebat, non ut deos tolleret 
(quid enim philosopho minus conveniens ?), sed ut Stoicos nihil 
de dis explicare convinceret ; itaque insequebatur. Quid enim ? 
aiebat, Si hi fratres sunt in numero deorum, num de patre 20 
eorum Saturno negari potest, quern valgo maxime colunt ad 
occidentem ? Qui si est deus, patrem quoque ejus Caelum esse 
deum confitendum est. Quod si ita est, Caeli quoque parentes 

di habendi sunt, Aether et Dies, eorumque fratres et sorores, 
qui a genealogis antiquis sic nominantur, Amor, Dolus, Morbus, 25 
Metus, Labor, Iiividentia, Fatum, Senectus, Mors, Tenebrae, 
Miseria, Querella, Gratia, Fraus, Pertinacia, Parcae, Hesperides, 
Somnia, quos omnes Erebo et Nocte natos ferunt. Aut igitur haec 

3 quando enim, see on p. 16 1. 17. 5 iis edd., his BTJTIL, is N, om. 

ACEPV Oxf. BH + . 8 isti Ed., om. MSB and edd., see Comm. 9 Pa- 

nisei A X BPV Oxf. MO, Panes CEBC. et om. VTM Oxf. 10 deae quidem 

ABCPV Oxf. + , quidem E Allen Or. Ba. Sch. (deae in brackets Mu.), quidem 
deae HG + Heind., deae I Asc. 13 deum MBS generally, before Jovem IL 

(should it come after Jovem?), deos CG Eeg. Heind. Swainson. 15 Pyri- 

phlegethon X BNC Oxf., Styx Plileg. GH Asc. Mars. Heind. 17 aiebat B-[P]0. 

acjelat B 1 and MBS generally, see below 1. 20 in English MBS. 21 negari MBS 

generally, id negari HG and three of Moser. (Has id been lost between mini and 
de in previous line?) 25 morbus metus Ed., morbus cod. Buslid. (cited by 

Gronov.) Or. Ba., metus NCRVjU Sch. Mu., modus ABCEPV^HILO. motus V 2 Oxf. 
MV. 



LIB. in CAP. xxin, xvii, xvin 60, 43 47. 21 

monstra probandajsunt aut prima ilia tollenda. XVIII. Quid ? 45 
Apollinem, Vulcanum, Mercurium, ceteros deos esse dices, de 
Hercule, Aesculapio, Libero, Castore, Polluce dubitabis ? At 
hi quidem coluntur aeque atque illi, apud quosdam etiain multo 
5 magis. Ergo hi di sunt habendi mortalibus nati matribus ? 
Quid ? Aristaeus, qui olivae dicitur inventor, Apollinis nlius, 
Theseus Neptuni, reliqui, quorum patres di, non erunt in deorum 
numero ? Quid, quorum matres ? Opinor, etiam magis. Ut enim 
jure civili, qui est matre libera, liber est, item jure naturae, qui 

10 dea matre est, deus sit necesse est. Itaque Achillem Astypa- 
laeenses insulani sanctissime colunt ; qui si deus est, et Orpheus 
et Rhesus di sunt, Musa matre nati, nisi forte maritimae nuptiae 
terrenis anteponuntur. Si hi di non sunt, quia nusquam colun 
tur, quo modo illi sunt ? Vide igitur, ne virtutibus hominum 46 

15 isti honores habeantur, non irnrnortalitatibus ; quod tu quoque, 
Balbe, visus es dicere. Quo modo autem potes, si Latonam 
deam putas, Hecatam non putare, quae matre Asteria est, 
sorore Latonae ? An haec quoque dea est ? vidimus enim ejus 
aras delubraque in Graecia. Sin haec dea est, cur non Eu- 

20 menides ? Quae si deae sunt, quarum et Athenis fanum est et 
apud nos, ut ego interpreter, lucus Furinae, Furiae deae sunt, 
speculatrices, credo, et vindices facinorum et sceleris. Quodsi 47 
tales di sunt, ut rebus humanis intersint, Natio quoque dea 
putanda est, cui, cum fana circumimus in agro Ardeati, rern 

6 olivae MSS generally, olive AC, olivi conj. Olivetus. 7 Theseus Cod. 

Med. of Dav., Theseus qui A^CEPV^ + , Theseusque V 1 Oxf. R, Theseus quid A 2 . 
9 jure edd. after Walker, in jure MSS. 10 dea matre [CP]A 2 B 2 V 2 Oxf., 

deae matre V 1 and probably A 1 B 1 , dea e E. Astypalaeenses Dav., astipa- 

linses BE, astipalenses C, astypalisnse AP, astypalis n se C, astypalis non 
se B, astipallisnse V (with n erased), astipalinse Oxf. 11 sanctissime 

colunt BCB Oxf. and (with erasion of one letter before col.) V, sanctissimu 
ecolunt A, sanctissimum colunt ETHLVO, sanctissimae colunt P. 12 et 

Rhesus [BEP], et hesus ACV^, et Theseus V 2 Oxf. MNCRV. maritimae BCE, 
maritumae AV, maritum hae P. 15 honores [CV] Oxf., honoris ABEP. 

immortalitatibus MSS generally, immortalibus A X LNVO. . 17 Hecatam [P], 

haecatam ABCV, heccatam Oxf., hecatem EM + . 19 cur non Eumenides 

Furiae deae sunt MSS Seh. Mu., Madv. followed by Or. Ba. omits quae si deae 
sunt (20) and Furiae (21), see Comm. 20 fanum [BP]V 2 Oxf.,/anws ACV^, 

fannus E (arch. prob./a?m st). 21 lucus [AB 2 EV] Oxf., locus CB, lucos PO, 

locos L. Furinae erased in B. 22 sceleris MSS, scelerum G Heind. Sch f 



22 DE NATURA DEORUM. 

divinam facere solemus ; quae quia partus matronarum tueatur, 
a nascentibus Natio nominata est. Ea si dea est, di omnes illi, 
qui commemorabantur a te, Honos, Fides, Mens, Concordia, 
ergo etiam Spes, Moneta omniaque, quae cogitatione nobismet 
ipsi possumus fingere. Quod si veri simile non est, ne illud 5 
quidem est, haec unde fluxerunt. XIX. Quid an tern dicis, si 
di sunt illi, quos colimus et accepimus, cur nori eoclem in 
genere Serapim Isimque numeremus ? quod si facimus, cur 
barbarorum deos repudiemus ? Boves igitur et equos, ibes, 
accipitres, aspidas, crocodiles, pisces, canes, lupos, faeles, multas i 
praeterea beluas in deorum numerum reponemus. Quae si 

48 rejicimus, ilia quoque, unde haec nata sunt, rejiciemus. Quid 
deinde ? Ino dea ducetur et Leucothea a Graecis, a nobis 
Matuta dicetur, cum sit Cadmi filia, Circe autem et Pasiphae 

et Aeeta e Perseide, Oceani filia, nati, patre Sole, in deorum 15 
numero non habebuntur ? quamquam Circen quoque coloni 
nostri Circeienses religiose colunt. Ergo hanc deam duces ? 
quid Medeae respondebis, quae duobus dis avis, Sole et Oceano, 
Aeeta patre, matre Idyia procreata est? quid hnjus Absyrto 
fratri, qui est apud Pacuvium Aegialeus? scd illud nomen 20 
vcterum litteris usitatius. Qui si di non sunt, vereor, quid 

49 agat Ino ; haec enim omnia ex eodem fonte fluxerunt. An 
Amphiaraus erit deus et Trophonius ? Nostri quidem publicani, 

1 tueatur B 2 [ACPV], tuetur B^. 4 omniaque quae [BEPV] Oxf. 0, 

omnia quaeque AC (cf. 18). 5 ipsi edd. after Dav., Ipsis X Oxf. B+. 

7 accepimus NVO Ked., accipimus X Oxf. cf. 42, 59. in MSS generally, 

om. EHMRV, before eodem Oxf. 9 et equos MSS generally, etquos A 1 , equos 

Heind. Forchhammer p. 30. Hat V - 2 , ibis B, ibi AE^B, ill C. 10 

accipitres in ras. V, accipitros AP. aspidas, aspides C. crocodiles B, 

crocodillos ACEV ] B, crocodriUos V 2 C, corcodrillos P, cocodillos Oxf. see n 124. 
11 numerum X BM + , numero HILN Oxf. 12 rejicimus Ed., rejiciamus MSS 

and edd., see Comm. 13 ducetur ACTV^B, dicetur BEPV 2 Oxf. + . 14 

Pasiphae et Aeeta e Perseide edd,, pasiphae et eae e perside ACV, pasiplieae et 
heae e perside B, pasiplia et eace perside Oxf., pasiplic et eae perside B, pasiplie 
et ee e perside E, pasiplie et etae eperside P. 15 filia nati edd. after Sch., 

fiUae natae MSS generally, see Comm. 10 Circen [PV] Oxf., circem ABCEBMON 
(Gircam above 54). 17 Circeienses edd., circienses ARV Oxf., cernemes 

CPVB^C, cercenses B 2 , circenses E. duces A 1 , duds E 1 CEV 1 B, dices B 2 , 

dicis A 2 PV 2 Oxf. + . 18 duobus dis Ed. after Allen, duobus edd. and MSS. 

19 Aeeta patre matre Idyia 5 of Moser s MSS edd. after Camerar., et a patre 
i<itri dula MSS generally. Absyrto, alsyrtio MSS generally. 



LIB. Ill CAP. XVIII XX 47 51. 23 

cum essent agri in Boeotia deorum immortalium except! lege 
censoria, negabant immortales esse ullos, qui aliquando homines 
fuissent. Sed si sunt hi di, est certe Erechtheus, cujus Athenis 
et delubrum vidimus et sacerdotem. Quern si deum facimus, 
5 quid aut de Codro dubitare possumus aut de ceteris, qui pug- 
nantes pro patriae libertate ceciderunt ? quod si probabile non 
est, ne ilia quidem superiora, unde haec manant, probanda sunt. 
Atque in plerisque civitatibus intellegi potest augendae virtutis 50 
gratia, quo libentius rei publicae causa periculum adiret optimus 

10 quisque, virorum fortium memoriam honore deorum immorta 
lium consecratam. Ob earn enim ipsam causam Erechtheus 
Athenis filiaeque ejus in numero deorum sunt ; itemque Leo 
natarum est delubrum Athenis, quod Aeco/copiov, id est Leonati- 
cum, nominatur. Alabandenses quidem sanctius Alabandum 

15 colunt, a quo est urbs ilia condita, quam quemquam nobilium 
deorum ; apud quos non inurbane Stratonicus, ut multa, cum 
quidam ei molestus Alabandum deum esse confirmaret, Hercu- 
lem negaret : ( Ergo , inquit, mihi Alabandus, tibi Hercules sit 
iratus! XX. Ilia autem, Balbe, quae tu a caelo astrisque 51 

20 ducebas, quam longe serpant, non vides ? Solem deum esse 
Lunamque, quorum alterum Apollinem Graeci, alteram Dianam 
putant. Quodsi Luna dea est, ergo etiam Lucifer ceteraeque 
errantes numerum deorum obtinebunt ; igitur etiam merrantes. 
Cur autem Arqui species non in deorum numero reponatur? 

25 est enim pulcher; et ob earn causam, quia speciem habeat 
admirabilem, Thaumante dicitur Iris esse nata. Cujus si divina 

2 ullos, illos P. 3 sunt hi di BE, sunt di A 1 , sunt id V 1 , sunt ii dii C, 

hi sunt di PUT, sunt hii di A 2 , sunt hi dii V 2 . Erechtheus [CP], erectheus 

AB, eratheus V Oxf. , eritheus ETV. 8 augendae, acuendae Lact. i 15. 

12 filiaeque BPV 2 A 2 , iliaeque A 1 , illiaeque CV 1 , illi aeque B, filie eque Oxf. 
Leo natarum Lamb., Leonaticum MSS generally, with obelus Or. Ba., Leontidum 
V x Sch., Leoidum Wytt. 13 AeuKopiov, in Latin letters MSS and edd. id 

est Leonaticum nominatur Ed., nominatur MSS and edd. 14 Alabandenses 

[C]V 2 Oxf. MB, alabandensis ABP, alabandenshis V 1 , alabandensus E, cf. 39. 

24 Arqui A. 1 PV 1 OTL, arcui B Oxf. , arcuis Charisius p. 117. 16 (Keil), arcus A 2 V 2 H + , 
arci CE Priscian vi 14. 74, arei B. reponatur, ponatur Charis. 1. c. 

25 causam quia speciem V l edd. after Lamb., speciem quia causam MSS. habeat 
MSS Mu., habet Or. Ba. Sch. after Ernesti. 26 Iris edd. after Ant. Augus- 
tinus, om. MSS. nata MSS generally (but A has last letter in ras. ), natus 
CG Asc. 



24 DE NATURA DEORUM. 

natura est. quid facies nubibus ? Arcus enim ipse e nubibus 
efficitur quodam modo coloratis ; quarurn una etiam Centauros 
peperisse dicitur. Quodsi nubes rettuleris in deos, referendae 
certe erunt tempestates, quae populi Roman! ritibus consecratae 
sunt. Ergo imbres, nimbi, procellae, turbines di putandi. 5 
Nostri quidem duces mare ingredientes immolare hostiam ftucti- 
52 bus consuerunt. Jam si est Geres a gerendo (ita enirn dicebas), 
terra ipsa dea est et ita habetur ; quae est enim alia Tellus ? 
Sin terra, mare etiam, quern Neptunum esse dicebas ; ergo et 
flumina et fontes Itaque et Fontis delubrum Maso ex Corsica 10 
dedicavit, et in augurum precatione Tiberinnm, Spinonem, 
Almonem, Nodinum, alia propinquorum fluminum nomina vide- 
mus. Ergo hoc aut in immensum serpet, aut nihil horum 
recipiemus, nee ilia infinita ratio superstitionis probabitur. 
Nihil ergo horum probandum est. 15 

61 XXIV. .Num censes igitur subtiliore ratione opus esse ad 
haec refellenda? Nam mentem, fidem, spem, virtutem, hono- 
rem, victoriam, salutem, concordiam ceteraque ejus modi rerum 
vim habere videmus, non deorum. Aut enim in nobismet 
insunt ipsis, ut mens, ut spes, ut fides, ut virtus, ut concordia, 20 
aut optandae nobis sunt, ut honos, ut salus, ut victoria; quarum 
rerum utilitatem video, video etiam consecrata simulacra ; 
quare autem in iis vis deorum insit, turn intellegam, cum cog- 
novero. Quo in genere vel maxim e est fortuna numeranda, 
quam nemo ab inconstantia et temeritate sejunget, quae digna 25 

62 certe non sunt deo. Jam vero quid vos ilia delectat explicatio 
fabularum et enodatio nominum ? Exsectum a filio Caelum, 
vinctum itidem a filio Saturnum, haec et alia generis ejusdem 
ita defenditis, ut ii, qui ista finxerunt, non modo non insani, 

2 coloratis edd. after Dav., coloratus MSS. 7 consuerunt, consueverunt 

EHLN Sch. jam [B]P, tarn CEVBHM, turn A in ras. 9 mare BGH, 

mater ACEPVBM Oxf. + . 10 Maso edd. after Ant. Augustinus, Marso MSS 

generally. 12 Almonem edd. after Ursinus, anemoncm MSS generally, anl- 

enem C 2 R Lamb. Swainson. 13 horum CEV-BMO, Jiouorum ABV 1 , bonontm 

P. 18 ejus modi MSS generally, hujus m. BIL + . 19 aut enim [ABCE] 

Oxf. V 2 , autem enim PV 1 . 21 ut salus ut [X], salus H Oxf. 22 utili 

tatem video video [X] edd. after Victorius, utilitate video MCRV Oxf. 23 in 

iis CV Or. Ba. Mu., in his BEP Sch. 26 explicatio [BEP]V 2 MO Oxf., 

ejcplacatio A in ras. V 1 , explanatio CB. 



LIB. in CAP. xx, xxiv, xxv 51, 52, 61 64. 25 

sed etiam fuisse sapientes videantur. In enodandis autem 
nominibus, quod miserandum sit, laboratis. Saturnus, quia se 
saturat annis, Mavors, quia magna vertit, Minerva, quia minuit 
aut quia minatur, Venus, quia venit ad omnia, Ceres a gerendo. 
5 Quam periculosa consuetude ! In multis enim nominibus haere- 
bitis. Quid Vejovi facies, quid Vulcano ? quamquam, quoniam 
Neptunum a nando appellatum putas, nullum erit nomen, quod 
non possis una littera explicare unde ductum sit ; in quo quidem 
magis tu mini natare visas es quam ipse Neptunus. Magnam 63 

10 molestiam suscepit et minime necessariam primus Zeno, post 
Cleanthes, deinde Chrysippus, commenticiarum fabularum red- 
dere rationem, vocabulorumgwe, cur quicque ita appellatum sit, 
causas explicare. Quod cum facitis, illud profecto confiteraini, 
longe aliter se rem habere, atque hominum opinio sit ; eos enim, 

15 qui di appellantur, rerum naturas esse, non figuras deorum. 
XXV. Qui tantus error fait, ut perniciosis etiam rebus non 
modo nomen deorum tribueretur, sed etiam sacra constitueren- 
tur. Febris enim fanum in Palatio et Orbonae ad aedem Larum 
et aram Malae Fortunae Esquiliis consecratam videmus. Oinnis 64 

20 igitur talis a philosophia pellatur error, ut, cum de dis immor- 
talibus disputemus, dic&mus indigna naturis immortalibus ; de 
quibus habeo ipse quid sentiam, non habeo autem quid tibi 
assentiar. Neptunum esse dicis animum cum intellegentia per 
mare pertinentem, idem de Cerere. Istam autem intellegen- 



3 vertit, v&rtit Sch. Swainson. 12 vocabulorumque C Heind. Swainson, 

vocabulorum MSS and edd. quicque ER, quidque B 2 , quique AB^PVBML 

Oxf. + Sch. Swainson, quisque HTO. appellatum sit [ABCEjB, appellatus 

sit PLNO, sit appellatus H, appellati sint C Sch. Swainson, appellati sit TV, 
appellant i sint V 2 , appellantur sit V 1 , appellant cum sit Oxf., appellantur unde 
sit M, appellatur unde sit R. 17 modo Ked. N, solum C, om. MSS generally. 

18 et Orbonae ad ed. Bonon. 1494, et MSS, ad Swainson, see Comm. 19 Es 

quiliis [P]CR, exquiliis ABCEV Oxf. HLMO. 20 a philosophia pellatur Oxf. 

M, a philosophi a pellatur V 1 , a philosophis appellatur V 2 , a philosophi appellatur 
B CB, a philosophis appellatur EPHL + , a filosofiappellatur A, philosophia 
appellatur B 2 , a phil. aspell. Heind. Kayser. 21 dicamus indigna naturis 

Or. Ba. Sch. after Madv., dicaliusu icnais ACPV 1 , dicali usu ignais Oxf., dicali 
usu ignaris IL, dicali usu igna his B, die olio usu igneis V 2 N, dicamus dignais de 
dis E, dicamus digna dis B, dicamus indigna Us Mu. (Fleckeis. Jb. 1864 p. 135). 
22 quid quid MSS, quod quod edd. after Ernesti, see Comm. 23 per mare 

[BPVA 2 ] Oxf., permanere CEB and probably A 1 . 



26 DE NATURA DEORUM. 

tiam aut maris aut terrae non modo comprehendere ammo, sed 
ne suspicione quidem possum attingere. Itaque aliunde milii 
quaerendum est, ut et esse deos, et quales sint di, discere 
possim; quales tu eos esse vis... 

65 Videamus ea, quae sequuntur : primum deorumne provi- 5 
dentia mundus regatur, deinde consulantne di rebus humanis. 
Haec enim mihi ex tua partitione restant duo ; de quibus, si 
vobis videtur, accuratius disserendum puto. Mihi vero, inquit 
Velleius, valde videtur; nam et majora exspecto et iis, quae 
dicta sunt, vehementer assentior. Turn Balbus : Interpellare 10 
te, inquit, Cotta, nolo, sed sumemus tempus aliud ; efficiam 
profecto, ut fateare. Sed... 

Nequaquam istuc istac ibit; magna inest certatio. 

Nam ut ego illis supplicarem tanta blandiloquentia, 

ni ob rem? 15 

66 XXVI. Parumne ratiocinari videtur et sibi ipsa nefariam 
pestem machinari ? Illud vero quam callida ratione ! 

Qui volt esse, quod volt, ita dat se res, ut operam dabit. 
Qui est versus omnium seminator malorum. 

Ille traversa mente mi hodie tradidit repagula, 20 

quibus ego iram omnem recludam atque illi perniciem dabo, 
mihi maerores, illi luctum, exitium illi, exilium mihi. 

Hanc videlicet rationem, quam vos divino beneficio homini 

67 solum tributam dicitis, bestiae non habent. Videsne igitur, 

1 comprendere AP. 3 ut et esse MO Asc., et ut esse ABCEVB Oxf., ut 

esse P. 4 Madvig fills up the lacuna (unmarked in MSS) with non esse scio, 

Heind. reads quoniam quales tu eos esse vis, agnoscere non possum. 5 deor 

umne providentia V 2 Oxf., deorum prudentia ABCEPV 1 . 6 consulantne di 

CBC, consulantne de ABEPV lr ro, consulantne V 2 Oxf. M + Sch. 9 iis CV 

Or. Ba. Mu., his B*EP Sch., is A. 12 sed nequaquam without lacuna MSS. 

13 istac ibit EP, is tacebit CC, his tacebit B, iathac ibit H, ista ibit A and (with 
erasure after a) B (with isthacc in same writing on marg.) V, ista liacc ibique 
Oxf., istaec ibit MV. 14 illis, illi Mu. after Ribbeck. 15 ni ob rem Ed., 

ni orbem V, niobem AEC 2 B, niobe B, injovem C 1 , an iobem PM, anioben Oxf., an 
Niobe IL+ , om. G edd., Medea Kindervater, an Medea Swainson. 18 esse 

[PV], om. ABCEB + . ita dat dabit, ut dat operam res ita se dabit L. 

Miiller. dat se res, dant se res ei Ribbeck, dabit sese res (om. esse} Halm. 

20 mi hodie Oxf., mihi hodie XBH + . 21 perniciem or pernitiem MSS 

generally, permiciem V 1 , permitiem Ribbeck p. ix (see Lewis and Short s. v.). 
22 exitium [BEV 2 ] M Asc., exitum ACPV^ Oxf. + . 



LIB. in CAP. xxv xxvn 64 69. 27 

quanto munere deorum simus affecti ? Atque eadem Medea 
patrem patriamque fugiens : 

postquam pater 

appropinquat jamque paene ut comprehendatur parat, 
5 puerum .interea obtruncat membraque articulatim diviclit 
perque agros passim dispergit corpus ; id ea gratia, 
ut, dum nati dissipates artus captaret parens, 
ipsa interea effugeret, ilium ut maeror tardaret sequi, 
sibi salutem ut familiar! pareret parricidio. 

10 Huic ut scelus, sic ne ratio quidem defuit. Quid? ille funestas 68 
epulas fratri comparans nonne versat hue et illuc cogitatione 
rationem ? 

Major mihi moles, majus miscendumst malum, 
qui illius acerbum cor contundam et comprimam. 

15 XXVII. Nec tamen ille ipse est praetereundus, 

qui non sat habuit conjugem illexe in stuprum, 

de quo recte et verissime loquitur Atreus : 

...quod re in summa summum esse arbitror 
pi aclum, matres coinquinari regias, 
20 contaminari stirpem admisceri genus. 

At id ipsum quam callide, qui regnum adulterio quaereret : 

Adde, inquit, hue, quod mihi portento caelestum pater 
prodigium misit, regni stabilimen mei, 
agnum inter pecudes aurea clarum coma, 
25 quern clam Thyestem clepere ausum esse e regia, 
qua in re adjutricem conjugem cepit sibi. 

Videturne summa improbitate usus non sine summa esse 69 
ratione ? Nec vero scaena solum referta est his sceleribus, 

1 Medea, media B*V Oxf. 3 postquam, posquam A Ba. (referring to 

Kitschl Ehein. Mus. vu 571; see Munro on Liter, iv 1186). 13 miscendumst 

edd. , miscendum est MSS. 18 re in MSS generally, in re Sch. 19 piadum 

Ed. after Allen, periclum ACPV edd., periculum BE. coinquinari [BCEPV 2 ] 

Oxf., quoinquinari AV 1 , quo inquinari B, conquinari H Eibbeck (cf. Lachm. in 
Lucr. p. 135). regias ABCEP, regiam V (before erasure) Oxf. MR + . 

20 admisceri MSS. ac misceri edd. after Eibbeck. 21 at A 2 B 2 V 2 [CP] Oxf., ad 

A 1 B 1 EV 1 HLC. 22 adde Eibbeck Mu., addo MSS Or. Ba. Sch. 25 quern 

clam Thyestem AGUTR Heind. Or. Ba., quern clari Th. H, quendam Tli. B (ex 
corr.) CBMO, quern dant hyestem V Oxf., quern dant Th. E, quern cleanthyestem 
P, quondam Th. Nonius p. 20 Sch. Mu. 26 qua A (after erasion), a qua 

BHM+ , aqua Oxf. BCEPV. cepit [EPV1, caepit AC, coepit B. 



28 DE NATURA DEORUM. 

sed multo vita communis paene majoribus. Sentit domus unius 
cuj usque, sentit forum, sentit curia, Campus, socii, provincial, 
ut, quern ad modum ratione recte fiat, sic ratione peccetur, 
alterumque et a paucis et raro, alterum et saepe et a plurimis, 
ut satius fuerit millam omnino nobis a dis immortalibus datam 5 
esse rationem quam tanta cum pernicie datain. Ut vinum 
aegrotis, quia prodest raro, nocet saepissime, melius est non 
adhibere omnino quam spe dubiae salutis in apertam perniciem 
incurrere, sic haud scio an melius fuerit humano generi motum 
istum celerem cogitationis, acumen, sollertiam, quam rationem TO 
vocamus, quoniam pestifera est multis, admodum paucis saluta- 
ris, non dari omnino quam tarn rnunifice et tarn large dari. 
70 Quam ob rem si mens voluntasque divina idcirco consuluit 
hominibus, quod iis est largita rationem, iis solis consuluit, quos 
bona ratione donavit, quos videmus, si modo ulli sunt, esse per- 15 
paucos. Non placet autem paucis a dis immortalibus esse con- 
sultum ; sequitur ergo, ut nemini consultum sit. 

XXYIII. Huic loco sic soletis occurrere : non idcirco non 
optime nobis a dis esse pro vis urn, quod multi eorum beneficio 
perverse uterentur ; etiam patrimonjiis multos male uti, nee ob 20 
earn causam eos beneficium a patribus nullum habere. Quis- 
quam istuc negat ? aut quae est in collatione ista similitudo ? 
Nee enim Herculi nocere Deianira voluit, cum ei tunicam san- 



4 saepe edd.after Manut., semper MSS. 11 est Sch.Or.Ba.Mu., 
sit CA 2 V 2 Oxf. Mus., sunt G Heind. salutaris X, salutaria B 2 HG Heind. 

14 est largita, largita est Sch. 15 ulli sunt esse E, ulli sint esse ABCV Oxf., 

ullis interesse PLT. 21 quisquam istuc CBH, quisquas istuc BP (see Introd. 

on MSS), quisquamne istuc V (ex corr.) Oxf., quid istud E, quisquam juste A 
(juste in ras. later hand). 23 On the order of the clauses from Nee enim 

to subesset (p. 29 1. 16) see Comm. The arrangement there proposed is as follows : 
Non enim, ut patrimonium relinquitur, sic ratio est homini beneficio deonnn data. 
Quid enim potius hominibus dedissent, si iis nocere voluissent ? [They could not 
have given ignorantly, as men do.] Multi enim et, cum obesse vellent, prqfuerunt 
et, cum prodesse, obfuerunt. Nee enim Herculi nocere Deianira voluit, cum ei 
tunicam sanguine Centauri tinctam dedit, nee prodesse Pheraeo Jasoni is, qui 
gladio vomicam ejus aperuit, quam sanare medici non potuerant. Ita non fit ex 
eo, quod datur, Ut voluntas ejus, qui dederit, appareat, nee, si is, qui accepit, 
bene utitur, idcirco is, qui dedit, amice dedit. Injustitiae autem, intemperantiae, 
timiditatis quae semiiia essent, si his vitiis ratio non subesset ? Quae enim 
libido, quae avaritia, quod facinus aut suscipitur nisi consilio capto aut sine 
animi motu et coyitatione , id est ratione, perftcitur ? Nam omnis opinio ratio 



LIB. in CAP. xxvii xxix 6973. 29 



guine Centauri tinctam dedit, nee prodesse Pheraeo Jasoni is, 
qui gladio vomicam ejus aperuit, quam sanare medici non 
potuerant. Multi enim et, cum obesse vellent, profuerunt et, 
cum prodesse, obfuerunt. Ita non fit ex eo, quod datur, ut 
5 voluntas ejus, qui dederit, appareat, nee, si is, qui accepit, bene 
utitur, idcirco is, qui dedit, amice dedit. Quae enim libido, 71 
quae avaritia, quod f acinus aut suscipitur nisi consilio capto aut 
sine animi motu et cogitatione, id est ratione, perficitur ? Nam 
omnis opinio ratio est, et quidem bona ratio, si vera, mala 

10 autem, si falsa est opinio. Sed a deo tantum rationem habe- 
mus, si modo habemus, bonam autem rationem aut non bonam 
a nobis. Non enim, ut patrimonium relinquitur, sic ratio est 
homini beneficio deorum data. Quid enim potius hominibus 
dedissent, si iis nocere voluissent ? Injustitiae autem, intem- 

15 perantiae, timiditatis quae semina essent, si his vitiis ratio non 
subesset ? 

XXIX. Medea modo et Atreus commemorabantur a nobis, 
heroicae personae, inita subductaque ratione nefaria scelera 
meditantes. Quid ? levitates comicae parumne semper in ra- 72 

20 tione versantur ? parumne subtiliter disputat ille in Eunucho ? 

Quid igitur faciam? ...... 

Exclusit, revocat; redeam? non, si me obsecret. 

Ille vero in Synephebis Academicorum more contra communem 
opinionem non dubitat pugnare ratione, qui in amore summo 
25 summaque inopia suave esse dicit 

parentem habere avarum, illepidum, in liberos 
difficilem, qui te nee amet nee studeat tui. 

Atque huic incredibili sententiae ratiunculas suggerit : 73 

aut tu ilium fructu fallas aut per litteras 
?o avertas aliquod nomen aut per servolum 

est, et quidem bona ratio, si vera, mala autem, si falsa est opinio. Sed a deo 
tantum rationem habemus, si modo habemus, bonam autem rationem aut non bonam 
a nobis. 23 cum ei MSS generally, cui CB. 

1 Jasoni is qui [ABCP] Oxf., jasonis qui EV. 7 aut suscipitur, suscipi 

tur Sch. 14 dedissent, dii dedissent B. 15 si his [BEP], si is AV 1 , si 

iis CV 2 . 17 Medea [X] Oxf. 0, media VLN, see 67. commemoraban- 

tur [A], commemorabatur BCEPV Oxf. 19 comicae, cornice CV . semper 

MSS Sch. Mu., saepe Or. Ba. after Madv. see Comm. 27 nee amet BPA 2 V 2 

Oxf., necari et CEV^ and probably A 1 . 28 incredibili, incredibilis A. 



30 DE NATURA DEORUM. 

percutias pavidum, postremo a parco patre 
quod sumas, quanto dissipes libentius ! 

Idemqne facilem et liberalem patrem incommodum esse amanti 
filio disputat, 

quern neque quo pacto fallam neque ut inde auferam, 5 

nee quern dolum ad eum aut machinam commoliar, 
scio quicquam ; ita omnes meos dolos, fallacias, 
praestrigias praestrinxit commoditas patris. 

Quid ergo ? isti doli, quid ? machinae, quid ? fallaciae praestri- 
giaeque, num sine ratione esse potuerunt ? O praeclarum 10 
munus deorum ! ut Phormio possit dicere : 

Cedo senem ; jam in.structa sunt mi in corde consilia omnia. 

74 XXX. Sed exeamus e theatro, veniamus in forum. Sessum it 
praetor. Quid ut judicetur ? Qui tabularium incenderit. Quod 
facinus occultius ? Id se Q. Sosius, splendidus eques Romanus 15 
ex agro Piceno, fecisse confessus est. Qui transscripserit tabulas 
publicas. Id quoque L. Alenus fecit, cum chirographum sex 
primorum imitatus est. Quid hoc homine sollertius? Cog 
nosce alias quaestiones, auri Tolossani; conjurationis Jugurthinae. 
Repete superiora, Tubuli de pecunia capta ob rem judicandam ; 20 
posteriora. de incestu rogatione Peducaea. Turn haec cotidiana, 
sicae, venena, peculatus, testamentorum etiam lege nova quaes- 
tiones. Inde ilia actio : OPE CONSILIOQUE TUO FURTUM AIO 
FACTUM ESSE ; inde tot judicia de fide mala, tutelae, mandati, 

2 dissipes CEB + , dissipis ABPV 1 , dissipas V 2 Oxf. + Scb. 5 neque ut 

inde Buslid. Sell. Or. Ba., neque uncle ACEPB + , neque tinde V 1 , ne quid inde B, 
neque quid inde Y 2 Oxf. OR, nee quid inde V Mu. (who refers to his Pros. Plant. 
p. 351) Ribbeck Frag. p. 69 2 (who erroneously cites Sch. for this reading). 

8 praestrigias Sch. Mu. Ribbeck (see next line), praestigias MSS Or. Ba. 

9 praestrigiaeque V, praestigiaeque other MSS Or. Ba. 12 cedo [BCEP] 
Oxf., caedo AV. mi in [CJ, mild in ABEPV. 13 it praetor Lamb, (ex 
Cod. Memmiano), ite praecor AC, ite precor BPV Oxf. + , ita precor EL, item 
precor B. 15 id se Sch. Ba. Mu. after Dav. (cf. idque below 83), ad se 
AEV Oxf. B+, at se BCP Or., at id se Schiitz. Q. Sosius [CP], quintus 
Sosius ABEVB. 17 L. Alenus [ABEP], lalenus CB, 1. aienus V Oxf. MC. 
22 sicae, slca B. venena MSS generally, Forch. p. 24, veneni C Reg. Moser s 
edd. after Dav., see Comm. 24 mala tutelae BO, mala tutele C, mala at 
utile PV, mala tot utiles E, mala tarn utiles Oxf., ?. tarn utile M, m. turn tutelae 
R, fidem alatat utile A, allata tutelae B. 



LIB. Ill CAP. XXIX XXXI 7376. 31 

pro socio, fiduciae, reliqua, quae ex empto aut vendito aut con- 
ducto aut locate contra fidem fiunt ; inde judicium publicum rei 
privatae lege Plaetoria ; inde everriculum malitiarum omnium, 
judicium de dolo malo, quod C. Aquillius, familiaris noster, 
5 protulit ; quern dolum idem Aquillius turn teneri putat, cum 
aliud sit simulatum, aliud actum. Hanc igitur tantam a dis 75 
immortalibus arbitramur malorum sementim esse factam ? Si 
enim rationem hominibus di dederunt, malitiam dederunt ; est 
enim malitia versuta et fallax ratio nocendi; idem etiam di 
10 fraudem dederunt, facinus ceteraque, quorum nihil nee suscipi 
sine ratione nee effici potest. Utinam igitur, ut ilia anus 
optat, 

ne in nemore Pelio securibus 
caesa accedisset abiegna ad terram trabes, 

15 sic istam calliditatem hominibus di ne dedissent ! qua perpauci 
bene utuntur, qui tamen ipsi saepe a male utentibus opprimun- 
tur, innumerabiles autem improbe utuntur, ut donum hoc 
divinum rationis et consilii ad fraudem hominibus, non ad 
bonitatem impertitum esse videatur. 

20 XXXI. Sed urgetis identidem hominum esse istam culpam, 76 
non deorurn ; ut si medicus gravitatem morbi, gubernator vim 
tempestatis accuset ; etsi hi quid em homunculi, (sed tamen 
ridiculi : quis enim te adhibuisset, dixerit quispiam, si ista non 
essent ?) contra deum licet disputare liberius. In hominum 

25 vitiis ais esse culpam. Earn dedisses hominibus rationem, quae 
vitia culpamque excluderet. Ubi igitur locus fuit errori deo- 

1 conducto Oxf., conduto AV. 3 Plaetoria edd. after Heind., laetoria 

BPV, letoria ACBLM + , latoria Oxf., lotoria Et, lectoria NV + . 7 sementim 

ABCB, sementem PV Sch., sementum E. 9 ratio nocendi, nocendi ratio UT Sch. 
14 caesa accedisset Eibbeck frag. p. ix, Vahlen Enn. p. 124, Weidner on Cic. 
Invent, i 91, caesae accidissent ACPVBC Oxf. Mu. (but in 1884 he gives in 
Herenn. n 22 34 caesa accedisset), caese accidissent B 1 (B 2 has cecid.), cese ceci- 
dissent E (in Fat. 35 all MSS bave caesae, V has accedissent, A 1 cecaedissent, 
A 2 B cecidissent, but B has ce in ras. ; in Herenn. all give caesae with or without 
diphthongs, H has accedissent, B accidissent, the rest cecidissent), caesa acci- 
disset Varro L. L. vn 33, Priscian vn 8. 41 (where the best MSS have accedisset) 
Heind. Or. Ba. Sch. L. Miiller (Enn. p. 144), caesa cecidisset Asc. Herv. Lamb. 
abiegna Ase. V x Varro &c. as above, abiegnae MRVO, abigne X, abiegne by corr. 
B, ab igne Oxf. BC. 22 etsi hi [BPV] Oxf. M, et sibi ACB, etsi E. 25 

dedisses Oxf. BO [ACPV], dedisse B (before erasure) EH. 



32 DE NATUKA DEORUM. 

rum ? Nam patrimonia spe bene tradendi relinquimus, qua 
possumus falli; deus falli qui potuit? An ut Sol, in currum 
cum Phaethontem filiuin sustulit, aut Neptunus, cum Theseus 
Hippolytum perdidit, cum ter optandi a Neptuno patre habu- 

77 isset potestatem ? Poetarum ista sunt, nos autem philosophi 5 
esse volumus, rerum auctores, non fabularum. Atque hi tamen 
ipsi di poetici si scissent perniciosa fore ilia filiis, peccasse in 
beneficio putarentar. Ut, si verum est, quod Aristo Chins 
dicere solebat, nocere audientibus philosophos iis, qui bene dicta 
male interpretarentur posse enim asotos ex Aristippi, acerbos 10 
e Zenonis schola exire , prorsus, si, qui audierunt, vitiosi essent 
discessuri, quod perverse philosophorum disputationem interpre 
tarentur, tacere praestaret philosophos quam iis, qui se audis- 

78 sent, nocere ; sic, si homines rationem bono consilio a dis 
immortalibus datam in fraudem malitiamque convertunt, non 15 
dari illam quam dari humano generi melius fuit. Ut, si medi- 
cus sciat eum aegrotum, qui jussus sit vinum sumere, meracius 
sumpturum statimque periturum, magna sit in culpa ; sic vestra 
ista providentia reprehendenda, quae rationem dederit iis, quos 
scierit ea perverse et improbe usuros. Nisi forte dicitis earn 20 
nescisse. Utinam quidem ! Sed non audebitis. Non enim 
ignoro, quanti ejus nomen putetis. 

79 XXXII. Sed hie quidem locus concludi jam potest. Nam 
si stultitia consensu omnium philosophorum majus est malurn, 
quam si omnia mala et fortunae et corporis ex altera parte 25 
ponantur, sapientiam autem nemo assequitur, in summis malis 
omnes sumus, quibus vos optime consultum a dis immortalibus 
dicitis. Nam ut nihil interest, utrum nemo valeat, an nemo 
possit valere, sic non intellego, quid intersit, utrum nemo sit 
sapiens, an nemo esse possit. Ac nos quidem nimis multa de 30 

3 cum MSS generally, in ras. A, quoin V 1 . 8 ut Dav. Or. Ba., et MSS Sch. Mu. 
verum est MSS Sch. Mu., verum esset Or. Ba. after Madv. 10 acerbos e 

[CEP], accerbos e ABV, accerbo sen B, acerbose Oxf. 0. 11 si qui audierunt 

interpretarentur, om. Or. Ba. after Madv. see Comm. 12 philosophorum 

qui se, om. CB (from homoeoteleuton). disputationem MSS, disputationes 

Sch. 13 philosophos Lamb. Sch. Ba., pldlosopliis MSS Or. Mu. see Comm. 

16 illam [ABCEJO, aliam PVB Oxf. 19 reprehendenda Oxf., repraendenda 

A (which also has compraendere in 21), reprendenda V. 22 nomen MSS, 

numen Sch. after Dav. 



LIB. in CAP. xxxi xxxin 76 81. S3 

re apertissima. Telamo autem uno versu locum totum conficit, 
cur di homines neglegant : 
Nam si curent, bene bonis sit, male malis; quod nunc abest. 

Debebant illi quidem omnes bonos efficere, siquidem hominum 
5 generi consulebant. Sin id minus, bonis quidem certe consu- 80 
lere debebant. Cur igitur duo Scipiones, fortissimos et optimos 
viros, in Hispania Poenus oppressit ? cur Maximus extulit filium 
consularem ? cur Marcellum Hannibal interemit ? cur Paulum 
Cannae sustulerunt ? cur Poenorum crudelitati Reguli corpus 

10 est praebitum ? car Africanum domestici parietes non texerunt ? 
Sed haec vetera et alia permulta ; propiora videamus. Cur 
avunculus meus, vir innocentissimus idemque doctissimus, P. 
Rutilius, in exilio est ? cur sodalis meus interfectus domi suae, 
Drusus ? cur temperantiae prudentiaeque specimen ante simu- 

15 lacrum Vestae pontifex maximus est Q. Scaevola trucidatus? 
cur ante etiam tot civitatis principes a Cinna interempti ? cur 
omnium perfidiosissimus, C. Marius, Q. Catulum, praestantis- 
sima dignitate virum, mori potuit jubere ? Dies deficiat, si 81 
velim numerare, quibus bonis male evenerit, nee minus, si com- 

20 memorem, quibus improbis optime. Cur enim Marius tarn 
feliciter septimum consul domi suae senex est mortuus? cur 
omnium crudelissimus tarn diu Cinna regnavit ? At dedit 
poenas. XXXIII. Prohiberi melius fuit impedirique, ne tot 
summos viros interficeret, quam ipsum aliquando poenas dare. 

25 Summo cruciatu supplicioque Q. Varius, homo import unissi- 
mus, periit ; si, quia Drusum ferro, Metellum veneno sustulerat, 
illos conservari melius fiut quam poenas sceleris Varium pen- 
dere. Duodequadraginta annos Dionysius tyrannus fuit opu- 



1 conficitcur di [ABEP], conficitur di V 1 , conficit utrum di V 2 Oxf. V, conficit ut 
di CB. 6 duo Scipiones, duos cipiones A, duo sippi&nes C 1 , duo sipiones B, duos 

Scipiones C 2 E Oxf. + . 9 Eeguli, reguilis A 1 , reguilis V 1 . 11 propiora [CEP] 
Oxf. 0, propriora ABV 1 . 15 est Q. Scaevola [ABPV 2 ] Oxf., est que scevola 

C, est quae sc. B, est p. scevola V 1 , est scevola E. 18 deficiat [ABEPV] Oxf. H, 
deficiet CUTBLNO. 19 numerare, enumerare Ern. prob. Mu. si com- 

memorem, siccommemorem AEV 1 , commemorem Oxf. 21 septimum V 1 [AB] 

Oxf. M, Septimus CEB, septies PV 2 HIN + . 26 si AV 1 , se B 1 , sed B 2 HLR+ , 

sic CEV 2 BMV Oxf. 28 annos Dionysius tyrannus, D. t. annos MSS generally 

(V with a mark denoting transposition). 

M. C. III. 3 



3-J, DE NATUliA. DEORUM. 

82 Icntissimae et beatissimae civitatis ; quam multos ante liimc in 
ipso Graeciae flore Pisistratus ! At Phalaris, at Apollodorus 
poenas sustulit. Multis quidem ante cruciatis et necatis. Et 
praedones multi saepe poenas dant ; nee tamen possumus dicere 
non plures captives acerbe quam praedones necatos. Ana- 
xarchum Democriteum a Cyprio tyranno excarnificatum accepi- 
mus, Zenonem Eleae in tormentis necatum. Quid dicam de 
Soerate, cujus morti illacriniari soleo Platoncm legens ? Videsne 
igitur deorum judicio, si vident res humanas, discrimen esse 

83 sublatum ? XXXIV. Diogenes quidem Cynicus dicere solebat 10 
Harpalum, qui temporibus illis praedo felix babebatur, contra 
deos testimonium dicere, quod in ilia fortuna tarn diu viverct. 
Dionysius, de quo ante dixi, cum fanum Proserpinae Locris 
expilavisset, navigabat Syracusas ; isque cum secundissimo 
vento cursum teneret, ridens Videtisne , inquit, amici, 15 
quam bona a dis immortalibus iiavigatio sacrilegi.s 
detur? JrZque homo acutus cum bene planeque percepisset, 

in eadem sententia perseverabat. Qui cum ad Peloponnesum 
classem appulisset et in fanum venisset Jovis Olympii, aureum 
ei detraxit amiculum grandi pondere, quo Jovem ornarat e 20 
manubiis Kartliaginiensium tyrannus Gelo, atqne in eo etiam 
cavillatus est aestate grave esse aureum amiculum, hieme frigi- 
dum, eique laneum pallium injecit, cum id esse ad omne anni 
tempus diceret. Idemque Aesculapii Epidauri barbam auream 



1 multos, multas CEP. 3 sustulit, luit Cobet p. 403. et praedones 

MSS, etiam pr. Ba. after Heind. 8 soleo Platonem Oxf. 0, soleo 1. Platonem 

ABV. 11 felix BO, filia ACEPV, fulia Oxf. M, filica B, w felix panpliilia 

N Bed., in painpliiflia Gruter s Pal. 4, in Pampliylia felix Heiud., in silva C 
Eeg., summits UHR+, nobilis Madv. ap. Forch. p. 30. 13 IJionysius nolle 

suniere (p. 35, 1. 9) copied in Val. Max. i 1 extr. 3. 14 Syracusas, seracusas 

AV 1 , siracusas Oxf. 17 idque Lamb., atque ACEPV Mus. Oxf., at qui B. 

18 qui cum ad B- V- Oxf. MO, qui quod ad A.- (a for ad A 1 ) B^PV B, quid quod 
cam ad E. 19 classem [BCPV] Oxf., das sum A, castrum cla^aem E, om. 0. 

21 manubiis [BE]C 2 , manubiis is APH, manubiis Us V, mauibiis C 1 , manibus 
INU. Gelo ABCEVO, rjelu P, Hiero GUIV. 22 grave [C], graven 

ABEPV Oxf. BHV+ (see 10). 24 tempus ABCPY^HBI Forch. p. 28, with 

aptum before ad omne V 2 UM Oxf. Mu. Sch., tempus apte E, tempus aptius T, 
tempus aptum Ba. Or. (comparing Val. Max. I.e., Lact. n 4). Aesculapii 

[EPV], aescuhipi A ! BB, asclepii C 1 , aesculapio C 2 . Epidauri MSS generally, 

t pidaurei N, epidaurii R Forch. p. 53, C2)idaurio C by corr. 



LIB. in CAP. xxxin xxxv SS 82 85. 35 

o o 

demi jussit ; neque enim convenire barbatum esse filium, cum 
in omnibus fanis pater imberbis esset. Etiam mensas argenteas 81 
de omnibus delubris jussit auferri, in quibus cum more veteris 
Graeciae inscriptum esset BONOEUM DEORUM, uti se eorum 
5 bonitate velle dicebat. Idem Victoriolas aureas et pateras 
coronasque, quae simulacrorum porrectis manibus sustinebantur, 
sine dubitatione tollebat eaque se accipere, non auferre dicebat ; 
esse enim stultitiam, a quibus bona precaremur, ab iis porrigen- 
tibus et dantibus nolle sumere. Eundemque ferunt haec, quae 

10 dixi, sublata de fanis in forum protulisse et per praeconem ven- 
didisse exactaque pecunia edixisse, ut, quod quisque a sacris 
haberet, id ante diem certam in stium quicque fanum referret. 
Ita ad impietatem in deos in homines adjunxit injuriam. 
XXXY. Hunc igitur nee Olympius Juppiter fulmine percussit 

15 nee Aesculapius misero diuturnoque morbo tabescentem intere- 
mit, atque in suo lectulo mortuus, ut tyrannidis fabula magnifi- 
cum haberet exitum, in ( Typanidis ( rogum illatus est eamque 
potestatem, quam ipse per scelus erat nanctus, quasi justam et 
legitimam hereditatis loco filio tradidit. Invita in hoc loco 85 

20 versatur oratio ; videtur enim auctoritatem afferre peccandi; 
recte videretur, nisi et virtutis et vitiorum sine ulla divina 
ratione grave ipsius conscientiae pond us esset, qua sublata 
jacent omnia. Ut enim nee domus nee res publica ratione 
quadam et disciplina dissignata videatur, si in ea nee recte 

2 esset etiam edd. after Gulielmius, esset jam MSS, esset idem Sell. 3 cum 

Red. N edd. after Madv. (Fin. in 65), quod MSS generally, cf. p. 34, 1. 18 above. 

6 coronasque quae V 2 CRV Oxf., coronas quae BC 2 (o, quern C 1 ), coronasque AEP. 

7 eaque, easque Val. Max. 11 pecunia edixisse EV Oxf.,pecuniae dixisse B 1 , 
pecunia dixisse AB 2 CPBHLO. a sacris ACEPV Oxf. Sch. Mu., sacri B Or. Ba., 
ex sacris Heind. 12 quicque ABV 2 , quidque V 1 , quanque C, quique EPB, 
quodque RV, quisque Oxf. 13 impietatem V 2 Oxf. [ACEP], impietatem BW 1 , 
impleta temeritate B 2 , impletam B. 14 fulmine Q-x.f.,flumine A 1 V 1 . 16 at 
que, atqui A^ 1 Cod. Buslid. ut tyrannidis fabula magnificum haberet exitum 
in Typanidis rogum Ed., in typanidis rogum AEPVM and (reading tip. for typ.) 
Oxf., in tyrannidis rogum B Pal. 3 Moser s DH Victorius Herv., in timpanidis 
rogum C and B (reading tymp. for timp.), in timp. rogo C, vitimpanitis rogo Reg., 
m tympanitidis rogo Meyer, et impunitus rogo Sch., in ^typanidis rogum Or. 
Mu., in [tyrannidis] rogum Ba. (taking tyr. as a gloss on potestatis), ut ait 
Timaeus (or Timonides) rogo Fortsch (referring to Plut. Dion. p. 974). 21 recte 
XB Oxf. + Or. Ba. Mu., et recte UMRV Sch. 24 dissignata AB Mu., desig 
nate MSS generally, Sch. Or. Ba. 

32 



30 DE NATUKA DEURUM. 

factis praemia extent ulla nee supplicia peceatis, sic mundi 
divina [in homines] moderatio profecto nulla est, si in ea discri- 
men nullum est bonorum et malorum. 

88 At enim minora di neglegunt neque agellos singulorum nee 
viticulas persequuntur nee, si uredo aut grando cuipiam nocuit, 5 
id Jovi animadvertendum fuit ; ne in regnis quidem reges omnia 
minima eurant; sic enim dicitis. Quasi ego paulo ante de 
fundo Formiano P. Rutilii sim questus, non de aniissa salute. 
XXXVI. Atque hoc quidem omnes mortales sic habent, exter- 
nas commoditates, vineta ; segetes, oliveta, ubertatem frugum et 10 
fructuum, omnem denique commoditatem prosperitatemque 
vitae a dis se habere ; virtutem autem nemo umquam acceptam 

87 deo rettulit. Nimirum recte; propter virtutem enim jure lau- 
damur et in virtu te recte gloriamur ; quod non contingeret, si 

id donum a deo, non a nobis haberemus. At vero aut honoribus 15 
aucti aut re familiari, aut si aliud quippiam nacti sumus fortuiti 
boni aut depulimus mali, turn dis gratias agimus, turn nihil 
nostrae laudi assumptum arbitramur. Num. quis, quod bonus 
vir esset, gratias dis egit umquam ? at quod dives, quod hono- 
ratus, quod incolumis. Jovemque- optimum et maximum ob 20 
eas res appellant, non quod nos justos, temperatos, sapientes 

88 efficiat, sed quod salvos, incolumes, opulentos, copiosos. Neque 
Herculi quisquam decumam vovit umquam, si sapiens factus 
esset. Quamquam Pythagoras cum in geometria quiddam novi 
invenisset, Musis bovem immolasse dicitur; sed id quidem non 25 
credo, quoniarn ille ne Apollini quidem Delio hostiam immolare 
voluit, ne aram sanguine aspergeret. Ad rem autem ut redeam, 
judicium hoc omnium mortalium est, fortunam a deo petendam, 

a se ipso sumendam esse sapientiam. Quamvis licet Menti 
delubra et Virtuti et Fidei consecremus, tamen haec in nobis 30 
ipsis sita videmus ; Spei, Salutis, Opis, Yictoriae facultas a dis 
expetenda est. Improborum igitur prosperitates secundaeque 
res redarguunt, ut Diogenes dicebat, vim omnem de-orum ac 

2 in homines MSS, bracketed by edd. after Bouh. 5 cuipiam CB Or. Ba., 

quipiam A 1 !}, quippiam A - V Oxf. Sch. Mu. 8 P. Rutilii sim A. (sim in ras.) 

[P], protulissem CEB, p. rut Hi urn Oxf., p. rutili sim BVM. 9 atque, atqui B-. 
25 immolasse PV Sch. Mu., immolavisse ABCEB Oxf. Or. Ba. 31 ipsis sita 

A 2 , ipsi sita A 1 , ipsis ita BCEPVB Oxf. + . 



LIB. in CAP. xxxv xxxviii 8591. 37 

potestatem. XXXVII. At non numquam bonos exitus habent 89 
boni. Eos quidem arripimus attribuimusque sine ulla ratione 
dis immortalibus. At Diagoras cum Samothracam venisset, 
aOeos ille qui dicitur, atque ei quidam amicus Tu, qui decs 
5 putas humana neglegere, nonne animadvertis ex tot 
tabulis pictis, quam multi votis vim tempestatis effu- 
gerint in portumque salvi pervenerint ? , Ita fit , in- 
quit; illi enim nusquam picti sunt, qui naufragia fece- 
runt in marique perierunt. Idemque, cum ei naviganti 

10 vectores ad versa ternpestate timidi et perterriti dicerent non 
injuria sibi illud accidere, qui ilium in eandem navem recepis- 
sent, ostendit iis in eodem cursu multas alias laborantes quae- 
sivitque, num etiam in iis navibus Diagoram vehi crederent. 
Sic enim res se habet, ut ad prosperam adversamve fortunam, 

15 qualis sis aut quern ad modum vixeris, nihil intersit. Non 9D 
animadvertunt, inquit, omnia di, ne reges quidem. Quid est 
simile ? Keges enim si scientes praetermittunt, magna culpa 
est; XXXVIII. at deo ne excusatio quidem est inscientiae. 
Quern vos praeclare defend itis, cum dicitis earn vim deorum 

20 esse, ut, etiamsi quis morte poenas sceleris effugerit, expe- 
tantur eae poenae a liberis, a nepotibus, a posteris. miram 
aequitatem deorum ! Ferretne civitas ulla latorem istius modi 
legis, ut condemnaretur filius aut nepos, si pater aut avus 
deliquisset ? 

25 Quinam Tantalidarum internecioni modus 

paretur? aut quaenam umquam ob mortem Myrtili 
poenis luendis dabitur satias supplici? 

Utrum poetae Stoicos depravarint, an Stoici poetis dederint 91 
auctoritatem, non facile dixerim ; portenta enim ab utrisque et 
30 flagitia dicuntur. Neque enim, quern Hipponactis iambus 

2 arripimus A^BCEPBO, ascribimus A 2 V 2 Oxf. MNRV. 3 Samothracam 

ABCV 1 !*, samothracum P, samothraciam V 2 Oxf. + , somotraciam E. 4 d ^eos 

Manut. Mu., atlieus MSS generally, Or. Ba., atheos Sch. amicus om. A 1 , in 

brackets Or. Ba. 6 multi [ABEV 2 ] Oxf., multis CPV 1 BLO. 14 res se, 

se res Sch. 21 a nepotibus [EPVJO, ac nep. ABCBE Oxf. a posteris 

[ACEPJB^B, ac post. B 2 V 2 CRV Oxf. 22 civitas ulla, ulla civitas Sch. 

25 internecioni BC 2 EPVBE Sch. Mu., internicioni A Or. Ba., interlectioni C 1 
internectioni Oxf. V. 27 satias A^V 1 !, satietas A 2 CEV 2 BHC. 



33 I)E XATURA DEORUM. 

laeserat, aut qui erat Archilochi versu vulneratus, a deo immis- 
sum dolorem, non conceptum a se ipso, continebat ; nee, cum 
Aegisthi libidinem aut cum Paridis viclemus, a deo causam 
requirimus, cum culpae paene vocem audiamus ; nee ego multo- 
rum aegrorum salutem non ab Hippocrate potius quam ab 5 
Aesculapio datam judico, nee Lacedaemoniorum disciplinam 
dicam umquam ab Apolline potius Spartae quam a Lycurgo 
datam. Critolaus, inquam, evertit Corinthum, Karthaginem Has- 
drubal. Hi duo illos oculos orae maritimae effoderunt, non iratus 

92 aliqui, quern omnino irasci posse negatis, deus. XXXIX. At 10 
subvenire certe potuit et conservare urbes tantas atque tales ; 
vos enim ipsi dicere soletis nihil esse, quod deus efficere 
non possit, et quid em sine labore ullo ; ut enim hominum 
membra nulla contentione mente ipsa ac voluntate move- 
antur, sic numine deorum omnia fingi, mover! mutarique posse. 15 
Neque id dicitis superstitiose atque aniliter, sed physica con- 
stantique ratioue ; materiam enim rermn, ex qua et in qua 
omnia sint, totam esse rlexibilem et commutabilem, ut nihil sit, 
quod non ex ea quamvis subito fingi convertique possit; ejus 
autem universae fictricem et moderatricem divinam esse provi- 20 
dentiam ; hanc igitur, quocumque se moveat, efficere posse, 
quicquid velit. Itaque aut nescit, quid possit, aut neglegit res 

93 hum anas aut, quid sit optimum, non potest judicare. Non 
curat singulos homines . Non mirum : ne civitates quidem. 
Non eas? ne nationes quidem et gentes. Quods! has etiam 25 
contemnet, quid mirum est ornne ab ea genus humanum esse 
contemptum ? Sed quo modo idem dicitis non omnia deos 
persequi, idem vultis a dis immortalibus horninibus dispertiri 
ac divicli somnia? Idcirco haec tecum, quia vestra est de 
somniorum veritate sententia. Atque idem etiam vota suscipi 30 
dicitis oportere. Nempe singuli vovent, audit igitur mens 



8 Karthaginem see above 42. 9 Hasdnibal MR + , Asdrubal XB+. 

10 aliqui [ABCEV 1 ], aliciti rV 2 UTMV Oxf., aliquis HR. deus Lamb, with 

Eeg. and Fa. of Moser, deum MSS generally. 17 materiam [BP], mater ia 

ACEVB Oxf. 21 hanc V- Oxf. [P], haec ABCEV^BO. 22 neglegit, 

neclegit A (and above 89). 24 ne civitates edd., nee civitates MSS. 25 non 
cas ? MSS Sch. Or. Ba., non modo eas Mu., si non eas Madv. 29 dividi 

somnia [ABCEP], dirldis omnia V 1 , dividi omnia Y-MNCEVH. 



LIB. Ill CAP. XXXVIII XL 91 95. 39 

divina etiam de singulis. Videtis ergo non esse earn tarn occu- 
patam, quam putabatis ? Fac esse distentam, caelum versan- 
tem, terrain tuentem, maria moderantem ; cur tarn multos deos 
nihil agere et cessare patitur? cur non rebus liumanis aliquos 
5 otiosos deos praencit, qui a te, Balbe, innumerabiles explicati 
sunt ? Haec fere dicere habui de natura deorum, non ut earn 
tollerem, sed ut intellegeretis, quam esset obscura et quam 
difficiles explicatus haberet. 

XL. Quae cum dixisset, Cotta finem. Lucilius autem, 94 

10 Vebementius, inquit, Cotta, tu quidem invectus es in earn 
Stoicorum rationem, quae de providentia deorum ab illis sanc- 
tissime et providentissime constituta est. Sed quoniam adves- 
perascit, dabis nobis diem aliquera, ut contra ista dicamus. 
Est enim mihi tecum pro aris et focis certamen et pro deorum 

15 templis atque delubris proque urbis muris, quos vos, pontifices, 
sanctos esse dicitis diligentiusque urbem religione quam ipsis 
moenibus cingitis; quae deseri a me, dum quidem spirare 
potero, nefas judico. Turn Cotta : Ego vero et opto redargui 95 
me, Balbe, et ea, quae disputavi, disserere malui quain judicare 

20 et facile me a te vinci posse certo scio. Quippe, inquit Velleius, 
qui etiam somnia putet ad nos mitti ab Jove, quae ipsa tamen 
tarn levia non sunt, quam est Stoicorum de natura deorum 
oratio. Haec cum essent dicta, ita discessimus, ut Velleio 
Cottae disputatio verior, mihi Balbi ad veritatis similitudinem 

25 videretur esse propensior. 

6 ut, uti B. 10 in earn CE, ineram (with r erased) A, in eram BP 

(supersc. istam) V 1 , in meram V 2 Oxf MRV, in aream istam I, in aeram istam L. 
12 providentissime [ACPV], prudentissime BE. 



FKAGMENTA. 

EX LIBRO DE NATURA DEORUM TERTIO. 

1. Lactant. List. Div. n 3. 2. Intellegebat Cicero falsa esse, 
quae homines adorarent. Nam cum multa dixisset, quae ad 
eversionem religionum valerent, ait tamen non esse ilia vulgo 
clisputanda, ne susceptas publice religiones disputatio talis 
exstinguat. 5 

2. Lactant. List. Div. II 8. 10. Cicero de natura deorum 
disputans sic ait : Primum igitur non est probabile earn ma- 
teriam rerum, unde orta sunt omnia, esse divina providentia 
effectam, sed habere et habuisse vim et naturam suam. Ut 
igitur faber, cum quid aedificaturus est, non ipse facit ma- 10 
teriam, sed ea utitur, quae sit parata, fictorque item cera, sic 
isti providentiae divinae materiam praesto esse oportuit, non 
quam ipse faceret, sed quam haberet paratam. Quodsi non est 

a deo materia facta, ne terra quidem et aqua et aer et ignis a 
deo factus est. i r 

+} 

3. Maii vett. iuterpr. Virg. p. 45 ed. M.ed....apud Cicero- 
nem de natura deorum LT, ubi de Cleomene Lacedaemouio. 

4. Diomedes I p. 313. 10 Keil. Cicero de deorum natura 
tertio : homines omnibus bestiis antecedunt. 

EX LTBRIS INCERTIS. 

5. Serv. ad Verg. Aen. ill 284. Tiillius in libro de natura 20 
deorum tria milia annorum dixit magnum annum tenere. 

6. Serv. ad Verg. Aen. Ill 600. Cicero spiritabile dixit in 
libris de deorum natura. 

7. Serv. ad Verg. Aen. vi 894. Per portam corneam oculi 
significantur, qui et cornei suntet duriores ceteris membris ; nam 25 
frigus non sentiunt, sicut etiam Cicero dixit in libris de natura 
deorum. 

1. 17. LT, so Mai, understanding it to mean Liber Tertius, but lie is doubtful 
whether it should not be read IT (for item). Keil (Probi in Verg. Buc. et Georg. 
Comm. p. 95) has no doubt that IT is the true reading. As it is difficult to see 
the appropriateness of item, I should rather conjecture the numeral u or in. 
Or. Ba. and Mu. read IT without remark. 

1. 22. ^/nVaft/te, .sp/r/f(7?f Thilo and Hagen, 



COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 



[Reprinted from Vol. II.] 

As in my former volume, I have printed in full Mr Swainson s 
collation of the Burney MS (B), but have only given selected readings 
from his other collations, with occasional additions from my own 
inspection of the Museum MSS. I have also given the more important 
readings for U and Y collated by myself, and a full collation of 
the Merton MS (called * Oxf. o in the former volume, here simply 
Oxf. ). I have further compared any readings of Orelli s or 
Heindorfs MSS which, without being of sufficient importance to 
print under the text, were yet of interest as throwing light on the 
relation between different MSS, e.g. between B and Orelli s C, 
between Cod. Glog. (G) and H, Cod. Red. and N, above all between 
Oxf. and Orelli s V. In all such cases I have printed the reference 
to the foreign MS in square brackets. For the sake of convenience 
I subjoin an explanation of symbols. 

B. Burney MS no. 148, of the 13th century. 
H. Harleian MS 2465, late 15th cent. 

I. Harl. MS 2511, 15th cent. 

L. Harl. MS 4662, late 15th cent. 

M Harl. MS 5114, latter part of 15th cent. 

N. Additional MSS 11932, middle of 15th cent. 

0. Additional MSS 19586, end of 14th cent. 

C. Cambridge MS 790 Dd. xm. 2, 15th cent. 
R. Roman edition of 1471. 

V. Venice edition of 1471. V t . Corrections in the Grylls copy. 

U. Codex Uffenbachianus, 15th cent., belonging to S. Allen, Esq. 

Y. Another 15th century codex belonging to Mr Allen. 

Oxf. The Merton MS of the 12th cent. 



BOOK TIT. 



1 I. inquit] in quid B generally [Orelli s A 1 ]. te] a te B. factu] LMO, 

2 faction BCV Oxf., jatu N. jocundns] Oxf. U [Orelli s CE] igitur] R, 

3 igitur ego BHCV, ??ze] om. Oxf. Sic] Lambinus, sine B, sum HT, serf V,, 
si Oxf. L others. tacw.wt] tectum Oxf. Qi] ()/ H. Q?mi 
miki] quoniam mild Oxf., Quam mich C, g?*aw mi/u 1J, inquit Cotta adds R. 
sM&eez] sibi habeat HLT. WSMHI nidlum Jiaberc] BM, null tun us um hale re 

4 HN, USMW habcre nullum IL. >an*w] L0,.parua Oxf. BMCV, text V r s/] 
BO, si C Oxf. causa] causam B, after refellendi C. 

5 II. me] dicam add HR. caerimonias] cerimonias V, om. Oxf. scw- 
per] om. UT. Ti.] Manutius, om. Z, t. 0. Conmcaimun] L, quorum. 
caniumE, Coruncannm 0, Couuncanum RV. P. ...P.] uel...uel RV. ut 
^oc^ ] cn/f om. CT. C. LaeUum] M, C. Idium 0V, gldium B. i?? sar-ra] 
IM oin. B. i auspicia] in om. RV [Orclli s E, i oxpicia Or. s AV 1 ]. _p?Y^- 
dictionis] Oxf., praedicationis B. wo?zs?m] Oxf., moniti.^ MCR [Or. s V in 
marg.] Sibyllae] SibiUae BC. Juinaspiceuve] Itaur. B [Or. s C], aru*pi- 
cinae suae H. tv/o] OM Oxf., e? /o B. nullam umquam] niunquam ullam 
UT. auspiciix] liausp. B [Or. s C]. constitute ] inxtiluti* LUT. ^o/z/- 

6 i.sse?] IV, potuisscnt BHLMNOCR Oxf. UT. ?n//i-c c/y/o] LM Oxf., nunc igitur 
N, f/y/o (omitting nunc) 0, crr/o ?/;?<? CU, nunc ego Walker from Lactantius. 
re dd it a] redditam B. 

III. fuit divisio tua] tua divisio fuit Oxf. ut] igitur ut Oxf. iix] 

7 /(/ s RVU Oxf. guicg-?^] quidque B, quidem R. irf es] irfe?/i Oxf. 
^jitt] CO, exuri ELM Oxf., <?j;iye HNRV, eximi or erwi "alii" in Davies s note. 
ipsurii] om. CVT, rest. V T . giiorf] ^?/i Oxf. maiorum] malorum B. 
cur ] euro, Oxf. sic] sii Oxf. ad hanc] hanc UT. t^ integrum 

8 discipuluni] inquit et i. d. LV, inquit discipuhim et integrum UT. egone] 
ego nee Oxf. guod] Oxf. Z, except quid IV. perspicuum in istam 
partf-m] Oxf. Z, except perspicuum in Imnc partem I, and in istam... quod e*set om. 



COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 43 

L. esset] Oxf. [Or. s BV 2 ], et B [Or. s CE], est H [Or. s AV 1 ]. perspi- 

cuum] conspicuum IUT. posses] LO Oxf., possis BH, posse V. onerare] 

honorare H, conuenire I, honerare L, orare N. /we idem] ftoc quidem Oxf. 

wt] before jjofru om. Oxf. gin id] quod BMOC Oxf. U, gutd" V, text V 1 . 

altero coniveam] altero C, altero tantum I, altero tantum contuear V 1? altero 
contuer] N, altero contineat Oxf., altero contm T, altero tm OL, altero contuear 
others. assegia] asse qui Oxf. ^osstm] possem HU. 

IV. es evia ews] evidens est Oxf. argumentari soleo perspicuitas] om. B. 9 
elevatur] B, Zeuatwr UTOMKV Oxf. [Or. s BV 2 ]. contuereris UHMCRV Oxf., 
contueres B, contuleris I, contueris OLT, me fwerzs N. confidebas] 0, consyder- 
abas V, considerabas UT, confydebas V r ve^es] Ernesti, we/is Z Oxf. UT. 
voluisti] voluistis Oxf. sa] BOML [Or. s X], sarts HCRV. czm ft/a 10 
ratione contendere] quamtuam rationem contemnere H [Orelli s P]. % dubiam 
fads] fads Oxf. regantur] regerentur HT. ca?ifZerzs] Oxf. OM, cadens BN. 
^os] om. C. ^?-are] Oxf., gravem [Or. s AV 1 ], see 83. videbatur] 11 
uidetur Oxf. C, text C 1 . cotidie] quotidie HRV. opinione] opinionem 
Oxf. dicatis] judicatis UT. 

V. praesentes] LMBO, praesertis Oxf. Faiinizts] uatienus BMCRUT, 
uagiens H, uacienus V. Sagram] M, Sacram BOT, sectam L, sagaram U. fw] 
om. Oxf. id est] weZ B. eos tw] M, eosque tuque Oxf., eos fugue B, eos- 
gwe fw UTLO. cantheriis] [Or. s BP], canteriis BHMV Oxf. [Or. s ACEV], 
cauteriis R. aZ&] M Oxf., aZms B, ab /it s LO. homini] hominumB. 
silice] scilice B, scilicet Oxf. Regillum] religium Oxf. \regilium Or. s APV]. 
credi s esse] Oxf., credidisse BHLOUT. mavis] ?n,ai ws UBHV, text V x . probari] 12 
approbari H. Tyndaridae] tandaridae B, tindari defuerunt Oxf. egwffare] 
quitare B, aequitate H, equitate Oxf. pro/eras] Oxf., prosperas B, conferas H. 

aft ^4.] a& ^iwZo HMCVj, auZo Oxf. OBL, ^4. R, a6 ^4uZio V. Postumio] postumo 13 

Oxf. aedem] eadem Oxf. Fatniio] Oxf. B, uatieno C. Sagra] 

M Oxf., Sacra BLO, aede sacra I, sacra aede] T. gui gi/ae] quaeque MCV, gui 

gwe T. Sagram] BM Oxf., sacram 0, /acta sunf adds C. awcton Zws] 

auditoribus H, auctoritatibus Oxf. mecum pugnas] me oppugnas H, me cum 

disputas LTU (adding al. pugnas ) [Or. s P]. regui? o] LMO Oxf., om. B, e.r- 

g? ro C. 

VI. sequuntur~\ secuntur L. enim] igitur H, om. Oxf. quidem est] 14 
esi quidem CRV. m fa Z om. N Oxf. we spe<] ??ec s^e H, wee spci T. /afo 
^eri] esse fato fieri Oxf. ea; om?ii] ea; omnia B [Or. s V 1 ], om. H. fuerit] 
est Oxf. fatum] factum uel fatum dicatis L, /atom dicatis T [Or. s P]. 
^4i] L, Jcti M, acfn CRV, attinavi Oxf., antinavii T, natinavii 0. Navii] 
ML, Tzawi B, Neuii HV, text V x . commemorabas] M Oxf., commorabas B, g?zew 
comm. om. OL. 5 Mi ] M, quomodo H, giu a T, guia" 0. intellecta] M, t?i- 
telligenda CRV Oxf., intellecta al. intelligenda U. sinf] M, swnf TBHOCRV, 
om. Oxf. discere] scire H, adiscereV, addiscere U. plurimis] in pluribus 

H, pluribus UT. dzvini] HI, diuinis Oxf. UTO others. isti] om. I, before 

plurimis CRV. mentiantur~\ C, mentiuntur Oxf. UTO others, except metiuntur 

N. etiam] om. THR [Or. s P]. Deciorum] deuotorum H 5 ditiorum Oxf. 15 

joZacari] LMO, placere B. populo Romano] R. p. Oxf. imperatorium] BL, 

imperatorum 1MRV Oxf. a-rpar^^a] strategema Z Oxf. iruperatorum] 



44 COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 

OL, imperatorium B. patriae] ut patriae HNRV. fore ut] foret Oxf., 

forte T. 7;osfm] hostes RV. immittentem] imminentem Oxf., Imitantem T. 

if/if] BM, fti HTO. awcZmisse] audisse H [Or. s P], see Quintil. i. 6. 17. 

VII. ^] am Oxf. Balbe] bella Z. nihil] [Or. s BV], m7 HUT 

16 [Or. s AEP], ?>Mc7w [Or. s C], nichil B. Cleanthes ut dicebas] ut cleantcs ut 
dicebant Oxf. animis] animos B. ?s] [Or. s V 2 ], 7i/s Oxf. [Or. s V 1 ], 7ms C, 
ex us V 1} [t>.r 7 s Or. s B]. percipimus] percepimus V [Or. s P]. caelique] 
caelestique VU. e Event s] e in. terrenis Oxf. CMW m^/iani] om. H, 

17 cwr eafiant U. a <*] cum pulchritudine mundi Oxf. (from below). a?>ias] 

18 arjebas Oxf. gwonzaw] quoniamsi T [Or. s B 2 E], Inrerum essealiquid] om. 
Oxf. quod] quo B. ssg] esset VT. Zenonisque] Canonisque N, zenonis 
qui Oxf. quaerentur] Oxf. quaereturHKV. omniaque] omnia MT. 

19 VIII. tu] om. OL. maximae res tacitae] m. restatice Oxf., maxime res 
tacite BM, r<?s maxime tacite OL. strictun] fructum Oxf. ^a] Oxf., superscr. 
0, om. B [Or. sCE]. separantur~\ sequestrantur ITOL [Or. s P]. quattuor 

20 *] ^w quattuor BC [Or. s C 2 E]. primaque] prima quident UMRV, prima 
quae T [Or. s A]. rd/es] Oxf., iiclis BH. rfi esseni] dicerentur Oxf. 
os^nrfgr^s] ostendere B, w? ostenderemT, [ut ostenderes Or. s B 2 ]. c?n ;] M Oxf., 
om. BUO. noil dubitabas quin mundus esset deus] om. B, and (except dcus) H. 
(/?w] guorf Oxf. RV lt g?n V. ?t/7t/Z i rerum natura melius esset] om. B. 

21 m?mc/o] 7n?/7^o B, in mondo H. gu/^ dicis melius] quid dices melius HT, om. 
Oxf. MNCRV, quid doces melius UVj. sin] si Asc. sevocare] reuocare 
ILT, euocare Oxf. MCRV, auocare V r sevoco] scmoto H, e?<oco MCRV Oxf., 
rei oco ILT. comprclicndere~] comprendere V, [compraendere Or. s A]. 

22 IX. .SCHSMS] Oxf., sesu BM, om. H. et ut] et om. B. dilator it] 
dubitavitO. Zeno] ZcnonL. cnim~\ om. B. id melius] Oxf., id om. 
MRV, rest. V r iam] etiam B. litteratinn] Uttcrarum (twice) B. id est... 

23 littcratum] om. H, for est, esse RVU. o??zi] omnino B. philosophus] 
BHILOT, errt mundus add MNCRV Oxf. U. sa^e] saepe cnim UHV r c?j>i] 
rfa;i TU Oxf. BHILMNORV, dixinti CV^ nixi ex eo] sine deo Z Oxf., except sine 
mundo R. illam] ullam Z Oxf. dissimilia] dissimillima NVT. ^>oss^?] 
possit HOT. fidicinem] jidicinam C, tibicenem N,fiduciorem Oxf. ef tubici- 
ncm B Oxf., e tibicinem HIORV, om. L, e tibiicinem M, e^ tibicem N. ?ze c?<r] 
wee cu?- BMCRV Oxf. UT. nob is nihil] niJiil nob is CRVU. ormitiu*] 
pulcJirius Oxf. ne] nee Oxf. UT. reponcbas] reponendas uoluisti N Red. 

24 non] om. H. habent] BO, 7t. c^ seruant UMCV Oxf. Hervag, 7<. uel conservant 
N Red. ca deo] adeo B. 

X. QuM] Qui B. Chalcidico] calc. B, cliachidico C. fieri posse] csse 

N Red., t /tm potuisse T. SiciUensi] scicilieusi V. Ocea/] creaui I, 

occeani C, doceam Oxf. Libyamqiie] libiamque BC Oxf. [Or. s ABCE]. rt Z 

Hispanienses] uel isp. B, re? om. C. Britannici] Brittanici B, Brittannei T, 

[Or. s B^, Britanici Or. s C, Brittannici Or. s AB-V]. certis... 

marg. onlyM. re? accessus,..temporibus] om. HL, r<? om. C. 

MOB Oxf. U, minime N Red., 7to/t C. ?notws] ??ietus, U. g-wae] om. BC. 

??e] ?zec R. <Z/t - mas] divinasque Oxf. .si^J sic Oxf. reversions] con- 

25 versione T. tanquam in aram] om. H. ara?] BO, arenam Oxf. UMC, harena 



COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 45 

N Red., harenam RV, text Vj. confugitis] HILN0 2 CR, fugitis O 1 , confugistis 

BMV Oxf. concalluit] concaluit NV [Or. s B] Nonius p. 90, concallivit Oxf. 

m id] quid BOH, quicquid id MCRU Oxf. raeZtor] melius C. homini 

homini] homini homine BC, homines hominem Oxf. U. aim ^possit] quidpotuit H, 
gim potest T. Idemque] M Oxf., eidemque OB, ei denique T. a* iMwd] 2o 

[corr. ex ad iWud Or. s V], et z ZZud Oxf. et rationem] et rationemet orationem 
ILNVUTO. Orionem Cocl. B of Baiter, om. Oxf. Asc. ILNVUTO, orationem 

others (oroem in H). caniculam] niculam B. esse] HLVj om. Oxf. others. 

a natura] Oxf. M, natura BO. conformation] confirmatum Oxf. TBHLCV, 

text Vj. 

XI. animum] 0, animam BMRV Oxf. si nullus] si nulla BV, text V x , 27 

similia 0. wiw/ido] dews add UHNRV r log id] after soZewi CUT. ad] om. 
Oxf. harmoniam] arm. Oxf. BCV, text V x . siwt] smt B [Or. s C]. 

cientis] C, sdentis Oxf. others. mutationibus] agitationibus T. placelaf] 28 
tacebat B. oraiio] oratione Oxf. [Or. s V]. cognatione continuatam] BM 

Oxf., cognationem continuatam R, continuationem cognatam 0. wo?i] om. B. 

probabam] probem MC Oxf. pro&e V, text V r ^ofutsse] ?io?z potuisse MCRV. 

contineretur] B Oxf., contineret 0, continerentur TMRV, text V x . permanet] 0, 
pertinet Oxf. U, permaneret Asc. gwasi] Oxf., g-uasi quidam UH [Or. s V 2 ], 

quasi iste 0. gwam] quern s.. crvfjnra.deiai ] synpathiam B, ff-rj^avT-rja/j, L, 

ainphatian marg. L, sympathian RV 1} sympathiam aliam Asc., simpatiam Oxf. V. 
carneades] carnales Oxf. nullum esse] num esse Oxf. 



XII. iKa] BMO Oxf. [iZZawi Or. s A 1 V]. gugt ad modwn] MO, gt/ae 29 
ad modum B [Or. s V], gwo ?nodo C. distrahive] Oxf., distrahique LMCRV, 
text Vj. patiendi] partiendi "B. omne animal... itidem si] om. MCR. Oxf. 
owme animal tale est] etiam mortale animal nullum est N. taZe] Heindorf, 
om. H, mortale others. jEr#o t fidm] i?t V, er^fo identidem Red. accipien- 
dam] accipiendum HG, capiendam LU. externam] Oxf. , aeternam BLCV, ea;tr- 
?y;ai H, text V x marg. L. ferendam] MCRV Oxf., fruendam BILT, fruendum H, 
referenda/in JH,ferundam Klotz. dissolubile Oxf., dissoluibile B [Or. s AC]. 
wtMZ essei] Oxf. [wi/iz7 esse Or. s V 1 ]. am s] aer B. igitur si] om. C, 30 
igitur Oxf. e ^ui&us] T, ex q. CV Oxf. cuncta...ex quibus om. H. 
esse] after potest C Red. [Or. s P]. Us] B Oxf., /us others. quiii] 
Oxf., awed ?io?i MCRVU. umor ita] humor ita] B [Or. s X], ita humor e 0. ^1 
mollis est] Oxf. BM, molle est TO. comprimi] IOLU, praemi BMN, premi 
Oxf. HCV, pn mi R. jpZsw] BM, irnpulsu ILOV. naturaque] namque 0. 
Praetereaque] BMO Oxf. T, praeterea others. ea; aere] Oxf. 0, ei cim ea; 
aere M, et exaer. B. commeant] Oxf., comeant B, commoueantur H, cow- 
moueant N. intereunt] HILON, inter eant BMCRV Oxf. e quibus] BR, 

a; a. Oxf. others. co?istai] HILON, constet BMCRV Oxf. 

XIII. o?7iiWa7w,us] omm. B [Or. s AC]. sensus habet igitur animal] om 32 
Oxf. wZZo] w?t?Zo C [Or. s V 1 ]. et non accipere] ILNVU, et om. BMR 
[Or. s X], we7*o ace. C. Quod autem dolorem accipit] om. H. et quod 33 
ea sentiat] Oxf., om. OB (Baiter sentit by misprint). aeternum est] necesse 

est C, est aet. TUV, appetit quaedam eternum est Oxf. refugit] refugitur 

0. et quod est contra naturam] om. T, [in marg. Or. s B]. esse] 34 



4() COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 

cst B. intereat] uitereat Oxf. etenim] necesse cst enim ut CU, necesse 

est RV Oxf. calor] ut calor OMCRV Oxf. ut voluptas] voluptas Oxf. 

UTO. dolor] ut dolor MCRV Oxf., et dolor UTO. ut cetera] ct cetera MRV. 
sunt] om. B, sint H. inter emunt] L, interimant MCR Oxf. U (by corr. fr. 

intereant), inter eunt OT, interimunt B others. est sine... animal] om. H. 

animal aeternum] eternum animal Oxf. aeternum est] est act. V [Or. s C]. 



XIV. aut] BMO, ut R Oxf. i#<?a] inuea uel aerea L. animalis] 

aquatilis VU, animalis id est aeria V x . umida] [Or. s A J V], Jut mi da B. con- 
crgfrum] concreta cst R, concretum est Klotz. vi] vis Oxf. [corr. ex ut Or. s V]. 
feratur] Lambinus, ejferatur Z Oxf. UT, except off eratur L, ajj eratur 0. sm- 

35 W autem nullo modo possunt] om. T. f<s] om. Oxf. resfn] <K? iwstri 
Oxf. 7JOH, o?/ines] jzoft. erctm omnes Vahlcn. uno] uno tantum HV^U. 
qui] MU Oxf., om. BOHT. quid] MO Oxf., quod C, [qui id Or. s A 2 ], id V, 
text V r diceret] MOxf., cZ. quod BO Asc. noluit] iioluii HN Oxf., noluit 
ut C. omnem vim] omnia unum MCR, omnium Oxf. [Or. s V by corr.] ? //- 
ea?/i] L, t r rm 0, ignem others. animantes] amantis Oxf. vifjere] Oxf. 
[in ras. Or. s V], g ing ere (gigncre) I. ?zo?t inter e ant c?w/i intereant] om. Oxf. 
?;o intereant] om. N, ?zo?i inter eat V, text Vj. ?/??tore] [Or. s AV], humor e B. 

36 verum tamen videamus exitum] uerumptamen v. e. BC, r/rfc omnium animalium 
cxitiun 0. ruZfrY] multis 0. animale] Lambinus, animali UT (before 
essc) LO, animal Oxf. others, animum Walker. cxtrinsecns] Oxf., intrinsecus 
Bouliier. a/ma7] Lescaloperius, anima Z Oxf. T. ?a *i ignem ^sse ani 
mum] Oxf., [om. Or. s V 1 ]. quiddam]-quoddam B [Or. s C]. atque] atque 
ex H, t Oxf. UT. anima temperatum] animantemperatum B. quod si] 
quid enim Oxf. ipse] om. BR. quohiam] quoniam cum B. J?wrsw,s] 
rursum B [Or. s C], rursusquc C. qnicqnid est] quod quidem B. i <?/n r<?] 

37 pervenire T. ^asfits] ^asfw V [Or. s C by corr.] //] alia B, aZ/i Oxf. UV, 
text V r aquis alia] aquis ali B. alia marinis] aliis marinis B, alia 
amaris I, alia maritimis N. cawsa?7i] clausam B. Cleanthes] Che- 
antJies B. cur] gw/r B [Or. s AC]. nee longius] ne long ins B. orbi] 
Oxf., o?-6e HNV. ?o.r] om. Oxf. natura iynem sempiternum] naturam 
ignis sempiternam T. 

38 XV. autem deum] deum om. L, dicnnt deum MR, autem dicitnt deum V, 
autem deum dicunt U. nos] non HMNR Oxf. T, om. CO. prudentiamne] 
prudentiane de C, prudentian Oxf. niJiil est nee esse] B, nihil csse necesse 
Oxf. M, nihil esse nee esse 0. quid huic . . .potest esse] om. L. dilcctii] 
BLC Oxf., dilecta I, dilectis N, delectu others. iustitia] de iustitia B. 
rt(Z d^os] ad eos H, a (Zeos C. procreavit] provocavit Oxf. co;7;or/s] cor- 
poribus B. corporis... vohqrtatibus] om. H. es eiia?w] est etiam in Qxf., 
et etiam C, o csi t fr aw TV, text V x . </ut] om. BC [Or. s C], ^id H. in 
dolore an in labor e an in periculo] delere an in periculo an in dolore L, (and OT 
only reading dolere for delere, Or. s P with dolore for delere), an (1st) om. B, 

39 in (3rd) om. Oxf. vero] om. Oxf. inscitiam] Oxf., iustitiam HRV, text V x . 
dcii/Hcere] dispicere B. dicuntur] Oxf. 0, dicitur [Or. s V 1 ]. w Graecia 
midtos habcnt] Graecia multos habet UT. Alabandis] Bouliier, Alabandi Oxf. 
TZ, except om. C. Tenedii] Tenedi BMCRV Oxf. T, tenendi HILN. Tennen] 
Tcnen BL, tenucrc H, ?euc N, Tennem Oxf. others. LcucotJicam] leuchothcaiu 



COLL AT EONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 47 

B, leuchoteam Oxf., leucotoe H, leuconiam N, Leucothoam R, Leucoteam V, 

text V r etejus] ejus Oxf. Palaemonem] after JiZmw C. nostri] M, 

nostrum BLOCT Oxf. ascripticios] [Or. s V], adscripticios [Or. s AC], 

adscriptios B. 

XVI. vos philosophi] philosophi vos UT, enim phil. vos 0. gtti] ?MM H, 40 
7wm R. sunt enim] enim sunt Oxf., sunt 0. dews fpse mundus] mundus ipse 
deus UT. z ZZwcZ] id H, iZZtm UTO. sublime] Z, sublimenSc&l., sublimemUY, 
sublimum 0. invocant] uocant H. eorum] om. B, illorum T. 7iwweras] 
numeratis HU. eosg^e] easgwe NVUT. appellas] appellatis HU. Capram 
ut] Capram aut BC, capram U. Nepam ut] Ursinus, Zuj?a?n wt Oxf. BLMCV, 
Zw^awi U, Zupum T, Zupum tit others. Taurum ut] taurum UT. inanimarum] 
animarum B, inanimatarum Oxf. UTHLMCRV. won] om. U, after sermonis T. 41 
sermo?ws] B, sermone MCV Oxf. [Or. s V corr. ex semom s]. sed] set C. 
ecquem] haec quern BM Oxf., mentem haec quern 0, /mnc quendam H, i?tter 7taec 

UTLV 15 ^er haec quintam N, eccw/w gitew C, die quern R, 7ttc quern V. 

putamus B [Or. s C]. dtci] dicimus LO [Or. s P]. rc(Z(Ze6 ] 

BHLV 1( recZtZe T Oxf. [Or. s V 2 ] others. id] 0, idem BMCV Oxf. non video] 
ego non v. L, non intellego T. cwi in] om. (lacuna) H. Oetoeo] BM, om. 

(lacuna) H, meceo L, medeo T, metaco N, ef/igo CO, Oetheo R, aethneo V, " exem 
plar guerini habet oeteo" Vj. Oetaeo inlatae] metaoem late Oxf. /werwnt] 
0, /uermi Oxf. BM. ^cciws] [Or. s AB], ^cims BCRV Oxf. [Or. s V 2 ]. 
let iiis L, [accMttws Or. s V 1 , aceius Or. s C]. aeternam] aeterni C. apucZ 
tn/e? os] om. L, before Homerus C, after conveniri RV. co/ive?iiri] conuenire H. 
Ulixe] Ulyxe R, Ulysse V. excesserant] Oxf. [Or. s V 1 eo;cesse? ai] wa 
quamquam] BO, wia; aliquem H, om. L, <icta aquam N. gwew] om. BHT. 42 
coZamus] colarnus Oxf. u] /iii Oxf. [Or. s ABV], /a T. interiores] 
antiquiores N. antiquissimum] Herculem add UTHNVj. lore ?iatwm] 
louem natum IL Oxf. [Or. s B], natum T. ifem Jove antiquissimo] ant. it. I. UT 
[Or. s P]. lowes] iowis M Oxf. [Or. s A^PV], plures Hercules adds N. Grae- 
corum] graecum B, om. L. litteris] libris N. e<] om. H. Lysitlioe] 
Creuzer, lysito B, lisico TH, Ztcifo U, Z/szio Oxf. OILMC, lisitto N, Zi/s/co R, 
liscito V, lyscito Vj. is] /iz s B, om. MR. Apolline] App. MCR. 
accepimus] Oxf. [Or. s V corr. ex accipirnus]. aiunt] om. B, agunt L. Phry- 
gias] frigias BC Oxf. Idaeis Digitis] Oxf., ezs digitis H, Idaeis indigcntis L, 
ideis indigetis 0, indeis indigitis U, cZm indigetis NR, ydaeis indigetis TV, 
ydaeis indigenis " exemplar guerini habet digitis " V : . cwfj c?tm H, cwr (by 
corr.) T. Quarts] UMOCRV, C7wi quartus T Oxf. BHI, CMI quartus est L, Q-wi 
quartus est N. lovis esi e^ Asteriae] asteriae est lovis UT, est om. H, est Asteri 
ex iouis I, est before Iow s CO. et Asteriae] CO, om. et Oxf. others. soron s] 
jfiZiws adds C. g?ti Tyri...colitur] quern (quam N) Tlrii . . .colunt UILONV. 
Carthaginem] Cartaginem BMC, Karthaginctn H Oxf. in India] in om. B, 
ex India I, tw media L, invidia Oxf. Belus] bellus HN. 7z/c] 7i?c est U, 
/tic gui T [Or. s B]." Alcmena] [Or. s X], Alcumena MV, Alcumenta C, 
Corssen n. 131. ferunt] fertur 0. loyes etiam] etiam om. H, /ores 
esse L, etiaw loues C,jovis etiam Oxf. [Or. s V]. accepimus] Oxf. 

XVII. deduxit] deducit (misprint) Klotz. maiorum] malorum B. 43 
capedunculis] pecudunculis B, capendunculis R. it s] om. Oxf. BHMCRV, 



4.S COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 

his UTILV^ is N. quam rationibus] B-f, [quam refers it rationibus 

Or. s C in marg.]. ei] eis B qui me] prime Oxf. deae ? 

si Nymphae] om. HT. Panisci] MO Oxf., panes BC, panisor L, Pana V, 

Panasci V r ct] om. TM Oxf. [Or. s V]. deae quidem] Oxf., quidein deae 

UTH, quidem om. I. igitur] om. UMCRV. ^f] om. H, ad [Or. s V] Oxf. V, 
text V 15 aut T. eanm] dearum MRU. A r e ceferi] Oxf., A T t c cef. BH, 

igitur ne cet. CR, Quid igitur? ne cet. others, except Nom. nc...dedicata. qui- 
deni\ om. H. ergo] om. MCR. deos numeras] C, deum n. others, after 

porro in IOLUT. Orcus f rater eorurn deus] ortus sunt eoruui dii H, for 

Orcus, OrchusV, for eorum, earum V, text V r illi] illiJhiuiiC. Jiuere] 

fuerunt H,fluunt UTOL [Or. s P], dicuntur] dicunt HN, om. LOUT [Or. s P]. 

Cocytus] cay thus B, coJiatus N, cocitus Oxf., [cocythus Or. s BCV]. ,S ty.r] om. 

BMNOCUT. Pyriplilegetlioii] piriflegeton Oxf. BC,flegeton H, pirlus Jlegeton 

44 N, plilegeton RV. di] dii swnf B [Or. s C]. id quidem repudiandiiin] hi 

repudiandi C, ? d quidein repudiandi V, text V r Orcs] orftts H. igitur] 

dicitur M, deus C. dicitis] dicam B, dicitur N. ^ #o] om. Oxf. Haec] 

Oxf. [fcac Or. s V], 7i/f H. aiebat] 0, agclat BHMCRV Oxf. aiebat (2nd)] 

a/yeiaf BM Oxf. [Or. s V 1 ]. ii] hi BH, hii Oxf. negari] 0, id ?i^ari H. 

colunt ad occidentem] ad oc. col. UT [Or. s P]. Caelum] Caelium MR. a 

genealogis] a genealogiis Oxf. UT HMCV, age nologiis N. antiquis] om. H. 

DoZws] Z, Dolor Ernesti. 3/efiw] UNCRVj, modus TBHIL, ct modus O 1 , ct 

mondus O 2 , motus Oxf. MV. Lfror] before ;/i?^ts NO. Invidentia] In- 

uidia HR. Querella] [Or. s V 2 ], querela B Oxf. [Or. s CE], quaerela V [guag- 

reMa Or. s ABV 1 ]. -Er<?5o] herebo C, nafos erebro Oxf. natos ferunf] 

ferunt Oxf. ? Ma tollejida] t. i. UT. 



45 XVIII. ^n scs] Aristeus V [Or. s ACVj. dicitur] after inventor VUT. 
Apollinia] Apollini B. Theseus qui] BUT, teseus qui 0, Theseusque MR Oxf. , 
Theseus Davies from Cod. Med. reliqui quorum] reliquorum Oxf., reliquique 
q. C. di...?Ma/re6 ] om. R. wiafres] d^ae adds C. iitre] Walker, i/i 
iw;-e Z Oxf. 0. est matre lib era] de mat re libera est UTO. tte?n] ifa H. 
j Mre] de jure UT. dea ?ia^-e] BM, matre dea C, de dca matre OUTV, dea 
matre quae Oxf. Astypalaeenses] astypalis non se B, om. (lacuna) H, as<i 
pallis in se M, astiphalis N, Astipalenses C, Astypalis Nisae R, Astiphalissa V, 
astifalisa 0, Astipalissea V 15 astipalinse Oxf., astipalisse UT. insulaui] om. 
(lacuna) H, insula NVUTO. sanctissime] B Oxf., sanctissimum HLOVT. 
coZttnt] coZz t 0V. jR/esj<.s] /K?SHS B, esws HI, esus T, esews L, e^sws (in 
marg. museus), Theseus Oxf. UMNCRV. maritumae] maritandaene heae L, 

46 maritumne 0, maritimae hae T, maximae hae U. &i] Sed MR Oxf. 7io?zores] 
Oxf. BO. immortalitatibus B, immortalibus LNOV. ^wtas] p-wfes RV, 
text V x . Hecatam] Hecatonam H, Hecatem MRV, etatem 0, heccatam Oxf. 
so/we] oror N [Or. s P]. ejus] ei T. Athenis fajium] Oxf., 
fatuum (in marg. fanum) 0, fanus B. interpretor] interpretator B, 
pretorum Oxf. Zwcits] Oxf. locus B, Zocos L, Zucos 0. Furinae Furiae] 
Oxf. , furmie furiae H, Furiaene UTIL, Furiae Furinae N. deae siw] Oxf., 

47 desuni N, sunt deae UT. Natio] Oxf. BHLV, Nascio V l others, [ratio Or. s V]. 
cui] citiMsHVj. circM??ii/;ius] [Or. s ABCV], circuimus BHMCRV Oxf. [Or. s 
EP]. in a#ro] magni B. ^/-dcafi] A,rdcatino LCVT. commcmora- 



COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 49 

bantur] commemorantur TO, commemorabunt ur H [Or. s P]. mens] mens et UT. 
omniaque quae] Oxf. nobismet] nobis ILO. ipsi] om. IOL, ipsis 

Oxf. BUT others. possumus finger e\ confingere possuimis U, uolumus con 

fingere uelpossumus IOLT. ne] ?zec VTU. 

XIX. accipimus] B Oxf. U, accepimus ONV. cwr] gwr M. r?i] 0, om. 
HMRV, before eodem V l Oxf. Serapim Isimque] Oxf., S. hisimque B, $. tp- 
s unique H, Seraphim Isimque I, Serapliin et signae L, Seraphim usimque N. 
numeremus] numeramus C. cwr] gwur B, guiwi H. repudiemus] repu- 
diem H, repudiamus C. ei egwos] Oxf. i&is] i&i B, ties ef UT. acci- 
pitres] Oxf. B, ancipitres 0. crocodi Zos] crocodillos BV^ cocodlllos Oxf., 
corcodrilos T, crocodrillos C, chocodrillos V P /eZt s] LCR [Or. s BV^./aeZes 
[Or. s C] BHN, /aeZj s [Or. s AV 2 ] M, phoenices 0, ^/teZes Oxf., /eZes [Or. s E]. 
numerum] BMCRV, numero HILNV! Oxf. UT. demde] demurn HIVUT, dciw 48 
V r Ino dea] Medea HIVUT. ducetur} B, diceret I, dicitur C, dicetur 
Oxf. UT others. et] Z [Or. s X], quae Davies and other edd. AevKoBta] 
leuchothea B, leuchotea Oxf. [Or. s E], eulocliorea (om. ef) N, Leucothoa R, 
leucotea V, leucothea others [Or. s ABV], [Lcucathea Or. s C, lechothea Or. s Pj. 
3/aiwto] Oxf., matura B, natura IN. dicetur] [Or. s X] om. L, dicitur R Dav. 
Heind. CWj/ii] eadem cadmi Ox.f. Pasiphae et Aeeta e Perseide] pasi- 
phe et eace perside Oxf., pasiphe et e Perside T, Pasipheae et heae e Perside B, 
Pasiphe et hesperidae H, pasife et erpcrides 0, Pasiphae et epside I, Pasiphae et 
eperside L, Pasiphae et ceae perside M, Pasiphae et he hesperide N, Pasiphae et 
cee C, Pasyphae et cee Perside R, Pasiphae et eee e Perside U, Pasiphae et hespe- 
ridesV, " exemplar guerini habet e aeaeae" V 1? Pasiphae et Aeetes e Perseide 
Ernesti. filia] filiae TUBHLNV, ,/ih e nate Oxf. SoZe] Oxf,, soZo UH, 

M, et persida Oceanifilia here C. Circen] Oxf., Circem BN. (7tr- 

Cercienses BC, Circienses RMVOxf., circenses 0. cZwc/s] B, dicitis HG, 

Oxf. UT others. avis] a?mi$ N, yis Oxf. Oceano] occeano NO Oxf. 

Aeeta patre matre Idyia] et a patre matridyla B [Or. s ABCP], et a patre matri- 
dila TLOMRV Oxf. [Or. s EV], patre et matre H, et patre et matre N, et patre mar- 
tigena C, et a patre matre dea UV 1? et a patre matre idyia V 2 . est] om. H. 

Absyrto] Absyrtio [Or. s ACEP] UBHV X , obsirtio Oxf. [Or. s V 1 ], obscircio M, 
abscisio T, ab sircio C, Absirtio V [Or. s BV 2 ]. Aegialeus] argileus H, [e(yfia- 

Itvis Or. s B], egialeus V, text V r usitatius] est us. HR. Ino] Itoio H, 

?awo I, homo N. Trophonius] triformis Oxf. z i JBoeotia] in Boetia 49 

C Oxf. [Or. s CEV], inbo etiam B. wZZos] 0. si sunt] sunt si B, si om. R. 

7ti] M R. Erectheus] B, Ericteus H, aratheus M 1 , eratheus Oxf. M 2 , erateus N, 

Erictheus COR, Eritheus V, text V r guzd aui] quidautem UT. patriae 

libertate] libertate patriae TU. memoriam] memoria "B. Erectheus] 50 

erecteus Oxf., eritheus T, ericteus 0, aerictheus M. Jiliaeque] 0, iZZi ae^ue B, 

_/iZae 7tt aegwe WL,jilie eque Oxf. Leontidum~\ V 1} Leonaticum Oxf. Z, ex 

cept Leonarticum H. Aew/copto^] Clavel, Leochorion B, Leuconon T, Z/eo- 

corion others. Alabandenses quidem] BM Oxf., alabandis is quern H, 

alabandes is quidem 0. Alabandum] Alabandi H. gwos] 7tos B. ?zo] 

om. B. wt] om. Oxf. ei] eiz^s B. wtoZesfws] Oxf., molestius BR 

[Or. s C]. mg co?i^rmart] confirm, esse UT. 

XX. cZea esf] Oxf. [Or. s V 2 , d<?es Or. s V 1 ]. en-aw^es] om. Oxf. nume- 51 
rwt] naturam R. .-irr/fa] OR, a/ cwi Oxf., arei B, a re MS UTHNV, ?ius I, 

M. C. III. 4 



50 COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 

atqui L, arci others. speciem quia causam] OUT Oxf. Z, causam quia spe- 

ciem V r habet] Ernesti, liabeat Z, except om. H. Thaumante] Thaumantem 
B, et athamante H, tamiiante C, Taumante R, Thaumate V, text V r 
Oxf., om. CRV, Im esse Ant. Augustinus. ?zafa] 0, natus C. 

arquus R. coZora^X] Davies, coloratux Z Oxf. 0. centanros] cen- 

taurus B. rettuleris] retuleris BCRV, intuleris H. dei putandi] del 

putandi sunt TH Oxf., s?w del putandi V. fluctibus] fructibus Oxf. [Or. s 

52 PV]. consuerunt] T, consueuerunt HLN. !<(?] T;?i EHMO, Tamen NV, 

text V r &/] BL [Or. s ABCEP], m U Oxf. HV [Or. s V], ? M, msi CR, Si 

Heinclorf. ware] H, mater Oxf. T BHLMCV, <? mater I, text V 1 , ?7iart 0. 

etiam quern] etiamque BC, etiam om. I, em?u e quern V, text V r iLZaso] 

Marius H, Marso marsus C, Marso UT Oxf. others, A 7 aso Vj. z/i augurum] 

maugurem Oxf. Anienem] R, cmemonem UT Oxf, BLNC, anemorie H, anenio- 

nem MV, Anionem V x Heind.. Almonem Ursinus. Nodinum] nodutum 

H, adumen N, nodnium R. t inmensum~] in om. B, immensitatem aliquam 

LUT. recipiemus] 0, recipimus B, accipiemus MV, text Vj. lionim] 

BHMO, eorum nomina 0. 



53 XXI. z7fos] om. Oxf. efia?] a#awi TL, </i <?tta?u U, om. C. i/] /;/ 
TH, c??/os (fi being read as a numeral) UMCRV^ om. Oxf. .4rcafZ/a] Archadia 
C Oxf. [Or. s EV], archadiam 0. jp af? e Aethere] p. aetherae B, de patre 0. 
Caelo] Caelio UT. J/i/zerraw] inivemm Oxf. Cretensem] cretens est B. 
At6cr/coi; / oot] Dioscorte B Oxf., Dioscorldae HLV, dioscoridem T, vistoride I, 
Dioscorce M, discordiae N, Dyoscori C, Dioscuroe R, Dioscuri V 1} diescoure 0. 
?Tr/e t7oi e] t7. ? . T. "Afa/ces] Swainson, anacthes B, anathes 0, anacei HN, 
awa fres I, Anactes Oxf. MCRV, anaces V 7 , "Ava/cres Clavel. Tritopa- 
treus] UT Oxf. MRV, Tr/fo patreus B, Tricopateus I, Tritropatrens C. T/v - 
topatreus . . .nati] om. HLNO. Eubuleus] Oxf., e abides B, cuboleus UI. 
Dionysus] Dionisius BC [Or. s BCEV], Dyonysius M, Dionysius RV. d?^o] 
C, om. others. e Lec?] ea; LecZa NV, text V 15 ci e.r L. UT. a ?to- 
nullis] an non nullis B, Antemdus MR. ^4?co] 0, ^4/t o ILV, rt /eo N. J/c- 
ZaiwjJMs] manelippus I, mencilapus L, malapus 0. e Tmolus] Davies, 
Emolus TBILOV, ciuolus H, emollus N, Euiolus MR, <?r/o /;s Oxf., Eureolus U, 

54 e Emolus C, Eniohts V r yZZii] Oxf., jffZitts N, [yiZ/ Or. s AV 1 ]. aZ^7-o 
<?f ^Vtf^o] Crenzer, altcro natae ct B, aZie ?iato H, altero nata et Oxf. 
TILMCV, altitnnante et N, altero nata ex UR, altcro et ex V 1? altcro natae Baiter 
omitting ?id before ZOIT. Tlielxinoe Aocde Arclie Melete] theixinone 
cede arcJicmel et liae B, <?f/: j i woe ?zoc cZe arcliamelotc H, torxineo est de arcliime- 
lete I, teixlnoe de archimelete T, teixinoneo edearclie mclete U, tersimeone de archi- 
mclete 0, teixineone de archimenalete L, Theixinoneo Edearclie Melete MR, 
elsimonco edearclie melete N, etheixinoneo et edearclie ct melcte C, Thelximone 
edearclie melete V, teximus eo ede arclie melete Oxf. ei Mnemosyne .. .tertiae] 
om. H. Mnemosyne] nemosine T Oxf. BMCRV, memorie N, Mnemosinc V i . 
tertiae] Gronovius, tertiae loue tertio UBMNCRV Oxf., ft rfm a lowe Terpliopierie 
I, Tertio loue tertio pieriae LT and (omitting 2nd tertio) 0. P<?ro] Oxf. , 
Picrio HV, pijerio N, om. T. Picrias] plcrias B Oxf., jJi Z/a H, pelias I, j^rf- 
Z/as L, proclias 0, prelias T. e corfcm] BHIV [Or. s V 2 ], eodemqnc C, eocZe//t 
Oxf. [Or. s V 1 ] others. g^o] guos B Oxf., tf(/o<Z T. proximae] IM, maxime 
V, proxime others. 3?n a] Oxf., co ^f<orf MC. appellatum~\ BO, appel- 



COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 51 

latus Oxf. MV. Ilyperione] hyprione B, ex pione I, Hipione R, hisperione 

Oxf. Volcano Nili] uolcanoni B. Heliopolis] Oxf., eZ. B [Or. s AC], 

is] [corr. fr. his Or. s V], Ms B, om. L. quern] Oxf., qui LMCRVj. Oerca- 

phum Rhode peperisse dicitur patrem lalysi Camiri Lindi unde Rhodii] Swainson, 
acantorhodi p. d. ialisycameri tinderhodi B, (lacuna) p. d. et alisi cameritinde 
rhodi H, a cantu redi se periisse d. Thalista meritui derthodi IT (only that T 
ends with tinderthodi), acantu redi p. d. thaliscei meritindettliodi L, acantii rodi 
p. d. talisca meritum tertodi 0, Achanto (Athanto R) peperisse lalysi Cameritinde 
Rhodi MRU (only that U has earner inde), achanto rodi p. d. yliasi chamerintide 
rodi N, dicitur genuisse achandorodi hialisi chameri tinderhodi C, a canto rodi p. 
d. ialysi cameritraderodi Oxf., Achanto Rhodi p. d. lalysi cameritinde rhodi V. 
quintus fertur] om. Oxf. Colchis] colohis B, Cholchis C. Aeetam] 

ctam BC, aeram H, oetam MV, aeream N, Oetham R, et amet Oxf. Circam] 

B Oxf., certam 0, cicam N, Circen R, circem V. 

XXII. Caelo] caelio UT. Apollinem] dicunt Ap. natum C. Nilo] 55 
MRV, in Nilo Oxf. TBIOC, et in L. Phthas] Opos B, 4pis C, Opas Oxf. UTO 
others. esse Aegypti] egipti esse Oxf. UT, Aegyptii esse C, esse Aegyptii Vj 
[Or. s V 1 ]. traditur] fertur HN, dicitur LUT. Menaeno] Swainson after 
Creuzer, we 7?jaZzo B, Memalio HMRV Oxf. , menalaio L, manalio 0, z?i emalio NO, 
Mimalio V x . D/e] wia I, dia NOV [Or. s P] UT (the two last also put natus 56 
before Dia). o&sc<??zius] obscenis UT. Co? o?itdl/s] Davies, foronid is 
BLOC, Phoronidis Oxf. HRV 15 feronidis M, plwroni diis N, pheronidis V. ? s] 
Oxf. [Or. s V 2 ], /it s B [Or. s BV 1 ]. i efe/?t] I^?ft B. feriiws Jove tertio 
natus] tertio jove tertius natus Oxf. [Or. s A 1 ]. Maia] mala B Oxf. mola H. 
Penelopa] B Oxf., Penelopana N, Penolapa R, Penolopa V, [Poenelopa Or. s AVJ. 
Prwa] B, om. THLONC [Or. s A 2 P]. ?mfm?z] ?tatos C. ferunt] fuerunt 

B. Tie/as] nephas CR [corr. from nefans Or. s AV]. Pheneatae] feneatae 

B Oxf. [Or. s CV],Jinere U,fenete C, feneate V [Or. s Ej. g-ui] argentum in- 

uenisse et adds R. Argum dicitur interemisse] interemisse argentum dicitur 

Oxf. Argum] EO, argentum H.M. Aegyptum profugisse] B, Aegypto pro- 

fuisse H, Aegypto praefuisse UTLONCV, Aegyptum praefuisse MR Oxf. Thotli] 
theyr BM, /*m THI, <e?/i 0, t/iez/i LV X , i/iet N, i/i<?<> UCRV Oxf. eodemque] 

eodem MCRV [Or. s V]. Apollinis] Ap. jilius C. Arcades] archades 57 

[Or. s V] Oxf. HCV, text V^ specillum] Oxf., speculum BUTNOV [Or. s PV 2 ]. 

obligavisse] alligasse ILUT. Cynosuris] 0, gynosuris B Oxf. , gignosuris C, 

ginosuris M, Cinosuris V, text V a . ^rsi^i] aripi B, Arisippi TV r ^rsi- 
?ioag] Ars jilius C, Arsinoe V [Or. s ABC]. aZvi dentisque evolsionem] om. B. 

Zucws] Oxf., Zociw H [Or. s V 2 ], Zwct s N. 

XXIII. Apollinum...Veiiere tertia (60)] om. L. is] his B, om. M. antea 
e] [Or. s ABCV] Oxf. BMCR, ante e [Or. s EP] ION, ante ex V. esse] om. B. 
Corybantis] chorib. BC, Corift. V, text V r Delphos] delfos Oxf. No/ntoy] 
nomonem UH, monnonem I, Nomion V 1? nomionem T Oxf. others. pennatum] 58 
[Or. s BE] THC, pinnatum others. genuisse dicitur] genuit UT. ?ioior] 
?aior V, text V 1} [?n zor Or. s V 1 ]. accepimus] accipimus UT [Or. s P]. 
tertiae pater Upis...Cupidinem secundum natum accepimus (59)] om. B [Or. s C]. 
tertiae] tertia H. pater Upis] Oxf., pater rupis H, patempis I, .pater Opi V r 

Graeci] Graeci saepe UT early edd. Upim] uperum H, iupitcr I, 

42 



52 COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 

OpimV r Dionysos] dionysios THV, dionisios C [Or. sE], dyonisios [Or. s 

A -P], Nysam] Nisam Oxf. CV [Or. s V]. Cabiro] ea primo H, Gapro 

UMRV 15 Capreo N, Caprio CV Oxf., capio 0, caprino T. cwi Sdbazia] cuius 

abameas insti H, cimts Abazea IMR Oxf., CZ/JMS abazia T, cu/ws a& area NC, cwiws 
a&areaVOU, cums henazeaV r Nyso] Swainson, Mso Z. Thyone] chione 

59 N, TMone CE [Or. s BE]. EZide] eZi MV, Cell R, text V x , cZmta* 0. Elide 
delubrum] elidulubrum Oxf. vidimus] 0, uidemus UMN [Or. s V 1 ]. Jler- 
cwrzo] mercurius Oxf. tertia] tertio Oxf. [Or. s B]. .E Diona] e Diana 
BN Oxf., a Diona C, et Dione V, text V r e Marte] marie Oxf. ^?iferos] 
Oxf. BO, ante ros H, Antheros V, [an^neros Or. s A 2 B 2 ]. Syria] Scythia H, 
/S iria C, sirj o Oxf. Cyproque] V 15 cyroque UBH, ciroque TICR, siroquc Oxf., 
Cyrroque MV, cirraque N. proditum] praedictum V, text V x , traditum UT. 
apollinis ] Oxf., Apollonis [Or. s AV 1 ]. Aegyptii] egiptiis B. Sa itae] 
alete B, selatae TH, saZefe UMOCRV, soZete Oxf., saZZcfe N, text V r o^a?] 
gMae B. a] UTBO, om. Oxf. M. Coryphe Oceani] corufescem 
B, corit ferociani Oxf., corrufice Oc. N, Conife Oc. [Or. s X] UC, Compile Oc. R, 
Coriphe Oc. V. IVO/MCU/] Corian BMR, co?-/o N, Corlam Oxf. others. ferunt] 
nominant Oxf. Pallantis] palantes Oxf., palantis UT. pennamwi] C, 

60 pinnarum others. gwi id^m esf] quidem cst Oxf. Z, except om. I. ^n- 
teros] antheros Oxf., [anteneros Or. s A 2 B 2 ], antenneros 0. afgue /taec] ei 
7zaec Oxf. aliaque] atque Oxf. MCRV, om. UTBHIL, et N. ?io/i rcfellunt] 
7ion om. HLT. quicque] quidque B. 

61 XXIV. A r wm] 7?o?i H, nonne Oxf. 7n//t ?nocZ/] ILM ^N, crws ?uo(Z BM 2 CRV 
Oxf., /miws H. a?^ e?ii?u in nobismet insunt] Oxf., t?i oZ>i s autem insunt T 
and (adding r?ief before insunt) LO. ?(i mens...optandae nobis aunt] om. LT. 
ut fides, &c.] wi om. throughout H. s^;es] om. CRU. ut salus ut] 
salus H Oxf. , et salus et 0. rerwm] om. MCV. utilitatein] iitilitate 
MCRV Oxf. ruteo] uidetis UHV r r/rfeo cfzarw] video om. MCRV Oxf. 

62 in eis] Oxf., in his UT. explicatio] LMO Oxf., explanatio BC. Exsec- 
tum] B, exectum L, eiectum N. Cefo<w] Caelium CRVU, Gael urn Jilio om. T. 
rmctuw] uictum N, iunctum V, text V : . ?Ya] Z, except om. N, ros /a Heind. 
from Cod. Glog. n gia] BO Oxf., [7ti gitt UT Or. s BP, u quiqui Or. s A^V 1 , 
ii quiquam Or. s C]. vortit] euertit THV 1 , uertit others. minatur] 
minuatur LNT. quid Veiovi] quidne loui UHCV 1? quidue loui Oxf. MRV, 
quidne louis N, quid Jovi T. ductum] dictum BHT. magis tu mihi 
natare visus en] (reading videris for visus cs UT), tu mild magna narrare uiderls L, 

63 tu mihi uere uisus es N, tu mihi magis natare uisus es C. vocabulorumque] C, 
uocabulorum others. quique ita appellati sint] C (except cuique), quique ita 
appellatum sit B, quique ita appellant cum sit Oxf., quisque ita sit appellatus H, 
quique ita appellatus sit L, quique ita appellantur undesit M (and U, only reading 
appellatunde), quisque ita appellatus sit NO, quicque ita appellatur unde sit R, 
quique ita appellati sit V, quicque ita appellati sit V r atque] adque B. 

XXV. non modo] N, non solum C, modo om. Oxf. others. ad] et Z Oxf. UT, 
et Orbonae ad Manutius from MSS. of Maffasus and Sigonius and so the 
Bologna edition of 1494. Lamm] Larium V 1; larum est Oxf. Exquiliis] 

HLMO Oxf., equilus B, esquiliis CR, ex quibus U, "exemplar guerini habet ex 

64 quibus " V r a philosophia pcllatur] M Oxf., a pli dosophi appellatur B, a philo- 



COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 53 

gophis appellatur HILONUT, a philosopJiis pellatur Hervag. et] Swainson, ut 

Z, atque Moser. dicamus digna dis inmortalibus] dicali usu igna his inmor- 

talibus B, dicali usu ignais immortal itatibus Oxf., dicamus digna dis om. (lacuna) 
H, dicali usu ignaris immortalibus TIL and reading mortalibus, dicali usu loqua- 
mur UMCR, die alio usu igneis immortalibus N, dicali usu loquimur ignaris mor 
talibus V, dicali usu is interpreted "more usitato loquendi ac uulgari" by Vj. 
quod. ..quod] Ernesti, quid. ..quid Z Oxf. autem] etiam MCRV. cum] 

om. Oxf. per mare] Oxf., permanere B. pertinentem H, pergentem 

TLONV [Or. s P]. idem de Cerere] id detrahere H, [idem decedere Or. s V 1 ]. 

suspicions] suspitione HIL Baiter, so Fleckeisen in Plautus but see Corssen i. 56. 
Itaque] idque B. est] om. B. ut et esse] MOHL, et ut esse B Oxf. 

discere] discedere B, disce cognoscere H, discere et cognoscere R. possim] Oxf., 

[possum Or. s E]. quales] BO, quam quales RV Oxf. [Or. s V 2 ]. eos] 

om. R. deorumne] Oxf., deorum B, an deorum H. providentia] M Oxf., 65 

prudentia TOB. consulantne di] BC, consulantne de OL, consulaturne MR, 

consulantne H Oxf. others. partitione] participations C, partione Oxf. 

rofr/s] no&j s Oxf. U. et z7s] CR [Or. s B 2 CV], e.r /MS H, et his UT Oxf. others. 

fateare] fatur a te 0. nequaquam] nee ILT. zstuc] M, istud HNO. 

z stac ? &zt] his tacebit B, ista Tmec ibique Oxf., isthac ibit H, citabit I, tsta citabit 
LO, z staec t 6i< MV, zs tacebit C, z sta ste&z t T. 



XXVI. ^?i J/ecZea] Swainson, Niobern B, om. H, ^4?i A T io&e UTILVj, an 66 
zo&ewi M, anioben Oxf., aniobe 0, molem N, Inobem C, anniobe R, a mo&e V. 
^an<;n] LV 1? parumne Oxf. others. ^oZi esse gj^od] om. Oxf. esse] om. 
BHMOCRVUT. voZt] woZo V, text Vj. ita dat] om. 0. se res] feres Oxf. 
versus] WSMS H, verus UT. I^Ze traversal ^ e transfusa H, tZ^e transuersa 
Oxf. ULMNR, tZZe inquit transuersa C, tZJa tamen uersa V, z7Za transuersa Vj. 
??ze?iie] zn mentem HN. mi /todze] Oxf., mz /ii Tiodt e BHRV, /todi e om. L, Tiodz e 
mzc/zi N, mic/ii hodie C. pernitiem] Oxf. da&o] daftz s B, om. T. 
luctum] lucrum H. exitium] M, exitum BHLO Oxf. vos] wos B. Medea] 67 
itidem Media C. ] om. H Oxf. puerum] quercum Oxf. articulatim] 
particulatim UTO. dispergit] dispargit MRV, text V 15 cf. Corssen n. 399. 
dissipatos] disputatos B [Or. s C]. Mi] e UTHVj, om. L. tardaret] 
trader et LN. salutem] ipsa generaret add ILT. ^are? e] Oxf., pararet 
MCRV, praestaret U. t^] et B. we ratio quidem] nee r. quidem MV X , 68 
?zec r. quid V. 

XXVII. zw/ea-e] illexe Or. s V 2 Oxf. HMO, illese U, z7/e^?e LT, t7eare Or. s V 1 , 
illesisse N, illexisse CV. re tw] Oxf. [Or. s ABEPV], in re in B [Or. s C 1 , in re 
UT Or. s C 2 ]. coinquinari] Oxf., quo inquinari B, conquinari H, coinqui- 
natu R. regias contaminari] regiam cont. Oxf. UIMRV, om. C. ac 
mt sceri] Eibbeck, admisceri ZUT. 4t] Oxf., ^4 a 1 HLCT. id] id quidem U. 
caelestum] scelestum HI, caelestium V. stabilimen] stabilimum H, stabili- 
mentum NR, stabilimem C. Quern cZa??i] UTR, Quewi cZari H, Qwem dat N, 
gwem dant Oxf., Qwem dicunt C, Quendam BMO others. Thyestem] thiestem 
BV, thiesten C, hyestem Oxf., thyestes UT. cZe^ere] depere BH, Cleopatra N, 
marg. only C. ausum esse] esse ausum HN, aussum esse C, awsws est UT (est 
after regia U). Qwa] a gua UTBHLM, agwa Oxf., esse a2 Ma 0> -4* 2 W B- 

in re] inire U. conjugem cepit] adjungere tempus 0. ?-e/erta] refercta M. 69 



54* COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 

*aepe\ Manutius, semper Z Oxf. UT. ontnino] animo B. datani\ natum 

HNT. Ut] om. B. spe] spem B, saepe H. est] Schumann, sit 

70 Oxf. UOZ, except sunt H. salutaris] sahitaria H. tarn ] om. UT. m] 
. Oxf., /* C, /*/* V. v /s [Or. s C], his V Oxf. T [Or. s BEP]. ulli sunt esse] M, 

nlli sint ese Oxf. B, it cits iutercxxe H, ?<Z//s interessc LT, ZZi interesse 0, ?ZZi snit 
< * * N. 

XXVIII. nemini] tiuJU UT. Quisquamne] M Oxf., quisquam BH, gw/s TO 
[Or. s B 2 ]. ? suc] istnd Oxf. 0. nocere Deianira] 0, ?i. demaira Oxf., [. 
Dianae ira Or. s B], nocere de laniaria L, IX nocere R. c?on e/] 0, c?<< B. 
Pheraeo] ferro N, phereo V, ferreo 0. lasoni is] Oxf., iso?i / B, lasoni HN, 
lason CO, lason is "R, potuerani] Oxf. [-? i Or. s V 2 ], pot er ant CVT. x/ 

71 /s] s<* /i/-s B [Or. s P]. at suscipitur] Oxf. T, ? sc^/s suacipitur UHRV 15 
a?tt suspicitur C. ?YZ <?sf] ??/ B. I t^ra] era <?sf RVjU. a < 

RV. &o?tai] &o?ia B (T, which also has ratio and 6ona below). 

vobis Oxf. A"o?i e/i/wi. ?/t] non ut enini B, /Jeo ne sic tit cut H. Qu/J] 

quin B. j?of/;^s] not ins M [Or. s V], nocuis Oxf., noceiitiu* G. //*] Oxf., 

7\s- M [Or. s B], /tfe [Or. s E] T. /jiV] -/s C [Or. s AV 1 , us CV-J. 

XXIX. Jl/6 rfe] Oxf., Media LN. commeniorabantur] M, commemora- 
batur Oxf. B, commcmorabitur 0. lieroicae] Oxf., haeroicae V, [hieroicae 
Or. s V]. nn ta subductaqne] Oxf., /c^a snbdnctaque UMR, wiz ta seductaque N, 
prouictaque C. ratione] persona uel ratione ILT, after ratione Oxf. inserts 

72 from below ^t ? amore inopia. coinicae] MO, cornitiae N, cornice B. 
,sa^9<?] Madvig, semper Z Oxf. .after Eunucho, Oxf. om. gu/VZ redeam. 
rero] om. B. Syn-ephebis] sine febis E, sine febris Oxf . suave] si aue B, 
[si avo Or. s C]. //i //&e/ os] illiberos "Bjin libros C. ??<?c amef] MO Oxf., 

73 jjccari et B, ??ec om. H. f/] sut [Or. s V 1 ] Oxf. UMCRV, text V r fnictu] fletu 
H. avertas] aduertas H. nomen] numen T. parco patre] Oxf., patre parco 
CRV 1 , ^afre j?c/reo V. d/ss(p<?s] BIUT, dissipas Oxf. others, dissipis 0. 
7?(?2<? ut z nJe] ?^gi<g wifZe BU a T, ?2ec an tern H, ?^ge r/u/cZ z?jfZe Oxf. CR, ?Zc gw?VZ 
zfZe VU 2 . art <?HW] after machinam UT. comm-oliar ] commolior [Or. s P] 0. 
fallaciae] facile Oxf. Pliormio] formio Oxf. Cerfo] Oxf. om. B, cr^cZo T. 
sim ??w] ??^7ti su?it CRV, s?w TU. concilia omnia] o. c. niihiUT. 

74 XXX. SCSSH?] sensnm BO. it praetor] item precor "B, ita precor L, in te 
precor 0, ?fc ^recor MUT Oxf. others. ,4f ?VZ] Schiitz, ocZ Oxf. TBILOC, 
a MRV, uZ Davies. At id se Q. Sosius splendidus~] assecutus Sosius U, asse- 
cutus festus H, assequitur Q. S. splendidus N. Q.] Quintus B, quare O. 
transcripserit] Oxf. IMC, transscripserit BL, transcripsit HNU. i. ^Z^7?u.s] 
lalenus B, Lucius Alcnus 0, Valerius H, L. Aienus MC Oxf., Labienm U, Z/. 
Labiemis R, L. Aiemus V, ir. Allienus V^ chirographum] cyrografum B 
[Or. s BCE], cyrographum Oxf. MRV, cirograplmm C. hornine] nomine IL. 
Tolosani] Oxf. [Or. s EPV] HRV, tolossaiii B [Or. s ABC], tholosani NC. lugur- 
thinae] iugurtinae BV Oxf. [Or. s V]. Tubuli] tribuli UH, fa6i<Za N, ?*&/* 
Oxf. capita] 7-a^fa Oxf. iudicandam] indicandam Oxf. U. Pedu- 
caea turn] peduceatum C Oxf. ?;<?ne?;/] C, uenena Oxf. UT others. de./icZe] 
de e.T^tZe LO. fwteZae] BO, Mi wf/Ze H, *ai wti7e M, ta wtz te* Oxf., e< ?^/Z<? N, 
frwi twfeZae R. fiduciae] f. id est deposit i L. ez empto] exempto RV 
[Or/ s A]. Plaetoria] letoria BLMOCRV P latoria Oxf., lectoria INVUT. 



COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 55 

everriculum] BO, et iterriculum Oxf. UMCRV, uerticuhim N, uerriculum V x . 
everriculum malitiarum omnium] om. H. Aquillius] B, Aquilius C, acquilius 

V. a dis] odiz s Oxf. sementim] B, seueritatem L, s?iawOxf., sementem 75 

UT others, Corssen n. 223. rationem] ratione Oxf. malitiam] malitia B, 

et malitiam KV. f acinus] facimus Oxf. , facinusque UT. ilia anus] amis 

ilia Oxf. Caesa accidisset abiegna] caesae accidissent ab igne Oxf. BC, caesae 

occidisset H, cecidissent abiegnae UO, cecidissent ab igni LT, caesae cecidissent 
abiegnae MRV, sese cecidissent N, caesa cecidisset abiegna V v ipsi] fpsis B. 

XXXI. gubernator vim] gubernatorial B. etsi / ] M Oxf., et si&i B, et 76 
/in B, etsi n R, et si w 0, etsi L. tawew] tarn Oxf. si ista] Oxf. [Or. s 
V 2 , sed ista Or. s BV 1 ]. ais] animis T. dedisses] BO, dedisse H. gwa] ^t a 
Oxf. Phaethontem] phetontem Oxf., fethontem B, fetontem C, Phaetontem 
RV. awt] Oxf., awt wt C. Hippolytum] hyppolitum BV, ippolitum C. 

a] om. B. Ett] Davies, et Z Oxf. UT. esset] Madvig, est Z Oxf. UT. 77 

^risto Chius] Arista Cius B, Aristoycus L, Aristochius V Oxf., yln sto Cows V r 
asotos] afotos Oxf. acerbos e] acerbose Oxf., accerbo sen B, a ce? to et C, 

acerbos et URV. sc/ioZa] scota CV [Or. s EV]. philosophorum qui se] 

om. B. philosophos] O 1 , philosophus O 2 , philosophis Z. Us] his UTV Oxf. 

[Or. s P, ? s Or. s AB, hiis Or. s V]. rationem] ratione Oxf. illam] 0, 78 

a/iam B Oxf. dan ] daZi B. meracius] inertius V, meratius V x [Or. s 

AC]. sic vestra ista] si curam istam B. providejitia] Oxf. B, prudentia 

OR [Or. s V 2 ]. dederit] dederim B, dedit H. nomen] numen Davies. 

XXXII. after philosophorum om. majus ponantur Oxf. g-iufews] om. 79 
Oxf. MRV, rest V r vos] nos B. after valere sic om. wtw ?iemo 
s?t Oxf. Ac] At V. 7ii ?rm] om. UT. Telamo] calamo N, 
Telamon CV. iocwm totwm] Zoctwi om. B. cur] ut B, quur H, om. 

C, utrum UV Oxf. ma?e] om. Oxf. sin] si H. &om s] om. 80 

H, bonus is Oxf. duo] duos HCRV Oxf. Scipiones] Oxf., sipiones B. 

Hispania] hysp. B, Spaniam L. Maximus] Marius H, maximis Oxf. Haw- 
?ii6a?] B Oxf., Hasdrubal 0. Paullum] Paulum B. Poenorum crudeli- 

tati] c. p. UT. praebitum] proditum H, [praeditum Or. s B], traditum C. 

cetera] ^era Oxf. [Or. s V 1 ]. Drwsws] drusos Oxf. Vestae] bestae B. 

est Q. /ScaevoZa] Oxf., est gwae /S^c. B, Scaeuola est C, est Seuola V, est Quintus 
Scaevola U. ante etiam] etiam autem C, etia? a?ite UTV [Or. s P]. jper/i- 

diosissimus] perfidissimus N, perniciosissimus C. (7.] (7. N. Q.] om. B [Or. s 
C]. m&ere] wraere B, jzt&et Oxf. deficiat] H, dcficiet LOUTBN, 7?ie deficiet C. 81 
minus si] 0, minus Oxf. commemorem] communi more H. Cw] Qwwr H. 

Jfarms] an s B. septimum] M Oxf., septimus B, septies THINOV 1} decies L, 

septimo C. Cinna] cigna B. at dedit] at tedit C, [addedit Or. s B 1 , 

addidit B 2 ]. 

XXXIII. impedirique] impedireque B. cruciatu] cruciato B. SMJ?- 
plicioque Q.] supplicioque quo T, supplicio C, [supplicio quae que Or. s AV 1 ], sw_p- 
plicioque RV Oxf. Fariws] Marius H. si] 0, sic BMV Oxf., sed UHLCRV r 
^uia] quidem T. /crro] /e&ro H. Metellum] metallum H. _poewas] 
poenis B. quadraginta] xl RV. annos Dionysius tyrannus] Dyonisius 
t. annos UTBILMC, a??wis D. t. HN, Dionysius t. anwos Oxf. RV. opulentis- 



50 COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 

82 sumae] opulent in sumci B. multos] B, multas UTOLH. Graeciac] genere 
LN. fare] om. L. At PJialarix] At phalatris B, c Phalaris UTHRV, 
fidfalaris M [Or. s V], text V 15 . f. falaria Oxf. sustulit] tulit C, sitbstulit 
V. cerf>] Oxf. 0, acra ?<z H, [cm/e Or. s APV 1 ]. Anaxarclium} 
0, anxarcum B Oxf. [Or. s ACE, anxarcltum Or. s V], Dcmocriteum] Oxf. 
BCRV, Democrituiii [Or. s B] LT, diometricum 0, Democrithtm others. r.r- 
carnificatnm] excarniftcatos TL. 7 , Zm?] helene H, [fZ^zV Or. s A], ^//r<? <vc O. 
nwrti] mortem N. 

83 XXXIV. Harpahim] C. Jiarpalum B, arpalum 0. f^Ux] 0, ( /zZ.z m B, 
summits UHRV^ foelix I, fulia M Oxf., infelix panplnlia N, m .s//d C, ??i Pflw- 
pliylia felix Heind. fanum] pJmnnm Oxf. secnndissimo vento] secun- 
dissime MV, secundissimum C, text Vj. cr,s)a?<] c^r.s-;; B. r/r/c??s] ora. 
RV. Idque] Lambinus, af/e OUT Oxf. Z, except a quae V. r^;;/ c ?/?] 
MO Oxf., qui quod B. Peloponnesum] ML, peloponensum B Oxf. [Or. s ABCV, 
pelopemensum E], pelopensem 0. detraxit] Oxf., [detraxum Or. s V]. or- 
?zarf] ornorat B. e manubiis ] Oxf., g jnanubiis is H, e manibus UIN, 
e om. C, f ?. V. Carthaginiensium] Cath. B [Or. s C], Cent. Oxf. [Or. s V] 
C, Carthaginensium V [Or. s A, Kartliaginensium Or. s E]. G<?Zo] 0, Hiero 
IVUT. fl^stafg] aestatae B. r/?^?^] yranem BTHOV Oxf. upturn] UM 
Oxf., om. BHOI, aptius (after tcmpus) T. ownz^] Oxf. , omni E. anni] 
animi Oxf. diceret~\ dcberet H. Aesculapii\ MO, Aesculapi B. ^jj- 

84 fZa^o j] BO Oxf., Epidaurei N, Epidawii R. Idem] lam Oxf. UBHMRV, 
Idemque C, etiam Gulielmius, om. TO. auferri] Oxf., aufferri R, aitferi 
[Or. s BV 1 ]. c;o] N, ^jforf BOT Oxf. others. Bonorum] beatorum H. 

patinas H. coronasgz^e] CMOHV Oxf., coronas B, ef coronas H. 

om. OL. swiulacromm...sustinebantur] s...sustinebant [Or. s P], 

simulacra... sustinebant TH. esse enim] e nim om. MR. precarcmur] 

precamur B. a6 n .s] & 7n /s Oxf. [Or. s V, ab ? s A, afr ///,? BEP]. 7/acc] 

/?aec omnia HR. ^rf/.r/s^] Oxf. dixisse BHLO. quicque] 0, quique B, 

quodque RV, quisque UVj Oxf. sac? 1 /] a sacris Oxf. ZO. rtfZ impietatem] 

Oxf., a<i impletam B, quum adimpleta esset H, cZ om. TLO, cni impietatem 
fecisset N. adiunxit] BO, ax/^ C, [injunxit Or. s C]. 



XXXV. tabescentem] tabescente B, intabescentem LTU. of^z/c] Oxf. 

rn tyrannidis rogum] in Tympanidis rogum B, ??i timpanidis rogum T, m T^/wt- 
panidis H, t?i Tympanidis regum I, m timpanidis regnum L, m tipanidis rogum 
Oxf., 7?i typanidis rogum UM, z ?i timpadis rogum N, t?i tumpadis rogum 0, m 

85 timpanidis rogo C, " al. ? n tympanidils " Vj. ei ?-ecfe] UMRV, e om. T Oxf. 
BILC, rectcque HN. essef] essent B. gua] gwasi B. L T ^ entm] 
HLBO, t em [Or. s V 1 ] MCR Oxf., Etcnim V, text V r raij one] Oxf., 
[ra^ o?ze??i Or. s A^ 1 ]. (//yz/za] Bouhier, divina in homines Oxf. Z, except 

86 divina et hominis I. rf? ] rf?7e B. ar/eZZos] aiellos L, angelos N. w?yfZo] 
urendo B. grando] Oxf., [ghtndo Or. s V 1 ]. cuipiam] TBO, quicpiam 
M, quldpiam H, quippiam LU Oxf. others. ? d Jori] ?VZ<?o m decs H, id ??oui C. 
ne] we H. g?(i(Ze??z,] ^wm ?zec H. P. Eutilii sim HL, ^>. retulii sum 0, 
protulissem B, rutz Zi M, rutilium Oxf. guesfM*] Oxf., quaestus M [Or. s AB], 
conquestus UT. 



COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 57 



XXXVI. hoc] haec UTHN, hie C. frnctuum] Oxf., [fructum Or. s 

id donum] Oxf., uZ om. MRV, rest V r awcf* ] acti Oxf. wacit] B, only 87 

here. fortuiti] fortuitu B [Or/s C]. tawi dts] tamen diis C, [cum diis 

Or. s E]. nostrae landi assumptum] a. n. L UT, [n. a. 1. Or. s P]. urn- 

quam] magister N. At] aut H, ut Oxf. [Or. s V 2 "eadem manu"]. in- 

columis] incolumes B. et maximum] et om. V. ob eas] ab eas C, [abeas 

Or. s V 1 ]. decumam] decimamH. vovit] deuouit L, novit Oxf. e.sseZ] 88 

esseni] B. Pythagoras cum] Protagoras Oxf. t rc] om. B. quiddam 

novi] quiddam nouum HN, noui q. G. immolavisse] Oxf. BCR, immolasse 

OUT others. Apollini] apolloni B. De/io] Delphico H, [Z)<?Zi Or. s B 1 ]. 

hostiarn] hostem N. sanguine] sanguincm B. petendam] putandam 

Oxf. quamvis licet] B, quamvis [Or. s V 2 ] Oxf. ULMORV, quamvis enim C, g?(/* 
T. Jlfmf/] wosfra H. */fa] /fa BHMNRV Oxf. UT. prosperitate*] 

prosperitas B. 



XXXVII. 7?o?i] e?mn C. numquam] umquam B. &onos] &on?<s B. 89 

boni] om. M. arripimus attribuimusqite] HLBO, ascribimus attribuinnisque 

Oxf. UMNRVj, attribuimus ascribimusque C, ascribimus attribuimus V. Samo- 

thracam] B, Samocreta L, samocratam 0, Samotraciam CV, Samothraciam U Oxf. V x 
and others. d ^eos] a^^ws UTBRV, archeus H. a^?^e gz] aiY ei LUT, 

a< gjgrwc 0. quidam] 0, quidem R [Or. s B 2 ]. amt cws] atticus UTIL, 

ornatus Oxf., ef/cws 0. multi] HM Oxf., multis BLO. tempestatis] 

potestatis B. m portumque] importunumque B. ^(J si^ R. nws- 

2waw] miseria B. naufragia] naufragium V. ? w candem] in in candem 

Oxf. navem] LO, nauim HN [Or. s P]. ostendit eis] offendit ei L. 

quaesivitque] quae sui atque B. n s] / s [Or. s BP] UT Oxf., [Ttu s Or. s V 1 , 

f* A]. 



XXXVIII. ^4t c?co] 0, ac ^eo H, adeo L, [a deo with in ras. Or. s A]. rce] 90 
77^c B. poenas] poenam HC. ea;peto7itu?-] L, expectantur OH [Or. s V 1 ], 

expectentur [Or. s V 2 ] Oxf. UTMNRV, exspectentur C. <?ae] ^aec H, /jeae C, 

Jiac UTRV [Or. s P]. a nepotibus a] ac nep. a B, et nep. ac C, ac nep. ac R 
Oxf. B, a nep. ac V, a nep, 0. civitas ulla] ilia ciuitas HC, wZZa civitas 

UT. condernnaretur] condempnaretur C [Or. s V 1 ]. avos] B, anj/.s 

others. Tantalidarum] tantaludarum B, Tantali datus H, ^ania ludorum 

I, Tantali N. quinam] quam Oxf. internicioni] internecioni BRV 1? 

interemptioni N, interneconi C, internectioni V Oxf. paretur] pateretur Oxf., 

[pararetur Or. s B corr. fr. paret]. mortem] morte B. Myrtili] Mirtili 

BC, imquam L, Mystili RV, text Vj. luendis jpoefts] om. Oxf. safr as] L, 

satietas BHCUT, societas N, sacietas V, saucias 0. supplici [Or. s BC], su^>- 

pZicn BCLORV [Or. s V, supplitii A, supplicy E]. etflagitia before a& Mm- 91 

gwe UT. dicuntur LO, da (dwr) H, [om. Or. s P]. e/m ^uer?i] *mm Oxf. 

? am&Ms] iambis BHC. continebat] continebit HN, retinebat L. Aegisthi] 

Aegisti BC, er/isii V, egisthi V x , agesthi Oxf., [aegesthi Or. s V 1 ]. c?/w] om. C. 

cawsam] cawsa B. requirimus] requiri H. paene] om. B [Or. s C], 

poenae MV, [^cerce Or. s B]. rocem] a d^o add UCRV (from above). <?<7o] 

r</o MCUT. Hippocrate] hyppocrate B, ypocrate Oxf. [Or. s CE, ippocrate 

ABV]. judico] Oxf. LO, [judicio Or. s VP 1 ]. oft Apolline] ab oepolline B, 

pocius ab App. C. a Lycurgo] a licurgo BV X , a liggiirgo C, Alycurgo R, a 



58 COLLATIONS OF ENGLISH MSS. 

HaurcoV. Critohiua] Co^iotohnts S, Cnjt. V, [critolarm Or. s AV 1 ]. hi- 

quant] imquam B, nunquam N, inqnit C. Corinthum] [corhintum Or. s AV], 

Corintum B, chorinchum C, Coryntlium V. Carthaginem] RV [Or. s ABV], 

Cartag. B, chartag. C. Hasdrubal] IMR, Asdrubal BHV, Astrubal L, hanibal 

N. #"o] d?<os BV [Or. s V 2 ]. maritumae] Mauritaniae H, maritime L. 

cffoderunt] e/odere R, effuderunt Oxf. aliqui] B, aliquis HR, aZtcwi LMOV 

92 Oxf. UT. rf?] Lambinus Cod. Beg. of Davies and Cod. Fa. of Moser, 

Oxf. Z, except diuum C. ylf] M B, Oxf. c^?-f^J terrae H, om. C. 



XXXIX. rft ?/s om. V. ut enim] et enim "R. fingi] BO, fig i MV Oxf . 

[Or. s V]. mutarique] mutari HLN. Neque] nee B. materiam] 

HL, mater ia Oxf. BOV, text V r 7t/ic] Oxf., Artec BHLTO. ^o.s.se] ^oft st 

93 T. wesctt] ?zescis B. ?ic] nee Z Oxf. T. <?as] om. HR, aeas V. 

?] etiam HR. ^w^s] HRVj, t ?jf/s BILMCCV Oxf. [Or. s PV]. con 

temned] LO, contemnit HV 1? contempnet C [Or. s PV]. x>cr$equi idem] BO, 

2>ersequi qui idem UC Oxf. [Or. s V 2 ], j). o;// iidem RV. SOH</] sompnia 

Oxf. BLO, omnia HMNCRV. Idcirco haec] Idcirco liaec oinnia TH, iccirco 

omnia haec VjU. fecuw] tactum B. siiscipi dicitis oportere] d. s. op. C, 

,s. op. d. V. wo?i c.sse ea??i] earn om. TCR, eawi ?iow esse V. .Fac] /ac/i 

MR, fac ergo U. ^sse] cwrae (abbr.) Oxf. distent am] discentem I, d in 

fant em L, distinctam N, distantiam MCR Oxf. f7<?o.9] om. B. praeficit] 

praefecit CV Oxf. [Or. s EV], /w&wt rfe wa^^ra] de n. Jiabui B. expli 

cate] explicatis B, explicationes T. 

94. XL. /Mem] fecit fincm IUT, finem fecit MRV, /. fccissct C. Lucilins 

autem] et L. etiam L, Lucilius Balbus autem 1J. w ca??i] B, meram H, ? 

0, ? ?i aream istam TI, 771 aeram istam L, ? n meram Oxf. UMRV, "al. //i aram" 
marg. M, contra meram N. providentia~\ provintia B. providentissime] 

BM, praestantissime OL. ??o^/s fZiem aliquem] Oxf. BV, ?io6is aliquam diem N, 

??ic7w d/e?7i aliquem C, d/ewi ?io&? s aliquam R. 7im ?z 7ti] enyi 7toc H, e7i//u 

7 c [Or. s P] T, enrwi 7;oc niiVji UV r /oc/s] /orz s MV, text V x . diligen- 

thisque] diligentius enim H, [diligentius Or. s P]. cingitis] Oxf., [cincitis 

Or. s A^ 1 ]. deseri a me dum] de scria medum Oxf. spzVrtre] sperare C. 

95 rce/as] nephas Oxf. ?zos] vos Oxf. />] B, a HON [Or. s C, ad Or. s B]. 

levia] Oxf., [// Or. s V 1 ]. 



NOTES. 

BOOK III. 

ACADEMIC CRITICISM OF THE STOIC THEOLOGY. 

Introduction. Gotta regards the Stoic doctrine as deserving of 
more serious attention than the Epicurean. For himself he is content 
to believe as his fathers did : if the Stoics profess to base their religion 
on grounds of reason, they must be prepared for criticism, i 1 n 6. 

Ch. i 1. neque tarn refellendi : though not so much with the view 
of refuting you, as to ask for explanation . For the adversative use of 
neque cf. above II 95 nee tamen exissent; I 107 nee ea forma; Of. in 7 
deinceps se scripsit dicturum, nee exsolvit quod promiserat; Sail. Cat. 24 3 
aetas tantum modo quaestui neque luxuriae modum fecerat ; Nep. Them. 10 
4 ait morbo mortuum, neque negat fuisse famam venenum sua sponte 
sumpsisse ; Caes. B. O. VH 62 8 (hostes] collem ceperunt, neque nostrorum 
militum impetum sustinere potuerunt (which is contrary to Hand s rule that 
only the form nee is used by Caesar in this sense) ; Mayor on Plin. Ep. 
ill 1 9; Hand Turs. iv p. 104, Draeg. 318. 7. 

suo cu.iq.ue judicio : the boast of the Academics, cf. i 10. 

id sentire, quod tu veils : to take the view which you would like 
me to take , see Roby 1536. 

2. nescis : you can t think how eager I am to hear you . For cum 
see Index. 

3. sic mehercule : * yes, (I hope so) indeed, for I have a much more 
difficult task before me now . Cf. Phil, n 44 visne igitur te inspiciamus 
a puero ? Sic, opinor, with Mayor s n. Sch. quotes Fin. in 9, where see 
Madv. 

qui tandem : qui is also found without the verb below, 36 qui magis 
(vultis), 40 qui meliora (censetis). Cf. Dumesnil on Leg. I 35. 

pugnare : see. i 75 n. and, on the question of the sincerity of Epicurus, 
I 85, 86, 123 with nn. 

invidiae : cf. invidiae detestandae gratia i 123. 

ludere : i 123 ludimur ab homine, Tusc. II 45 nos ab eo (Epicuro) deri- 
deri puto. 



(JO BOOK ITT CTL T 4. 

4. etiam si minus vera, tamen : Orat. i 109 non intellego quam <>b 
rein, si minus ilia subtili deji.nitione, at hac vulgari opinione ars esse videa- 
tur ; Phil, n 78 ut cognosceret te, si minus fortem, at tamen strenuum. 

apta inter se : of. i 9 n. 

cogito refellere : so Div. n 144 proficisci cogitans, cf. Att. n 9 Antium 
me cogito recipere, Hor. Ep. i 2. 50, A. P. 144, Suet. Ner. 18. 

de singulis rebus an universam : the contrast between the two 
methods of argument, that by continuous speech and that by analytical 
cross-examination, and the preference of Socrates for the latter, is familiar 
to the readers of the Protagoras and other dialogues of Plato. 

quae parum accepi : which I did not quite catch . For the use of 
ace. see exx. in L. and S. s. v. n 2. 

ego vero : to be sure ; so below 5. 

5. optime : cf. below 20 and Reid Acad. I 25 bene fact s. 

ducet oratio : Sch. compares below 43 deduxit oratio. 

Ch. n. oratione quae me cohortabatur : for similar personification 
cf. below 85 i/ivita in hoc loco versatur oratio. 

et Cottam esse et pontificem : cf. n 2, 168. 

quod eo valebat : the point of which was (lit. the force of which 
pointed in this direction ) ; cf. Div. in Caec. 62 ista quaestura ad earn rem 
valet, ut daborandum tibi in ratione reddenda sit ; Hor. Sat. i 1. 73 nescis 
quo valeat nummus; [Nipperdey on Nep. Them. 2 7 hoc responsum quo 
valeret; ib. 4 4 hoc eo valebat ut cogerentur; Quintil. I 2 16; in Pliny 
and medical writers vol. is frequently followed by ad. J. E. B. M.] 

opiniones, quas a majoribus accepimus : so Cic. in his own person 
Div. ii 148 majorum instituta tueri sacris caerimoniisque retinendis sapientis 
est ; Ilarusp. Resp. 18 ego vero primum habeo auctores ac magistros religio- 
num colendarum majores nostros ; quorum mihi tanta fuisse sapientia vide- 
tur, ut satis superque prudentcs sint, qui illorum prudentiam, non dicam 
assequi, sed quanta fuerit per spicere possint...deinde etiam cognom multa 
homines doctissimos sapientissimosque et dixisse et scripta de deorum immor- 
t alium miminc rcliquisse : quae quamquam dimnitus perscripta video, tamen 
ejus modi sunt, ut ea majores nostri docuisse illos, non ab illis didicisse 
videantur, see the whole passage ; also N. D. i 61, 62 nn., in 43, Leg. n 19, 
Liv. xxxix 15 (the speech of the Consul about the Bacchanalia) nuUi 
umquam contioni, Quirites, tarn non solum apta, sed etiam necessaria haec 
solemnis deorum comprecatio fuit, quae vos admoneret hos esse deos, quos 
colere venerari precarique majores nostri instituissent, Tholuck on Heathen 
ism p. 37 Eng. tr. in Clark s Cabinet Series. Though this civilis theologia 
had sunk into a mere lifeless profession at the time when Cic. wrote, and 
was therefore adopted as a convenient screen by the Sceptics (see the 
passage from Sext. Ernp. cited on i 62) and treated with deserved contempt 
by Seneca ap. Aug. C. D. vi 10 ; yet to Socrates and even to Plato it was 
still a valuable support of religious belief. See Xen. Mem. I 3 1, iv 4 
16, where Socrates bids his hearers follow the Delphic rule and worship 



BOOK III OH. II 5. 01 

God in the mode ordained by the State (z>o/z&> TroXfw?), and the memorable 
vow in the Phaedo p. 118 ; and for Plato s own view Leg. 717, Rep. 427, 
not to mention the somewhat ironical passage in the Timaeus pp. 40, 41. 
We find Cotta s dislike of reasoning on religion, his patronizing of the old 
tradition, exactly reproduced in the Times for Aug. 23, 1879. " Men of 
the world and especially statesmen are content to accept tradition as it 
stands, to treat it with the respect which springs from customary rever 
ence and historic feeling ; but any attempt to make it the subject of 
inquiry or debate, to change it in reference to this disputed doctrine, or to 
defiantly flaunt it as the symbol of that new-fangled opinion, can only 
inspire them with grave sorrow at the strange and distorted perspective of 
the theological mind." Precisely what Cotta might have said of any 
attempt to reform the religion of Rome. 

Coruncanium : named along with Scaevola as a high authority in re 
ligious matters I 115, as especially dear to the Gods n 165. Cic. cites an 
opinion of his Leg. n 52. 

P. Scipionem : the editors generally understand this of P. Scipio 
Nasica, cos. B.C. 191, surnamed Optimus^ because he was deputed, even 
before he had held office, as the worthiest citizen, to receive the statue of 
the Idean Mother at Ostia. It would seem however that it is his son, 
P. Scipio Nasica Corculum, mentioned above n 10, who is here referred to. 
He became Pontifex B.C. 150 and is elsewhere described by Cicero as a 
master both of civil and pontifical law, see Or. in 134 haec fuit P. Crassi... 
haec Ti. Coruncanii, haec proavi generi mei, Scipionis, prudent issimi homi- 
nis, sapientia, qui omnes pontifices maximi fuerunt, ut ad eos de omnibus 
divinis atque humanis rebus referretur. The speaker here is Crassus ; his 
son in law is P. Scipio Nasica, praetor B.C. 94, son of Nasica, who was 
consul B.C. Ill, grandson of Nasica Serapio, the opponent of Gracchus, 
and great grandson of Corculum. (Optimus would have been not proavus 
but abavus of Crassus son in law.) Compare also Cato 50 quid de P. 
Licinii Crassi et pontificii et civilis juris studio loquar aut de hujus P. 
Scipionis qui his paucis diebus pontifex maximus factus est, i.e. in B.C. 150, 
the date of the supposed dialogue, Brut. 79, 82. I cannot find anything to 
show that Optimus was distinguished as a lawyer. [Pomponius statement 
to that effect (Dig. I 2, 1 2 37) cannot be trusted, as he evidently con 
founds Optimus with a much earlier Nasica. R.] 

P. Scaevolam : see i 115 n. Cic. reports judgments of his Top. 4, Leg. 
ii 52, 53, 57, Dom. 137 ; cf. Herenn. n 19. He was father of Q. Scaevola 
mentioned below 80. 

habeo C. Laelium... quern audiam : cf. Sest. 20 habeo quern opponam 
labi illi, ib. habebit senatus quern sequatur. This is C. Lael. Sapiens, friend 
of the younger Africanus, as his father had been of the elder. He is 
named along with Coruncanius and others II 165, and is the chief speaker 
in C. s dialogue on Friendship. 

sapientem : a Stoic philosopher as well ; cf. Lael. 6 te...non solum 



(J2 BOOK III CH. II .5. 

natura et moribus, verum etiam studio et doctrina esse sapientem, nan ut 
vulgus, sed ut eruditi solent appdlare sapientem; Off. II 40 is qid sapiens 
appellatur. 

ilia oratione nobili : the aureola oratiuncula mentioned below 43. 
C. Licinius Crassus had proposed to transfer the election of the augurs 
from the College to the people : the proposal was thrown out owing to the 
eloquent speech of Laelius, then praetor (B.C. 145), de colhyiis. Allusion is 
made to the same subject in Lad. 96 illius vendibilem orationem religio 
deorum immortalium nobis defendentibus facile vincebat ; R. P. vi 2 oratio 
Laeli quam omnes habemus in manibus (ostendif) quam simpuvia pontificum 
dis immortalibus grata sint Samiaeque capedines ; Brut. 83 oratio Laelii 
de collegiis non melior quam de multis quam voles Scipionis. 

principem Stoicorum : Zeno is called princeps investigandae reritatis 
above u 57. 

omnis populi Roman! religio : on the triple division here given cf. 
Leg. II 30 discriptio sacerdotum nullum justum religionis genus praetermittit. 
Nam sunt ad placandos deos alii constituti, qui sacris praesint sollemnibus, 
ad interpretanda alii praedicta vatum,... maximum autem et praestantissi- 
mum in re publica jus est augurum ; Leg. n 20 sacerdotum genera sunto 
tria, unum quod praesit caerimoniis et sacris, alterum quod interpretetur 
fatidicorum et vatum effata incognita,... interpretes autem Jovis 0. M. publici 
augures signis et auspiciis poster a vidento foil. ; in Harusp. Eesp. 18 we 
find the third head subdivided, (majores nostri] statas sollemnesque caerimo- 
nias pontificatu, rerurn bene gerendarum auctoritates augurio, fatorum 
veteres praedictiones Apollinis vatum libris ( Sibylla here), portentorum 
explanationes Etruscorum disciplina ( haruspiccs here) contineri putarunt. 
We find the same division in Varro Antiq. ap. Aug. C.D. vi 3, where it is 
said that Varro distinguished three classes of persons engaged in religious 
duties, treating (1) de pontificibus, (2) de auguribus, (3) de quindecim viris 
sacrorum. 

tertium adjunctum sit : see Index under asyndeton. 
portentis et monstris : cf. n 7. 

Sibyllae interpretes : cf. n 10 n. The number of the keepers of the 
Sibylline books was originally two. In the year 367 B. c. by the Licinian 
Eogation they were increased to ten, of whom five were to be plebeians. 
Afterwards the number was raised, probably by Sulla, to 15, known as the 
xv sacris faciundis. Their duty was to interpret the Greek verses into 
Latin, for which purpose they were assisted in early times by Greek trans 
lators (Zonaras vu 7, cited by Marquardt Rom. Alt. vi p. 367), but more 
especially to find some meaning appropriate to the circumstances of the 
time. Cf. Div. I ^furoris divinationem Sibi/llinis maxime versibus contineri 
arUtrati eorum decem interpretes delectos e civitate esse voluerunt ; Liv. x 8 
2 decemviros sacris faciundis, carminum Sibyllae ac fatorum populi hujus 
interpretes, antistites eosdem Apollinaris sacri...videmus ; Liv. xxn 9 pcrricit 
ut, quod non fere decernitur nisi cum taetra prodigia nuntiata sunt, x viri 



BOOK III CH. II 5. 63 

libros Sibyllinos adire juberentur ; Varro R. R. I 1 ad cujus libros... publice 
solemus redire cum desideramus quid faciendum sit nobis ex aliquo portento ; 
Div. II 110 quorum (i.e. the Sibylline verses) interpres nuper falsa quadam 
hominum fama dicturus in senatu putabatur, eum quem re vera regem habe- 
bamus (i. e. Caesar) appellandum quoque esse regem, si salvi esse vellemus ; 
see also Cat. in 9, 11, Fam. i 4 2, 7 4, Lact. I 6. 

Romulum auspiciis : above n 9 n. ; R. P. II 16 auspiciis plurimum 
obsecutus est Romulus. Nam et ipse urbem condidit auspicato et omnibus 
publicis rebus instituendis qui sibi essent in auspiciis ex singulis tribubus 
cooptavit augures (Numa increased the number from three to five, ib. 16); 
Div. i 30, ii 70, 80. 

Numam sacris constitutes : Liv. i 19 (Numa} deorum metum injicien- 
dum ratus est . . .sacerdotibus creandis animum adjecit...ponti/icem legit eique 
sacra omnia exscripta exsignataque attribuit foil., Orat. Ill 73. 

fundament a jecisse : for the belief that Rome owed her power to her 
religion, see 11 8 n. and the speech of Camillas against the migration to 
Veii in Liv. v 52 urbem auspicato inauguratoque conditam habemus : nullus 
locus in ea non religionum deorumque est plenus ; ib. 51 invenietis omnia 
prospera evenisse sequentibus deos, adversa spernentibus ; Liv. XLIII 1 11 
favere pietati fideique deos, per quae populus Romanus ad tantum fastigii 
venerit. 

placatione : cf. Off. nil deos placatos pietas efficiet et sanctitas. The 
word placatio occurs also in Tusc. iv 60, Div. n 36 quae tarn subito facta est 
deorum tanta placatio ? [Plin. N. II. vin 70 183 lautissima deorum pla 
catio. J. E. B. M.] and in Augustine. 

6. nulla ratione reddita credere : on the appeal to Faith v. Reason 
see below 9 and 13 ; Grote s Plato i p. 261. Lactantius n 7 cites this 
passage and argues against it. The Sceptics acted on Cotta s principle, 
as we learn from Sext. Emp. P. II. i 23 rots (patvofj-evoLs olv Trpoaexovres 
Kara rrjv /Suon/c^i/ rr/prjariv ddo^daToos /3toG/>iei , ib. Ill 1 2 TK> fj.ev /3i o> Kctra- 
KoXovdovvres d8od(TT(os (/>a/zei> eirat 6fovs /cat <j-J3op.V 6fovs KOI Trpoi/oeii/ 



Ch. in. desideras : what is the argument you are looking for from me . 

quadripertita : in n 3. 

velles docere : you endeavoured to prove , so below 18, implying 
that the endeavour was unsuccessful. 

exspecto, quid requiras : I am waiting to know what it is you de 
mand . Cf. Tusc. iv 46 exspecto quid ad ista (respondeas}. 

A. THE STOIC PROOF OF THE DIVINE EXISTENCE CRITICIZED. 
Ch. in 7 ch. vin 19. 

a. If this belief is necessary and universal, as the Stoics allege, it 
is worse than useless to attempt to rest it on argument, which simply 
raises doubts as to the validity of the belief. 7 10. 



64 BOOK 111 CH. Ill 7. 

7. primum quicque : i 77 n. 

si id est primum doces : if the first point is that, on which there is 
almost universal consent, and which I for my part can never cease to 
maintain, viz. the divine existence, still even as to this, of which I am fully 
persuaded on the authority of our ancestors, you allege nothing to show 
why it is so . On the adversative asyndeton (mi/a quidem after inter 
omnes} see Index. On esse deos explaining id see I 2 nn. on quod trahimur, 
quod continet. 

exuri : so MSS. The metaphor was thought too violent, and various 
emendations have been offered ; (1) eximi mentioned by Dav., adopted by 
Ba. and Sch.,who cites (Opusc. in p. 380) Tac. Ann. vi %% plurimis mortali- 
bus non eximitur quin primo cujusque ortu ventura destinentur, and by Cobet 
( F. L. p. 463), who compares Plat. Rep. in p. 412 E d6av e< TTJS diavoi.as 
eatpeicr$<ru ; (2) erui by Walker, who compares Att. xin 36 fanum fieri volo 
neque id mild end potest (where however Wesenberg reads eripi), and Lact. 
II 6 10 omnes religiones radicitus eruisti, where the metaphor is helped by 
radicitus; (3) excuti by Mu. after Ernesti and Lamb, as in Tusc. I 111 
hanc excutere opinionem mihimet vohd radicitus ; (4) exui by Moser, Orelli, 
Klotz, &c., comparing Tac. Ann. vi 25 vitia exuere, to which Sch. objects 
that, though the word is naturally used of a man s putting off a bad habit 
for himself, it would not be Latin to say vitia ex mente exuuntur ; (5) exire 
by Lamb, and Heind. who compares Sen. Benef. ill 38 numquam e memoria 
hominum exire, but here we want to express something more than a mere 
passing out of the mind from forgetfulness*; (6) Lamb, also suggested exseri 
comparing Colum. xii 58 radicem exserito, but there is no instance of the 
word used metaphorically in this sense. Of these emendations the first 
mentioned seems to me decidedly the best, but is the MS reading absolutely 
inadmissible ? We have a similar expression in Dio Chrys. iv p. 152 ouS 
av Ttvpi TIS eKKava-ai povXopevos (could eradicate principles once securely 
fixed in the mind), dXXa K.U.V efjurprjorrj TIS TUV avdpcdirov, nevoi av avrov TO. 
fioy/zara eV rrj ^rvxij) ^ n d for the Latin we may compare Aen. vi 740 aliis 
sub gurgite vasto infectum eluitur scelus aut exuritur igni ; Dav. cites Seneca 
Ep. 69 3 amor cm exurere conatur, where however Haase reads exuere ; 
August. Eccl. Catk. 30 tantus caritatis ardor innascitur ut exustis omnibus 
citiis &c., Ambros. Spir. Sanct. prooem. p. 115 Caro .Domini Spiritu repleta 
divino peccata omnia exureret. The converse inuro is more frequently 
found in the metaphorical sense, as in Plane. 29 signa probitatis inusta, 
Liv. ix 3 13 -vicet semper in pcctoribus quidquid praesens neccssitas 
iiiusserit. 

quid est cur : what reason is there for you to come to me for in 
struction ? Cf. i 115, and below 47, also I 3 quid est quod n. 

aggredior ad : i 57. 

rudem et integrum: untutored and unprejudiced , cf. Or at. i 218 
fateor (oratorem) nulla in re tironem ac rudem... esse dcbere ; Att. vn 25 
admones ut me integrum seri cin. 



BOOK III CH. Ill 8. 65 

8. egone : cf. i 16. 

in ista partitions : cf. n 4 and 23. The MS reading perspicuum in 
istampartem probably originated in the insertion of perspicuum from the 
following line, and the loss of the last syllable of the abbreviated partione 
before the following ne. Ba. omits the w r ords, but it seems natural to 
allude to the partitio mentioned in 6. 

dixisses esset : Subj. as subordinate to Indirect Question, and esset 
also because it implies in your view (apa). [I should rather take dixisses 
to be Subjunctive because following quod in the sense of though . See 
Gr. 1714. R.] 

argumentis onerare judicem : to overwhelm , cf. 2 Phil. 99 omnibus 
eum contumeliis onerasti, Hor. Sat. I 10. 10 verbis lassas onerantibus aures. 

eam facultatem = ejus rei facultatem ; see n. on quam similitudinem 
II 27. 

tu autem quod quaeris similiter facis : so all MSS ; edd. read qui id. 
I prefer the former : the point is not the person, but the inquiry ; as to 
your inquiry you are acting just as if you were to ask . So Forchhammer 
p. 25. [Cf. below 41 quos dicis, Orat. I 254 quod dicis, 246 quod accusas, 
247 quodputas, and Roby 1743, 1749. R.] 

altero coniveam : the verb con. is most commonly used absolutely of 
the person closing his eyes in sleep, winking in the old sense of the 
term ; it is rare to find it with an abl. of the eye though Apuleius has 
ciliis alterna conivens Met. x 17. It is also used of the eye itself, as pos 
sibly in ii 143. 

Ch. iv 9. quam simile tu videris: see n. on Gotta viderit I 17; 
and cf. below 15, 70, 90, Div. n 108 vide quaeso quam sint ista similia, nam 
mihi non videntur. [So in Greek o^p, ox//-eo-&r, o-v (or avros) av ddeirjs, cf. 
S. Matt, xxvn 4, 24, Acts xvm 15, Epictet. n 5 30, iv 6 11, Antonin. 
v 25, xi 13. J. E. B. M.] 

evidens de quo conveniat : palpable, self-evident, so that all are 
agreed about it . The word ev. is still somewhat technical, and is not 
found in the speeches of Cicero. 

perspicuitas : Cic. gives this and evidentia as alternative renderings 
of (vapyeta Acad. II 17, 46. 

hac subtilitate sermonis: in a philosophical argument of this kind , 
see Abstract in Index. 

cur coniveres... causa non esset: there was a reason for not con 
fusing what was self-evident by the addition of arguments, for ratiocina 
tion and intuition are diverse : there would have been no reason for 
refusing to look with both eyes, since they both tell the same tale. 

obtutus esset : tense suited to context as in I 45 cum aeterna esset, see 
n. on ii 2. For obtutus see Div. n 120 quodam obtutu oculorum duo 
lucernae lumina pro uno videri ; Orat. in 17. 
sapientem esse vis : see ii 30, 36, &c. 

lumina perforata : lights (windows) pierced from the mind to the 
31. c. ill. j 



(36 BOOK in CH. iv 9. 

eyes . Lumina is technical in this sense, see Vitr. iv 6, Pro Domo 115 
se luminibus ejus esse obstructurum [and regularly in the Digest, as in 
vni 2. E.]. Hence often used for eyes, e.g. Tusc. v 114. Compare for 
the figure Tusc. I 46 nos enim ne nunc quidem oculis cernimus ea quae 
videmus; neque est enim ullus sensus in corpore, sed, ut non physici solum 
docent sed etiam medici,qui ista aperta et patefacta viderunt, viae (Aristotle s 
Tropoi) quasi quaedam sunt ad oculos, ad aures, ad nares a sede animi 
perforatae, ut facile intelleyi possit animum et videre et audire, non eas 
paries quae quasi fenestrae sint animi... nunc quidem, quamquam foramina 
ilia quae patent ad animum a corpora callidissimo artificio natura, fabricata 
est, still in the mortal body they are liable to be blocked . This is attacked 
by Lucretius in 359 dicere porro oculos nullam rcm ccrnere posse, sed per 
eos animum ut foribus spectare reclusis, desipere est, where Munro quotes 
Sext. Emp. Math, vn 130 on Heraclitus eV Se eyprjyopoo-i ird\Lv Sta TCOJ; 
Tropcoz/ o>o~7rep Sta Ttvutv 6vpiou>v npoKv^as (o eV rnj.lv vovs) /cai TO> 
crup./3aXcoi/ \oyi.Krjv eVSueTat dvvap.iv, and ib. 350 oi Se avrrjv (jr]V 

etVat ras alo-Orjo-eis KadaTrep Sta TLVCOV OTTU>V TWV mV^T^pt coz/ ?rpo- 
K.VTTTOvo av, TJS oTaVecos ^p^fv SrpaTcov Te Kal Alvrjcridrj/jLos, and agrees with 
Lassalle in thinking that the illustration originally came from Heraclitus. 
The earliest statement of the doctrine which makes the mind the active 
agent in sensation, is the famous line attributed to Epicharmus (Mullach 
Fr. Phil. I p. 144) vovs opfj Kal vovs a/couer TaXXa /ccocpa /cat rv(p\d, quoted by 
Arist. Prob. XI 33 ^copio~^eto~a a"o-6r]o~is diavoias KaOdrrfp dvaio drjTOV TTOVOV 
e^et, coo-Trep elpj/rat TO vovs 6pa K.T.\. . We find the same doctrine in Plato 
Theaet. 184 B if anyone should ask, how we see and hear elVot? dv, 
06/xat, op-fj-ao-i Te /cat CO CTI, but we want something more exact, ovcoTret yap, 
a77o/cpto~ts- TTOTe pa opOorepa, (o 6pcop.v TOVTO etVat 6(pdaXp.ovs T) di ov opco/zet , 
/cat <a aKovofjifv a>ra r) Si ov d<ovofj.v ; it would be strange if we had a 
number of independent senses, and if these were not all referred to some 
one form, whether we call it soul or not, whereby we perceive through the 
others as instruments (aXXa p.r] els p-iav rivd Ideav iravra ravra ^wrfivei 77 Sia 
TOVTCOV oiov opydvav aladavop^fda oo~a ato~^^Ta). Similarly Aristotle Mot. 
Anim. 6 TOUTO Se iravra (i.e. all motives) oVayeTai els vovv /cat opew /cat yap 
r/ (pavracria /cat ij a io~6r]o~is TTJV avrr/v TOJ vu> ^copai/ e^oucrt- KpLTiKa yap ndvra. 
Strata, the disciple of Theophrastus, called attention to the fact that 
impressions of sense are unheeded, if the mind is occupied, but are some 
times capable of being recalled afterwards by a mental effort, cf. Pint. Sol. 
Anim. p. 961, where we have Strato s proof that ouS ala-Qdveo-Qai TO Trapd- 
rrav avev TOV voelv vTrdp^ei. Epicurus opposed this because lie feared to 
allow any independent action to the mind ; yet, as we have seen in I 49, 
he held that there were deiform images which were perceptible by the 
mind alone. The Stoic view is given by Chrysippus ap. Gal. Hipp. Plat. 
622 foil, r) ^u^r) nvevp.d eari o-vp.(pvTov T]\UV o~vve^es Travrl TO) o"co/zaTt SI^KOI/... 
ravrrjs ovv TO>V p.epa>v e /caa-TO) diaTeTayp.evo)V p.opiw TO dt.fjK.ov avrrjs els rr/v 

dpTTjplav <pa)vf]v (pap,fv eivai, TO Se els o(pdaXfjiovs o^iv. The five 



BOOK III CH. IV 9. 67 

senses were included in the eight faculties into which the Stoics divided the 
soul, cf. Diog. L. VII 110, Sext. Emp. Math, ix 102 Trao-cu at rt ra 
o\ov e ^aTrooTeAAojuei/ai dwa^fis coy OTTO TLVOS Trrjyfjs TOV rjyepoviKov 
Aoi/rai. These were compared to the arms of a cuttle-fish (Plac. Phil. 
iv 21). The -fyvx^ov Trvev/jia residing in the brain travelled along the 
nerves to the organ of sense and thus caused sensation ; Plin. N.H. xi 54 
in oculis animus habitat... animo videmus, animo cernimus: oculi ceu vasa 
quaedam visibilem ejus partem (the visual faculty) accipiunt atque trans- 
mittunt (according to the Stoic theory of the e /t/SoA?) radiorum, on which 
see II 83 nobiscum videt n.) ; Theophil. Corp. Hum. iv 8 foil. TTJV dpx^v oV6 
TOV KaOrjKovTOS vfvpov TOV eg eyKe(j)d\ov TOV paXaKov rroirjo-dfjifvoi, eVeiS?) KOL 
TavTa TO. vvpd...K7Tf(pvKdo-i xP r iy ~ LV TO ~ LS o(f)6aXfjio ls TTJV opaviv. On the 
general subject compare Plato Alcib. I p. 129, Galen Hipp. Plat. 622 foil., 
Lact. Opif. 5, Salvian Prov. 3, Butler Analogy i 1 " So far as it can be 
traced by experimental observations, so far it appears that our organs of 
sense prepare and convey on objects in order to their being perceived, 
in like manner as foreign matter does, without affording any shadow of 
appearance that they themselves perceive " ; Reid s Philosophy p. 246 with 
Hamilton s n. D*, Huxley Elem. Phys. p. 17 the brain is the seat of all 
sensation and mental action . 

sat erat : see I 45 and I 19 longum est n. 

auctoritates contemnis : as Cotta himself also, in his Academic 
capacity, professed to do, cf. i 10 non tarn auctores &c. Cf. Plin. Ep. i 20 
ille mecum auctoritatibus agit. 

10. rationem me meam : I have ventured to insert me, as it gives a 
more natural force to contender -e ( allow me to put my argument side by 
side with yours ), like Rose. Am. 93 quidquid tu contra dixeris, id cum defen- 
sione nostra contendito: itafacillime causa Sex. Roscii cum tua conferetur ; 
and is perhaps better suited to patere. Otherwise we should have to give 
it a metaphorical meaning, as in Rose. Am. 136 quis erat qui non videret 
humilitatem cum dignitate de amplitudine contendere, where however the 
abstract stands for the person contending. 

argumentando dubiam facis : Sch. cites Proclus on Plat. Tim. 

p. 416 Schn. o iravTO. dnodeiKTiKa vcvofj,tK<as avTrjv juaAtora TTJV du6$fiiv 
dvaipel. 

A b. The sight of the heavens does not, as a fact, produce a 
belief in the Stoic God of nature. 10, 11. 

haec : all we see around us . 

regantur: the Imperfect would have been more in accordance with 
usage, especially as suspexissemus has already been attracted to the tense 
of the principal verb, cf. n. on obtutus esset 9, and n 1. 

aspice Jovem : see on n 4. I am glad to see that L. Miiller rejects 
Ritschl s sublimen. 



68 BOOK III CH. IV 11. 

11. quasi vero appellet : as though any of us gave the name of 
Jove to him whom you describe as sublime candens, rather than to the God 
of the Capitol . Traditional mythology supplied the conscious belief of 
the mass : so far Cotta is right ; but the Stoics were right in regarding 
that mythology as itself bearing witness to an older belief out of which it 
had sprung. One chief source of that earlier belief in a superhuman Ruler 
was the sight of the heaven, its immensity, its splendour, its order, its 
terror ; and so far as mythology was associated with the religious instinct, 
that old belief still survived under the forms of mythology : see passages 
quoted on n 4 cum caelum suspeximus, Seneca N. Q. n 45 ne hoc quidem 
crediderunt (imperiti] Jovem, qualem in Capitolio et in ceteris aedibus coli- 
mus,mittere manufidmina, sed eundem quern nos Jovem intellegunt, rectorem 
custodemque universi, animum ac spiritual mundi, operis Jtujus dominum et 
artificem; and the grand words of Tertullian Test. Anim. 1 commencing 
consiste in medio, anima...te simplicem et rudem et impolitam et idioticam 
compello, qualem habent qui te solam habent, illam ipsam de compito, de 
trivio, de textrino totam foil. But men became vain in their imaginations 
and their foolish heart was darkened ; the ignorant Roman deified the 
image of Jupiter or Minerva, as his ignorant descendant in the present 
day deifies the image of a Saint or a Madonna. Thus it was thought 
that one image would be jealous of the honour done to another image of 
the same God, cf. Suet. Oct. 91 cum dedicatam in Capitolio aedem Tonanti 
Jovi assidue frequentaret, somniavit queri Capitolinum Jovem cultores sibi 
abduci foil., and Scott s description of Louis XI in Quentin Durward. 

A c. General opinion is a strange ground to allege for a philo 
sophical conviction, especially on the part of those ivho hold the 
1 vox populi to be the vox stultoruui\ 11- 

omnium esset : for the argument from general consent see n 5 nn. 

opinione Stultorum: cf. I 23, in 79, Div. n 81 quasi vero quidquam 
sit tarn valde quam nihil sapere vulgar -e, aut quasi tibi ipsi in judicando 
placeat multitude ; Philodemus de Mus. in Zeller iv 253 the Stoic cannot 
rely on the Consensus Gentium, as he holds the mass in contempt . The 
argument is met in a different way I 62. We have the Stoic rejoinder in 
Ssxt. Emp. ix 63 foil. not only the mass, but the wise, the poets and 
philosophers, admit the Divine existence ; and as, in debating matters of 
sense, we should trust the evidence of those who possessed the keenest 
sight and quickest ear, so in matters of reason we should trust the wisest . 
: cf. Parad. IV on Tras a0pcoz/ /zui 



A d. The epiphanies , to which the Stoics appeal, are mere 
rumour unconfirmed by evidence. 11 13 (cf. nn. on n 6). 

Ch. v. in Salaria : in n 6 it is said that Vat. was coming from Reate 
to Rome. This agrees with Varr. R.R. in 2 14 certe nosti materterae 



BOOK III CH. V 11. 09 

meae fundum in Sabinis, qui est ad quartum et vicesimum lapidem via 
Malaria a Roma? Quidni? inquit, ubi aestate diem meridie dividers 
soleam cum eo Reate ex urbe. It was the road by which sait was conveyed 
from the salt-pits near Ostia into the interior ; hence called Solaria. 
The same name was given to the gate which was afterwards known as 
Collina. 

nescio quid : a phrase of contempt, heightened here by the omission of 
the verb, * and then something or other about the fight of the Locrians . 
(Cf. ii. 6.) There is the same contemptuous reference to the opponent s 
arguments in Div. n 48 kabes et respersionem pigmentorum et rostrum 
suis et alia permidta. Cf. I 93 nescio quid dissentiret. The preceding at 
enim easily suggests the understood narrabas. 

homines homine natos : the very patronymic proves their mortal 
origin ; but according to the common tradition it was only Castor who was 
son of Tyndareus, Pollux being the offspring of Jupiter ; and the name 
Dioscuri, familiarly used of both, might have supplied an equally valid 
argument for their divinity. In Homer however (Od. xi 299) both are 
sons of Tyndareus. For the construction cf. I 103 igne nasci, also I 42 
mortales ex immortali procreatos n. 

recens ab illorum aetate : elsewhere Cic. makes Homer a contempo 
rary of Lycurgus, i. e. about 300 years later than the date usually assigned 
to the Trojan war (Tusc. v 7, R.P. 11 18); other writers, e.g. Crates, sup 
posed him to have belonged to the generation succeeding the fall of Troy 
(Grote s Hist. c. xxi). For the constr. cf. Varro R.R. n 8 2 pullum 
a partu recentem, Liv. xxi 16 hostem recentem ab excidio opulentissimae 
urbis, [Sen. Cons, ad Marc. I 8 vulnera recentia a sanguine. J. E. B. M.]. 

sepultos : the reference is to 11. in 243, where the poet comments on 
Helen s wonder at the absence of her brothers; G>? <ciro, TOVS & rjSr] /cdre^cj/ 
(f>va-ioos ala ev ActKeScu/zoi/i avdi 0t A?7 ev Trarpi St 70177. 

cantheriis : geldings , from the Gr. KavOrjXios, beast of burthen ; 
r and I being interchanged, as in grando ^aXa^a, hirundo = ^-eXtScoi/, 
vermis=e\p.is. The cantherius was strictly opposed to the war-horse 
(Varro R.R. n 7 15), and the word is here used mockingly, as caballus 
for Pegasus by Juvenal ill 18, and fons caballinus for Hippocrene by 
Persius i 1. [Add to exx. in Lexx. Varro Men. fr. 5 Biicheler, Tertull. 
Apol. 16, Arnob. v 11, Auson. Epist. xxi 39, Hieron. Epist. xxvn 3, in Jona 
c. 4. J. E. B. M.] 

nullis calonibus: without lackeys . Abl. of Attendant Circum 
stances, Roby 1240 foil. See Paul. Diac. Festus p. 62 M. Calones 
militum servi dicti qui ligneas clavas gerebant, quae Graeci <a\a vocant. 

princeps : sc. senatus. I do not know whether this is stated elsewhere. 
Cato was then (B.C. 168) in his 65th year and in the height of his activity. 
In the following year he pleaded the cause of the Rhodians in a speech 
which he inserted in his Origines. Much in the same way Cic. ridicules 



70 BOOK III CH. V 11. 

the idea of a sailor being privileged to receive a revelation denied to the 
younger Cato, Varro, and Cicero himself {Div. n 114). 

ergo et illud : Muller (Adn. Crit.} compares Leg. I 33 quibus ratio a 
natura data est, isdem etiam recta ratio data est, ergo et lex ; Fin. in 27 
ergo et probandum. See n. on I 72 ct non praedicanti. 

in Silice : the basaltic rock , cf. Lucr. vi 683 (of Etna). Regillus was 
the crater of an extinct volcano near Tuscnlum (Frascati). " It is now 
a small and weedy pool, surrounded by crater-like banks arid with much 
lava and basalt about it, situated at some height above the plain, on the 
right hand of the road as you descend from the high ground under La 
Colonna (Labicum) to the ordinary level of the Campagna in going to 
Home". Arnold Hist, of Rome I p. 120. We may compare Hippocrene 
supposed to have been scooped out by the hoof of Pegasus. Livy with 
all his fondness for marvels says nothing of the aid of Pollux at Kegillus. 

12. probari potest : the eternity of the soul is affirmed n 62 cum 
remanerent animi atque aeternitate fruerentur. This was opposed to the 
doctrine of the older Stoics (Tusc. I 77 dm mansuros aiunt animos, semper 
neganf), but still more to the Academic arguments given below 29 34. 
We must probably take probari in the sense may be approved of, allowed , 
as in Acad. n 99 tale visum nullum esse ut perccptio consequeretur, itt autem 
probatio, multa... Sapiens multa sequitur probabilia, non comprehensa...Si d 
similia veri ; quae nisi probet, omi\is vita tollatur. 

13. aedem dedicatam : vowed by Postumius the dictator (Liv. n 20), 
dedicated by his son (Liv. n 42). I follow the MSS in giving the praenomen 
in full, as in Liv. n 21 2, and am doubtful whether ab should not be 
omitted, see Eoby 1146 on Dat. of Agent. The strict force of the Dat. 
would be P. had a temple dedicated . 

senatus consultum : granting him lands and immunity (n 6). 

proverbium : see n. on Locri n 6. 

his auctoribus : when there are such authorities as these , Abl. of 
Attendant Circumstances, Roby 1240. 

rumoribus : Abl. of Instrument. For the thought cf. Div. n 27 hoc 
ego philosophi non esse arbitror, testibus uti, qui aut casu veri aut malitia 
falsi fictique esse possunt : argumentis et rationibus oportet, quare ita quid- 
que sit, docere, non eventis ; n 113 auctoritatem nullam debemus commenticiis 
rebus adjungere. 

A e. Divination, cited by Cleanthes as a proof of the Divine 
Existence, is utterly fallacious, and loould be of no advantage, if true. 
14, 15. 

Ch. vi 14. sequuntur quae futura sunt : it would seem from a com 
parison with Bk. ii that not many lines have been lost here. In n 6 the 
mention of the prophetic voices of the Fauns (below 15) follows imme 
diately on Sagra; Navius (below 14) appears in n 9; Decius (below 15) 
in ii 10; the illustration from medicine (below 15) in n 12. Thus the 



BOOK III CH. VI 14. 71 

points omitted by Cotta are the terms of divination, the list of ancient 
seers, the evil consequences of neglect of divination as shown in Roman 
history, the recent increase of irreligion contrasted with the respect for 
religion in ancient days. Again, comparing the argument against divina 
tion in Div. ii 20, we have there first of all a proof that divination is im 
possible : since everything happens by fate, and divination is, by defini 
tion, concerned only with the fortuitous, therefore it is concerned only 
with the non-existent , (see the same argument Fat. 17 foil, nihil fieri quod 
non necesse fuerit, et quicquid fieri possit, id aut esse jam aut futurum esse, 
nee magis commutari ex veris in falsa ea posse quae futura sunt quam ea 
quae facta sunt} : then follows in 22, just as here, a proof that, even if 
divination were possible, it would be useless ; nay, knowledge itself, as 
distinguished from the vague warnings of divination, would be useless, 
atque ego ne utilem quidem arbitror esse nobis futurarum rerum scientiam. 
It seems probable therefore that in the lost sentences Cicero had been 
discussing the defeat at Thrasymene, just as in Div. II 22 aut igitur non 
fato interiit exercitus, aut, si fato, etiamsi obtemperasset auspiciis, idem 
eventurum fuisset ; and we may suppose the argument to have run * what 
good would Flaminius have done if he had observed all the omens, since 
all things happen by fate and the future follows the past by an unchange 
able necessity 1 (necessario or some such phrase having been lost before 
sequuntur, cf. Fat. 44 omnia fiant causis antecedentibus et necessariis}. 

ne utile quidem est scire : this is very impressively shown Div. 1. c. 
by the fate of the members of the so-called first Triumvirate. Dicaearchus 
(Div. ii 105), Favorinus (Gell. xiv 1), and Diogenianus (Euseb. Pr. Ev. 
iv 3) wrote treatises to the same effect. Hence it follows that the gift of 
divination would be a sign of malevolence, not of favour on the part of the 
deity, Div. ii 54 hoc ne homines quidem probi faciunt ut amicis impendentes 
calamitates praedicant, quas illi effugere nullo modo possint, ut medici foil. 

extremum solacium : cf. Hesiod Op. et D. 96 ^ovvrj 8 avrodi E^TUS eV 
appTJKToiai 86/jLOKTLv fvbov e/zi/zre, and Naglesb. N. Th. p. 382 ; Cic. Catil. iv 
8 eripit spem, quae sola in miseriis hominem consolari solet; Att. ix 10 3 
ut aegroto, dum anima est, spes esse dicitur; Sen. Contr. v 1 2 spes est 
ultimum adversarum rerum solacium; Ov. Pont. I 6. 29 foil. 

quod verum fuerit id ess 8 fatum : see nn. on i 40, where Chry- 
sippus identifies Jupiter with fatalem necessitatem, sempiternam rerum 
futurarum veritatem ; also I 55 quicquid accidat id ex aeterna veritate flux- 
isse dicitis. 

quis invenit quis notavit : the same objections are raised in Div. n 
28 and 80 quo modo haec aut quando aut a quibus inventa dicemus ? Etrusci 
habent exaratum puerum (i. e. Tages, mentioned Div. II 50) auctorem disci- 
plinae suae : nos quern? "Is it Attus or Romulus or some barbarian?" 
The Greeks ascribed the invention to Prometheus, Aesch. Pr. 492 foil. 
Quintus arguing in favour of divination says (Div. I 85) nee vero quicquam 
aliud affertur, cur ea quae dico divinandi genera nulla sint, nisi quod diffi- 



72 BOOK TIT CH. VI 14. 

die dictu videtur, quae cujusque divinationis ratio, quae causa sit. He 
therefore endeavours first of all to prove that it is true in point of fact, 
whether it can be explained or riot. 

notavit : took note of the different fulfilments . Cf. above n 1(56 
usus notavit (ostentd), Div. I 94 Ardbes . . .cantus avium et volatus notave- 
runt, ib. n 91 notant sidera natalicia Chaldaei. 

fissum jecoris : the liver was considered the most important of all the 
exta for the purposes of divination. We learn from Ezekiel xxi 21 that it 
was consulted in Babylon. Plato makes it the organ of dreams during life 
and of augury after death (Tim. 71 foil.). One face of the liver was called 
pars inimica, i.e. relating to the enemy, the other pars familiaris, i.e. re 
lating to the person interested ; each face was divided by & fissum or limes, 
and the omen was favorable according to the direction and regularity of 
the division and the richness of the vessels, cf. Div. n 28 quo modo est 
collatum inter ipsos, quae pars inimica, quae pars familiaris esset, quod 
fissum periculum, quod commodum aliquod ostenderet ? ib. 32 fissum f ami- 
Hare et vitale tractant ; co-put jecoris ex omni parte diligentissime conside- 
rant ; Lucan I 621 cernit tabe jecur madidum, venasque minaces host Hi de 
parte videt; pulmonis anheli fibra latet par v usque secat vitalia limes; Liv. 
vni 9, Seneca Oedip. 363, Bouche Leclercq iv 69 foil. 

cornicis cantum : cf. Div. I 12 omittat urgere Carneades, quod faciebat 
etiam Panaetius requirens, Juppiterne comicem a laeva, corvum ab dextera 
canere jussisset ; ib. i 85 what reason has the augur to assign cur a dextra 
corvus, a sinistra comix faciat ratum?\ 

sortes : divination by lots (cleromancy) was familiar to the Hebrews, 
as in the case of Achan, Jonathan, Matthias ; and to the Greeks, as in the 
selection of a champion to meet the challenge of Hector, see Bouche 
Leclercq I 189. It was however much more prevalent in Italy, and thus 
the word sortes is often used in a secondary sense of any kind of oracle ; 
so that Cic. has to distinguish in J)iv. n 70 sortes eae quae ducuntur, non 
illae quae vaticinatione funduntur. Usually the lots were little wooden 
tablets placed in an urn, sitido (see above I 106). A set of bronze lots with 
sentences inscribed on each have been found near Pataviurn and are sup 
posed to be the lots of Geryon consulted by Tiberius (Suet. Tib. 14). The 
inscriptions are given in Mommsen s Corpus I pp. 267 270 and in Bouch-j 
Leclercq iv 155. There were sortes also at Caere, the shrivelling of which 
was esteemed a bad omen (sortes extenuatas Liv. xxi 62. Leclercq seems 
to adopt Lamb. s emendation extaeniatas, i.e. loosened from the bundle , 
see his vol. iv p. 146) ; at Falerii, of which Livy tells us (xxn 1) sortes 
sua sponte attenuatas unamque excidisse ita scriptam Mavors telum suum 
concutit ; at the fountain of Clitumnus (Plin. Ep. vni 8); but above all 
in the temple of Fortuna Primigenia at Praeneste, of which Cicero gives 
the following account (Div. II 85) : quid enim sors est? idem prope modum 
quod micare, quod talos jacere ; tota res est inventa fallaciis foil. He then 
proceeds to give the legend of the place, how a certain Numerius Suffustius 



BOOK TIT CH. VI 14. 73 

was bidden by a vision to cut through the rock in a certain spot, upon 
which sortes erupisse in robore insculptas priscarum litter arum not is. The 
lots were placed in a sacred chest, from which they Fortunae monitu pueri 
manu miscentur atque ducuntur. In other shrines the lots have ceased to be 
consulted, but Praeneste still retains its fame among the vulgar ; which 
gave rise to the remark of Carneades nusquam se fortunatiorem quam 
Praeneste vidisse Fortunam\ The oracle of Praeneste recovered its old 
repute in the general revival of superstition under the Empire, see Suet. 
Tib. 63. In the third century of our era the old wooden lots were ex 
changed for the sortes Virgilianae (Lamprid. Alex. Sev. 4, Trebell. Poll. 
Claud. 10, Vopiscus Firm. 3). We read of lots being employed in the temple 
of Zeus at Dodona (Div. I 76). Lots were in use also with the strolling 
fortune-tellers of Rome (sortilegi), to whom we find contemptuous allusions 
in Div. i 132, Hor. Sat. I 9. 29, and 113. See on the general subject Mayor 
on Juvenal i 82, Marquardt in pp. 93, 94, 99, 100, 101, Van Dale de Orac. 
c. 13, Bouche Leclercq I.e. 

quibus ego credo : cf. n. on 5 opiniones quas a majoribus accepimus, 
and Div. n 28 (haruspicinam} ego reipublicae causa communisque religionis 
colendam censeo ; but such expressions are a mere pretence ne communia 
jura migrare videatur, as Quintus says, Div. I 8 ; and, in the second book 
of the De Div., Cicero makes no secret of his own disbelief in omens of all 
kinds, see n 16 nondum dico quam haec signa nulla sint, fissum jecoris, 
corvi cantus, volatus aquilae, stellae trajectio, voces furentium, sortes, somnia, 
also 41, 127, 147. 

Atti Navii : above n 9. But in the Academic argument of Div. n 
80 we read omitte lituum Romuli, contemne cotem Atti Navii. Niliil debet 
esse in philosophia commenticiis fabellis loci. 

praesertim cum : the mistakes of the diviners make it more difficult 
to conjecture how the science grew up (qui ista intellecta sint, lit. how 
these portents got to be understood ). We find divinus in the sense of 
prophetic in Horace Od. m 27. 10 imbrium divina avis imminentum ; 
then as a substantive Liv. i 36 age dum, divine tu, inaugura ; Div. u 9 
nescio qui ille divinus ; Fat. 15 Chaldaeos ceterosque divinos. 

15. at medici falluntur : see u 12. 

quid simile : in what respect does medicine resemble divination ? lit. 
is medicine a similar thing and divination (a similar thing)? cf. above 
9 on quam simile. For the omission of the verb cf. Hor. Sat. n 3. 99 
quid simile isti Graecus Aristippus ? Heind. and Wopkens supply est : 
Dav. supplied habet, in accordance with the more common construction 
found in Div. u 65 quid simile habet- passer annis ; Fam. ix 21 quid simile 
habet epistula aut judicio aut contioni ? Cotta s objection will not really 
hold water. Experience may show a connexion between different sets of 
phenomena, though we may have no theory to account for the connexion, 
or even though it militates against accepted theories. 

Deciorum : n 10. For exx. of vicarious sacrifice among the ancients 



74 BOOK ITT CH. VI 15. 

see Lasaulx d. Suhnopfer d. Griechen u. Homer cited by Thomson Lectures 
on the Atonement nn. 23 and 25 ; Mayor on Juvenal vin 257 ; Nagelsbach 
N. Theol. pp. 190, 355 ; Trench Hulsean Lectures p. 206 (on <j>appaKoi, 
KaOappara, dnoTpaTraioi) ; Spencer s n. on Orig. Gels. I 31, Perizon. on Aelian 
V.H. xii 28. Instances in the Bible are the hanging of the descendants 
of Saul by David 2 Sam. xxi, the sacrifice of the son of the king of Moab 
2 Kings iii 27. The most famous in Greece are Iphigenia at Aulis, Alcestis 
and Codrus. For the daughters of Erechtheus and Leos see below 50. The 
vicarious principle is stated by Livy vni 10 7 (Decius) omnes minas 
periculaque ab dis superis inferisque in se unum veriit; by Caesar B. G. vi 16 
(of the Gauls) pro vita hominis nisi hominis vita reddatur non posse aliter 
deorum immortalium numen placari arbitrantur; by Virgil A en. v815 unum 
pro multis dabitur caput; Lucan n 306 (Cato s speech) utinam caelique 
deis Erebique liberet hoc caput in cunctas damnatum exponere poenas...hic 
redimat sanguis populos, hac caede luatur quicquid Romani meruerunt 
pendere mores. [Nep. x 10 2 ut eum suo sanguine, si possent, cuperent 
redimere. J. E. B. M.] Plutarch (Morals p. 815 D) speaks of it as the duty of 
a ruler to take upon himself all the evil which may threaten the common 
wealth, and gives instances in which such generosity has been successful 
in averting evil. Origen (Cels. I 31) compares the Crucifixion with the self- 
sacrifice of the Decii : He who was crucified voluntarily embraced this 
death in behalf of mankind, as others have died for their country, or to 
avert famine or other calamities in accordance with the mysterious law of 
nature cos- eva o*LKaiov inrep TOV KOLVOV arrodavovTa e /cover i &>? aTrorpOTTtacr/Mous 1 
f/jLTTOLflv (pavXcov dai/jLoviaiv fvepyovvrcov Xoipovs rj d<popias rj dvcnrXoias K.r.A. 
So Philo (Abr. c. 33) of the sacrifice of Isaac. 

tanta iniquitas : compare the indignant lines in which Lucretius 
speaks of the sacrifice of Iphigenia I 84 foil. The objection could not but 
make itself felt, as the reason and conscience grew in freedom and en 
lightenment. It is repeated below 90 you make the Gods exact penal 
ties from the guiltless , miram aequitatem deorum ! ferretne eivitas ulla 
latorem istius modi legis, ut condemnaretur Jilius aut nepos, si pater aut amis 
deliquisset? Arnobius vn 40 repeats it in reference to the case (mentioned 
Dlv. i 55) where a rustic was punished by the death of his son for disobe 
dience to a command received in a vision, quisquam est hominum qui fuisse 
ilium deum credat, tarn injustum, tarn impium, nee mortalium saltern con- 
stituta servantem, apud quos nefas haberetur magnum, alterum pro altero 
plecti, et aliena delicta aliorum cervicibus vindicari? We find the same 
protest against a mechanical view of sacrifice in the Bible, Will the Lord 
be pleased with thousands of lambs 1 shall I give the fruit of my body for 
the sin of my soul? (Micah vi 7); The soul that sinneth it shall die 
(Ezek. xviii 4). As an objection against the Christian doctrine of the Atone 
ment it is discussed in Butler s Analogy n c. 5 and is thus stated by him : 
The doctrine of Christ s being appointed to suffer for the sins of the world 
represents God as being indifferent whether he punished the innocent or 



BOOK III CH. VI 15. 75 

the guilty . His answer (limited by his choice of the analogical argument) 
is that it is at all events in accordance with the order of nature ; the 
innocent suffer both voluntarily and involuntarily for the sins of the 
guilty. It is in fact a consequence of the solidarity of mankind : the good 
or the evil done by one spreads through all ; and the more so, the more 
the one stands forward as representing the race or the community, peccant 
reges, plectuntur Achivi. In its human aspect an act of atoning self- 
sacrifice is the highest and most inspiring manifestation of generosity and 
nobleness, the magnet w r hich draws all men upwards ; in its divine aspect 
it is God s acceptance and forgiveness of all, as sharing in the goodness of 
one ; while for the individual it is, irrespective of all further consequences, 
the attainment of his highest ideal, the consciousness of the favour of God 
and the gratitude of men. But all this of course implies more than the 
mere opus operatum of sacrifice ; it implies the spirit of sacrifice, not only 
in him who devotes himself, but in all who are to share in the benefits of 
the sacrifice. 

placari populo : cf. Tusc. iv 37 quietus animo est sibique ipse placatus. 

0-Tpar^yrjjjia : the MSS give the word in Latin letters, and so it is printed 
in Wesenberg s ed. of Att. v 2 Rufio noster strategemate hominem percussit. 
Val. Max. has a section (vn 4) headed strategemata. L. and S. cite as exx. 
of its use all the references given under the heading strategema in the 
index to Duker s ed. of Florus, but, as far as I am aware, the word itself is 
not used by that writer. In the fourth book of Frontinus, which is a sort 
of appendix dealing with extraordinary kinds of o-rparr/y^/nariKa in contrast 
with the ordinary rules of strategy treated of in the earlier books, mention 
is made of the self-devotion of Decius (iv 5 15). But there can be little 
doubt that the action was done with a genuine belief in its religious 
significance, not from the * political motives assigned by rationalizing 
Academics ; cf. the explanation of the divine honours paid to Erechtheus 
(below 50), of the institution of augury (Div. n 43 hoc fortasse rei publicae 
causa constitution est}. The word imperatorius, which is here made equiva 
lent to the Greek o-rpar?7yt;<oi>, is freely used by Cic. for anything which 
belongs to or befits a general, as of the eagle eye of Marius (Balb. 49) ille 
imperatorius ardor oculorum. 

nam Fauni : a harsh instance of the transitional use of nam, for which 
see i 27, n 67 and Index. 

quid sit nescio : cf. n 6 n. The doubt as to the nature of Faunus is 
easily explained from the inconsistent voice of tradition. Was he an old 
king of Latium, or an ancient bard or seer, or is he the Greek Pan, or 
a Latin God of fertility, or merely a tricksy goblin 1 Or is he indeed any 
thing more than an echo ? 

A f. Of the remaining three arguments of Cleanthes, the two 
which deal with the blessings of life and the order of the heavenly 
bodies will be treated under the head of Providential Government (C) ; 



70 BOOK III CH. VII 1C. 

the third, which deals with the awe-inspiring phenomena of nature, 
was doubtless effective in producing a belief in the Gods, but is far 
from proving that belief to be valid. 16, 1 7. 

Ch. vn 16. quattuor modis : in n 13. The order however, as Sch. 
observes, is changed, the 2nd cause of book n (ex commodis} being here 
placed 3rd, as Cotta proposes to defer its consideration along with that of 
the 4th cause, and no doubt both of these causes may be fitly considered 
under the head of Providence, so as to avoid the repetition occasioned in 
the second book by the treatment of the same topic under different heads. 
But the question being whether the universe does or does not exhibit signs 
of a creative and administrative intelligence, Balbus is certainly justified in 
protesting, as he does below, against the postponement of his strongest 
arguments and the assumption in the meanwhile that the opposite has 
been proved. It is possible that the subject was really thus divided by 
Carneades, who of course had not the argument of Posidonius before him 
to answer : he may have briefly considered the argument from consensus 
and then gone on to examine the proof of the providential government of 
the world. 

ex perturbationibus : n 14. This cause corresponds to the Meteorolo 
gical Theory of mythology advocated by Kuhn and others, which is thus 
stated by Max Miiller (Lect. vol. n p. 519) : Clouds, storms, rain, lightning 
and thunder were the spectacles that above all others impressed the 
imagination of the early Aryans, and busied it most in finding terrestrial 
objects to compare with their ever- varying aspect... The coming and going 
of the celestial luminaries they regarded with more composure because of 
their regularity ; but they could never cease to feel the liveliest interest in 
those wonderful meteoric changes, so lawless and mysterious in their 
visitations, which wrought such immediate and palpable effects for good 
or ill on the lives and fortunes of the beholders (abbreviated). 

ex commoditate rerum quas percipimus = ex commodis rebus (or com- 
moditatibus) quas p. 

ex constantia : this corresponds to the Solar Theory thus described 
by Max Miiller (p. 518) : I consider the regular recurrence of phenomena 
an almost indispensable condition of their being raised, through the charms 
of mythological phraseology, to the rank of immortals, and I give a pro 
portionately small space to meteorological phenomena, such as clouds, 
thunder and lightning, which, although causing for a time commotions in 
nature and in the heart of man, would not be ranked together with the im 
mortal bright beings, but would rather be classed either as their subjects 
or as their enemies . For my own part I consider the Stoical theory, which 
recognizes both of these causes, as well as the animism of Tylor and H. Spen 
cer, to be truer and more philosophical than any of the partial theories. 

17. sint necne sint : this is not exactly the point. Cleanthes is 
dealing with a question of history not of philosophy, and is merely cited 



BOOK III CH VII 17. 77 

by Balbus to explain the fact of the consensus. Still the terrible pheno 
mena of nature, no less than the regular movements of the heavenly bodies, 
are an evidence of the existence of superhuman power at work in the 
universe, just as divination, if true, would be an evidence of superhuman 
wisdom ; and these are a part of our idea of God. 

caeliq[ue constantia : this is discussed in Section B below 23 foil. 

A g. The argument of Chrysippus, on the evidences of super 
human power in the universe and on the beauty and harmony of the 
universe, is reserved for the same section (C), as also the syllogisms of 
Zeno, the physical discussion on the properties of heat, and the other 
arguments in favour of the divinity of the universe and the heavenly 
bodies. (Section C is unfortunately lost, but the arguments re 
ferred to are partially discussed out of their order in B 21 26, 
3537.) 18, 19. 

18. eodem ilia differ emus : said with reference to all that follows, 
including not merely the clause quod melius but also quaeque compara- 
bas, et cum afferebas, Zenonisque conclusiones. For the pi. ilia cf. I 20 ilia 
palmaria. In this most awkward sentence eodem is taken up again in the 
phrases in earn partem differemus, in idem tempus reservabo. 

quod Chrysippum dicere : cf. n 16 and below 25, 26. For Relative 
explained by following clause see I 2 and Index. 

quaeque comparabas : your comparison (u 17) of a beautiful house to 
the beauty of the world , lit. what in the case of a beautiful house you com 
pared , &c., a kind of concrete for abstract, as when we say victus Caesar 
for the defeat of Caesar , cf. n 115 quae utfierent ratione eguerunt n. 

et cum : in II 19. The connecting particles are intentionally careless, 
as though to throw contempt on the argument and imply a want of logical 
connexion, cf. Dumesnil Leg. II 14 n. on scripserunt, and above 11 my n. 
on nescio quid. It is unnecessary to supply anything (as Sch.) between 
ilia differemus and cum afferebas. Strictly speaking the cwm-clause should 
of course state the circumstances of the principal action, but, as we have 
seen in the phrase audivi cum diceret (n. on I 58), it may stand for an 
extension of the object of the verb, being used there instead of a participle, 
here instead of a relative clause. 

Zenonis : n 20 and below 22 foil. 

acutulas : [add to Lexx. Apul. Met. vi 27. J. E. B. M.] the diminutive 
of contempt, like forticulus used of Epicurus in Tusc. n 45 ; contortulis con- 
clusiunculis, of the Stoics (ib. n 42) ; pungunt, quasi aculeis, interrogatiun- 
culis, of the same (Fin. iv 7) ; carunculae mtulinae mavis quam imperatori 
veteri credere, of the haruspices (Div. II 52). 

physice : the adverb, as shown by II 23 id ipsum rationibus physicis 
confirmari volo ; cf. Div. I 110 alter a divinatio...physica disputandi subtili- 
tate referenda est ad naturam deorum, Div. I 126 non id quod super stitiosc, 



78 BOOK III CH. VII 18. 

sed id quod physiee dicitur, [also Serv. on Aen. x 5, 834. J. E. B. M.]. So 
we have Stoice in Div. n 8 (accurate et Stoice Stoicorum sententiam defen- 
disti); dialectice and rhetorice in Fin. n 17. It is strange that the edd. 
should take it as the vocative of the noun, which would be out of place 
here, and moreover is regularly used of the Epicureans, see I 77 tu /toe, 
physiee. non vides with the nn., also I 83, n 48. The Stoics prided them 
selves on being dialectici. 

nudius tertius = nunc dies (arch, num dius) est tertius. See n. on 
hesterno die n 73, but here it is implied that a whole day had intervened 
between the second and third books, unless Cicero for the moment im 
agined that he was referring here to the first book. 

docere velles : see above 6, and below 20 ostendere vellex. 

quare mentem haberent : it seems best to make this clause depend 
on dicta sunt (as Heind. and Sch.). So taken the sentence exhibits the 
same confusion between the objective and subjective statement (quare 
mundus haberet instead of quare mundum haberc confitendum essei), of 
which we have seen exx. before, as in n 13 (notiones confused with causas) 
and ii 167 magnis viris prosperae res, si quidem satis dictum est, i\. Below 
we have ( 23) niliil affert quare mundum ratione uti putemus, which might 
similarly have been contracted into nihil affert quare utatur. In the pas 
sage referred to (n 29 44) Balbus did not attempt to show why the uni 
verse was intelligent, but gave reasons for believing that it was so. It is 
worthy of notice that Cotta here speaks of the argument in favour of the 
intelligence of the universe and stars as included under the general head 
deos esse, thus confirming the view I have taken in opposition to Hirzel 
vol. ii p. xxi foil. 

Cli. vin 19. interrogaturus : about to examine my argument . 
From the Socratic denchus the word interrogatio gets the sense of syl 
logism , cf. Fat. 28, Madv. Fin. I 39 and Reid A cad. I 5. 

tacitae : without discussion . Cf. the passive signification of caecus, 
surdus, &c. 

separantur : as by Cic. himself in his treatises on the subject. 

agere confuse : cf. Reid on Ac. n 47. 

B. STOIC ARGUMENT ON THE DlVINE NATURE CRITICIZED. 

Ch. vin 20 ch. xxv G4. 

a. Criticism of particular arguments of Zeno, Chrysippus and 
Xenophon stated in previous Book. 20 28. 

(1) When it is said the universe is best and therefore divine , 
there is an ambiguity in best ; lue may allow it to be most beautiful 
and most useful, but how most wise ? if, as Zeno says, because what is 
wise is better than what is not wise, why not on the same principle 
a mathematician or musician, / 20 23. 



BOOK III CH. VIII 20. 79 

20. nullos esse : that they were non-existent , see Index. 

a consuetudine : see n 45 (commencing the second section of the argu 
ment) in reference to the difficulty of conceiving Gods in other than human 
shape. Chrysippus wrote a treatise against Custom, Kara Swrjddas, Plut. 
Mor. p. 1036. 

quo nihil melius esset : cf. n 46 mundo autem certe nihil est melius. 
The Subj. is due to Orat. Obi. (Roby 1740) than which, you said, nothing 
is better . 

modo possemus : (that might be the case) * could we but imagine the 
world to be alive . For similar ellipsis cf. nisi forte I 98, nisi vero below 
27, Roby 1626. 

21. quid dicis melius? what meaning do you attach to that 
word? lit. what quality do you call by that name ? cf. I 89 quid est istuc 
gradatim ? 

si pulchrius : as asserted in n 47, 58, of the mundane sphere. 

aptius ad utilitates : as shown in n 49. 

sapientius : as in n 47 and more particularly in n 36, 39. 

nullo modo prorsus : Madv. on Fin. n 15 say s that prorsus, when joined 
with the negative in whatever order, always increases its force, as in Plaut. 
Trin. 730 nullo modo. potest fieri prorsus quin dos detur ; see Munro on 
Lucr. I 748, where nee pr or sum =et prorsus non. Sch. wrongly asserts the 
same of non omnino, which, like ov navv, is found either in the weak or the 
strong signification, non being sometimes used to negative the adverb, 
as in Plaut. A sin. non omnino jam perii ; est reliquom quo peream magis ; 
and Cic. Att. in 23 2 non omnino quidem sed magnam partem. 

non quod difficile sit : the Subj. marks that the reason assigned is not 
vouched for by the speaker. See Roby 1744. 

Ch. ix. nihil est mundo melius : the argument, given in n 21, 46, 
is borrowed ultimately from Plato Tim. 30 : The Creator sought to make 
all good and beautiful in the highest degree, and perceiving ovdev avoijrov 
TOV vovv exovros o\ov o\ov <d\\iov fcrfo-dai TTOT epyov, vovv 8 av X^P * ^ V X.*1 S 
dSvvaTov Trapayfveadai rw, he therefore made the world u>ov ep^/vxov evvovv 
-re . Cotta is right in complaining of the vagueness of the argument of 
Balbus, but his comparison is illegitimate, as Sch. observes ; since the 
relation of rerum natura to mundus is a relation of identity, while that of 
terrae to urbs nostra is a relation of whole to parts. As to the particular 
comparison, it is of course absurd to speak of the material city as being 
better than any thing on earth. A single human being, a single object 
possessed of life is better and more wonderful. If on the other hand we 
mean by the city a community of men, we may then think of it as the 
highest thing on earth, but this will only be because we regard it as the 
highest earthly embodiment of reason. 

ne in terris quidem : like ovSe, ne quidem has two senses, a stronger 
and a weaker ; here it is the latter, neither is there anything on earth 



80 BOOK III CH. IX 21. 

superior to Rome ; cf. I 71 11., also Caes. B. G\ v 44 5 ne Vorenus quidem 
sese vallo continct ; B. C. n 33 ne Varius quidem dubitat copias producere ; 
Madv. 457, and Index. 

idcirco in urbe esse rationem : it is the same argument as is used in 
II 47 to prove the rationality of the world. 

quoniam non sit : repeated in quod memoria. The Subjunctives are 
required, because they are subordinate in Orat. Obi. 

in formica mens : but in n 34 and 133 it is denied that brutes have 
mind or reason. Compare however n 29 on quiddam simile mentis. For 
the comparison of the ant see n. on I 79. 

concedatur Slimere : cf. below 36 quo modo hoc, quasi concedatur, 
sumitis. 

22. dilatatum a recentioribus coartavit : the MSS here have simply 
dilatavit, but this is in flat contradiction to n 20 haec, quae dilatantur 
a nobis, Zeno sic premebat, and to Parad. I 2 Cato in ea est haeresi quae 
nullum sequitur florem orationis neque d Hat at argumentum: minutis inter- 
rogatiuncidis, quasi punctis, quod proposuit ejficit. Heind. followed by Sch. 
proposed to understand the word in the sense of to generalize , to cover 
a large surface , but dilatare is regularly used of rhetorical amplification, 
never of logical extension, cf. Orat. I 163 per/ice ut Crassus haec quae coar 
tavit et peranguste refersit in oratione sua dilatet nobis atque explicet ; Brut. 
309 ilia justa eloquentia, quam dialecticam dilatatam esse putant ; Part. 
Orat. 23 (conversa oratio) ita tractatur ut aut ex verbo dilatetur aut in 
verbum contrahatur oratio. It appears t o me therefore that some words 
have been lost, and I find a confirmation of this idea in the reading of the 
oldest MS (V) dilata lavit, and in the epithet vetus which suggests a lost 
antithesis. If the archetype had three lines as follows, the second would 
be easily omitted : 

ACVTA CONCLVSIO DILATA 
TVM A RECENTI01UBVS COAR 
TAVIT 

23. vestigiis concludere : vest, being here nearly synonymous with 
r.vemplo, I am disposed to treat it as an Abl. of Manner. In its more 
literal use, as in the phrase vestigiis sequi, it is better taken as an Abl. of 
Place (Roby 1177), while in the phrase vestigiis invenimus (Yerr. vi 53) 
it should be classed as Abl. of Means. 

litteratus igitur est mundus : the objection is taken from Alexinus, 
a philosopher of the Megaric school, famed for ingenious quibbling, who 
flourished early in the third century B.C., and was a keen opponent of 
Zeno. It is thus stated by Sext. Emp. IX 108 TO 7roirjri<ov TOV p,r) TTOITJTIKOV 
KOI TO ypa^jjiaTiKov TOV /XT) ypa/z/zartKov Kperrroi> eVrt...o^Se <ev de KOCT/UOV 
KpelTTov faTiv TToirjTiKov apa KOI ypap/jLciTiKov ecrriv 6 Kocr/zos. To which 
Sextus appends the answer of the Stoics : What is animated and rational 
is absolutely better than its opposite, but the grammatical and poetical is 



BOOK III CH. IX 23. 81 

only relatively better, that is, in relation to such a creature as man, 
provided there is nothing to counterbalance it ; e.g. Aristarchus the gram 
marian is inferior to Plato who was not a grammarian . The real flaw in 
Zeno s argument is the ambiguity of the minor premiss : the world, as we 
see it, is riot the best thing we can imagine ; but it suggests to us a per 
fect cause, which we may believe in, though we cannot see it. If we 
include this first cause in our idea of the universe, then we may say that 
the universe in its entirety, not as known to a finite being at a particular 
moment, must be best ; and we may also say that, self-consciousness being 
a higher condition than unconsciousness, there must be self- consciousness 
in the universe. 

et quidem mathematicus : aye and , implying that this is even a 
greater absurdity than the former. There is no reason for the correction 
atque idem, see n. on n 41. 

denique postremo : i 104 n. 

dixti : for the syncopated form see Roby 662, Munro on Lucr. i 233, 
Madv. Fin. n 10, Plaut. Eun. 322 amisti, Ter. Andr. 518 dixti, Catull. 
41. 14 misti, Aen. I 201 accestis, iv 682 exstinxti, Propert. I 3. 37 consumpsti, 
Hor. Sat. u 7. 68 evasti, n 3. 273 percusti. Cicero uses this colloquial 
abbreviation Att. xm 32 and Caecin. 82, the latter of which is referred to 
by Quintilian ix 3 22 Pisonem alloquens Cicero dicit restituisse te dixti 
...et ipsum l dixti\ excussa sylldba, figura in verbo. 

nisi ex eo: this is Heind. s emendation, approved by Madv, Adv. n 
243 n. and Sch. Append., instead of the MS sine deo. The syllable ni 
would easily be lost after the ri of fieri, and si ex eo would quickly suggest 
sine deo. The objection to the MS reading is that the opposition between 
God and nature (though occurring below 24, and not in itself un- Stoical, 
cf. ii 75 n.) is here out of place, being interposed between two ironical 
arguments to prove that the world is itself a master of science and art. 
And, though deus is sometimes used as equivalent to mundus, yet the 
phrase sine deo fieri (which occurs below of the tides) is not appropriate to 
the argument here referred to, unde hanc (mentem) homo arripuit ? . . .an 
cetera mundus habebit, hoc unum, quod plurimi est, non habebit ? (ii 18). 
If we accept this change of reading, it seems necessary also to read illam 
for ullam. 

sui dissimilia effingere : the reference is to such passages as ii 22 cur 
mundus non animans judicetur cum ex se procreet animantes ? . . .si ex oliea 
modulate canentes tibiae nascerentur, num dubitares quin inesset in oliva 
tibicinii quaedam scientia ? 

earum artium homines : cf. Rose. Am. 120 omnium artium puendos, 
Plin. N. //. ix 8 8 Arion citharaedicae artis, xxv 4 libertum suum Lenaeum 
grammaticae artis, also vn 39, 40, xxx 2. 

nihil igitur : after such a reductio ad absurdum it is plain there is 
nothing in his argument . 

M. C. III. 6 



82 BOOK III CH. IX 23. 

sallltarius : the occurrence of this epithet along with others referring 
to the beauty and order of the universe is confirmatory of the MS reading 
distinctionem utilitatem in n 15. The comparative sal. is said to be 
CITT. Aey. 

B a. (2). Again, when it is said the regular movements of the 
stars prove them to be divine, it is simply the regularity of nature ; 
on the same principle we should call tides or intermittent fevers divine. 
23, 24. 

ne stellae quidem: weak sense, as above 21, see Index. 

q.uas tu innumerabiles : in countless numbers . For the inclusion 
of an adjective, belonging to the antecedent, in the relative clause as a 
subpredicate, cf. n 89 natura quam cernit ignotam, n 136 calore quern 
multum kabent, in 93 deos qui a te innumerabiles explicate sunt. 

reponebas : you were for reckoning among the Gods . On the regu 
larity of the heavenly movements cf. n 43, 49, 51, 54 56, esp. 54 quae cum 
in sideribus videamus, non possumus ea ipsa non in deorum numero re- 
ponere n. 

24. omnia quae ea : see Index under Pleonastic Demonstrative. 

Ch. x. Euripo : the currents of the Euripus were proverbial, but 
rather as signifying irregularity , than the opposite ; cf. Plato Phaedo 90 
Trdvra TO. OVTCL ar^^vws cocrTrep ev EuptVo) avw KOI KO.TW orpecpercu KCU %povov 
ovdcva fv ovdevl /ueVet, Aeschin. Ctes p. 66 (of inconstancy) irKfiovs rparro- 
fjivos rporras TOV ~EvpL7Tov nap ov w/cet, Arist. Etli. IX 6 TWV TOIOVTCOV (the 
good) /Lie^fi ra ftovXrjfjLciTa KOI ov perappel cocryrep Euptyros-, Liban. Ep. 533 
^,77 p,e vo/jLLorrjs Evpnrov, Cic. Mur. 35 quod /return, quern Euripum tot motus, 
t ant as tarn varias habere putatis agitationes commutationesque fluctuum, 
quantas perturbationes et quantos aestus habet ratio comitiorum ? Liv. 
xxvin 6 fretum ipsum Euripi non septies die, sicut fama fert, reciprocat, 
sed temere in modurn venti, nunc hue, nunc illuc verso mari, velut monte 
praecipiti devolutus torrens rapitur. A story grew up in later times that 
Aristotle, then living at Chalcis, put an end to his life through vexation at 
his inability to explain the cause of these currents (Justin M. Coh. ad 
Gent. 36, Eustath. ad Dion. Perieg. 475, cited by Ideler on Arist. Meteor. 
n 8). The account given in the Diet, of Geog. is as follows : It remains 
but a short time in a quiescent state, changing its direction in a few 
minutes and almost immediately resuming its velocity, which is generally 
from four to five miles an hour either way. The results of three months 
observation afforded no sufficient data for reducing the phenomena to any 
regularity . Strabo says of it (ix p. 618) irepl Se rfjs TraXtppo/as TOV 
TOO-OVTOV fjiovov el-rreiv LKCIVOV, OTI eTrra/civ /xera/SaXAeiy (pa<ri *a$ tj/jiepav 
KOI vixra- rrjv Se alriav ev aXXois o-Kerrreov. Pliny, after giving an account 
of tides generally, adds (n 97) quorumdam tamen privata natura est, vclut 
Tauromenitani Euripi et in Euboea, septies die ac node reciprocantis. 



BOOK III CH. X 24. 83 

Mela however (il 7) says it ebbs and flows seven times in every twelve 
hours, cf. Seneca Here. F. 377, Here. 0. 779, Troad. 838. The word got to be 
used of any channel (Xen. Hell. I 6 22) and hence of a conduit, as in Cic. 
Leg. ii 2 ductus aquarum quos isti nilos et euripos vacant. On tides see 
above II 19 nn. [Cf. Aesch. Ag. 191 TraXippoxdois iv AvXidos TOTTOIS. 
Swainson.] 

freto Siciliensi : the word /return is sometimes used distinctively of 
the straits of Messana. Strabo tells us some explained the currents there 
by the supposition that the two seas, of which they formed the junction, 
were on different levels, dta TOVTO TOVS evpiirovs pocaSfis eivai, ^aXttrra de TOV 
Kara SiKfXtai 7rop$/zdf, ov (prjo~iv (Eratosthenes) opoioTraOelv TCUS Kara TOV 
^/z/zupicn re KOI a/iTTtorecn- dis re yap /uera/SaXXeiz/ TOV povv exa- 
KM VVKTOS foil. Thucydides (iv 24) seems to identify it with 
the Charybdis of Homer, Sia orei/dr^ra de KOI IK /zeyaXcoz/ TreXaycoy TOV re 
TvpcrrjviKov Koi TOV 2iKeX<Ko> fowiirrowra j 6a\ao-cra e$ avro KIU pocodrjs oucra 
fiKOTws xaXeTr?) cvofiia-Qrj. Allen cites Lucr. I 721 angustoque fretu rapidum 
mare dividit undis Italiae terrarum oras afinibus ejus (Siciliae}. Lucretius 
also uses the word metaphorically in iv 1030 and vi 364, where Munro 
says fretus expresses at once the strait joining two seas and the swell and 
surging common in such cross-seas . See Varro quoted on fretorum 
angustiae II 19. 

fervore : boiling , as in Lucr. vi 437 prorumpitur in mare venti vis, et 
fervorem mirum concinnat in undis. 

Europam Libyamque : the /return Gaditanum or Herculeum. The 
line, which is assigned to Ennius Ann. vm by L. Miiller p. 34, is also 
cited in Tusc. I 45 ii qui Oceani freta ilia viderunt, Europam &c. It was 
near Gibraltar that Posidonius investigated the phenomena of the tides, 
see above n 19 nn. 

vel Hispanienses vel Britannic! : ( either on the coasts of Spain or 
Britain . We have seen above (ii 19 n., cf. Strabo in 5 p. 261) that 
Aristotle explained the Atlantic tides by the peculiar nature of the Spanish 
coast. The tides of Britain were noticed as extraordinary by Pytheas 
(Plin. N. H. ii 99), cf. Caesar B. G\ iv 29. 

fieri non possunt : is it impossible for them to occur ? This gives 
a better sense than nonne read by most MSS, which would mean may they 
not occur ? 

ordinem conservant : what is the value of the argument from regu 
larity ? It shows that there is something more than chance or caprice at 
work. But constantia is never regarded as being the sole and sufficient 
reason for belief in the rational government of the universe. It might be 
the necessary result of some original law of matter. The instances by 
which Cotta endeavours to throw ridicule upon it are themselves indu 
bitable proofs of a steadily acting cause. 

ne tertianas quoque febres : the MS reading quidem is capable of a 
good sense in itself, limiting the assertion, like Gr. ye, to the particular 

62 



84 BOOK in en. x 24. 

kind of fever ; but it is hardly likely that Cic. would have used ne quid-em 
in any but the idiomatic sense. I have therefore followed the other edd. 
in reading quoque. The comparison with intermittent fevers may have 
been suggested by the common term circumitus (TrepioSos), see above n 49 
and Gels, in 12 eas febres quae cerium habent circumitum ct ex toto rcmit- 
tuntur. On the kinds of intermittent fevers, quartan, tertian, quotidian, 
see Plin. vin 50 certis pestifer calor remeat horis aut rigor, neque horis modo 
sed et diebus noctibusque trinis quadrimisve, etiam anno toto ; Lydus Jfens. 
Ill p. 51 Tr\fovda-avTOS fj.ev irvpus Trvperus yiverai, a/iCp^epti oy de depos, rpi- 
raios Se vdaros, Terapraios Se yfjs, Mayor on Juv. iv 57 quartanam speranti- 
bus aegris. As we read below 63, febris was deified, though not for the 
reason ironically suggested here. 

reversione et motu: cf. Ac. n 110 motus mutationemque, below 27, 
Div. ii 94, and see Index under hendiadys . 

ratio reddenda est : have to be explained . The Stoic would reply 
that that was what he meant by calling them divine. The fact that all 
things were rational proved that the universe was ordered by reason, and 
to this reason he gave the name of God. 

25. quod cum facere deum : in cases where you are unable to 
give a rational explanation you have recourse to the Deity . 

in aram confugitis : the same metaphor is used by Archytas ap. Arist. 

Rhet. Ill 11 ravTov eivai SiaiTrjTrjV ./cat /Soo/^ov eV a/A(pco yap TO ddiKovufvov 
Karafpfvyei , Caecin. 100 cum liomines vincula mtant, confugiunt quasi ad 
aram in exsilium ; p. Red. in Sen. 11 nisi in aram tribunatus confugisset ; 
Verr. II 3 and 8 ad aram legum confugere. We have the literal sense in 
Tusc. I 85 Priamum, cum in aram confugisset, hostilis rnanus interemit. 

B a. (3). The arguments of Chrysippus are equally weak. He 
uses better in the same vague way, and does not distinguish between 
reason and nature. It is no presumption in man to believe that he is 
himself rational and that the stars are composed of brute matter. 
The comparison of the universe to a house begs the question. 25, 26. 

Chrysippus : II 16. For et = and then cf. I 50, 93. 

callidus : fr. callum hardened skin , itself used metaphorically by 
Cic. Tusc. II 36 ipse labor quasi callum quoddam obdueit dolori ; hence 
calleo to be hardened , as in Fam. iv 5 2 in ill is rebus exercitatus animus 
callerejamdebet atque omnia minoris aestimare ; and concallesco to become 
hardened , Att. iv 16 10 locus ille animi nostri concalluit. From this 
sense we get the further meaning practised , expert , like tritus, rpt/Scav, 
rpi/t/ia, cf. Catil. in 17 prudentes natura, callidi usu, doctrina eruditi ; and 
the pun in Plant. Poen. ill 2. 2, and Pers. u 5. 4 vide sis calleas. Callum 
aprugnum callere aeque non sinam. We find it joined with versutus 
( adroit , dexterous , dodgy ) Off. I 108, n 10, in 57, Caecin. 55, 65. 
For the derivation cf. Plaut. Epid. in 2. 35 vorsutior cs quam rota figularis. 



BOOK III CH. X 25. 85 

There is no particular reason for these verbal distinctions here. But 
Cicero was in Augustine s phrase verborum mgilantissimus appensor ac 
mensor (cited by Trench on Words Lect. 4), of which we have an example 
in the forms beatitas, beatitudo proposed by him in I 95 ; still more in the 
discussion on the word invidentia (Tusc. in 20), non dixi invidiam, quae 
turn est cum invidetur, ab invidendo autem invidentia recte did potest ut 
effugiamus ambiguum nomen invidiae, quod verbum ductum est a nimis 
intuendo fortunam alterius, ut est in Melanippo, and so on for some lines ; 
after which he returns to his subject. 

igitur : resumptive, see on I 44. 

in eodem, quo ilia : for the subaudition of the preposition with the 
relative, when it has been expressed with the demonstrative, see above 
i 31 n., -Mayor on Cic. Phil, n 26, Madv. 323 obs. 1 [also on Fin. I 32, 
Fabri on Liv. xxn 33 9, Beier on Cic. Off. I 112. J. E. B. M.]. 

errore versantur : have their being in the same error , cf. I 43 in 
maxima inconstantia versantur opiniones ; I 37 Aristonis magna in errore 
sententia est; Tusc. I 107 vides quanto haec in errore versentur what a 
mistake underlies all this . 

26. praestabilius=joraescmta ws n 16, 45. See below on patibilem, 
29. 

quid inter naturam et rationem intersit : what a distance there is 
between reason (such as we know it in man) and the unconscious opera 
tions of nature . This refers both to the argument of Chrysippus n 16 
(in homine solo est ratio &c.) and to that of Zeno just cited. 

distinguitur : on the change from the Act. to the Pass. Swainson 
compares Madv. Fin. n 48. 

idemque : Cotta here separates the two arguments which are appa 
rently blended in n 16, where see nn. He has just given the former if 
there is anything in the universe beyond man s power to make, that which 
made it must be God : he now gives the latter, * if God does not exist, 
there is nothing in the universe superior to man ; which is absurd . 

sint : Subj. because subordinate to negat esse. 

id nihll homine esse melius : on the explanatory clause in apposi 
tion to Demonstrative see above 7 si id est primum. 

Orionem et Caniculam: see nn. on n 113. Canic. is here used for 
Sirius, as in Hor. Od. I 17, in 13, not for the Lesser Dog-star (Procyon), 
as by Plin. N.H. xvm 68 cited on n 114. As usual, Cotta confuse agit. 
The question is not here as to the divinity of each constellation, but as to 
the rationality of the universe. Cotta s argument merely comes to this, 
there are parts of the universe which are irrational and unconscious and 
therefore inferior to man. 

si domus debemus : see n 17 nn. 

aedificatum : cf. nn. on I 19 aedificari mundum, I 4 fabricati ; and for 
omission of esse Acad. n 126 ne ex aedificatum quidem hunc mundum divino 
consilio existimo, and Index under ellipsis . 



86 BOOK III CH. X 25. 

a natura : see on n 33. The promise here made is not fulfilled in 
what remains. 

B a. (4). Nor is there more weight in the assumptions that tlif 
rational soul of man must have proceeded from a rational soul in tit? 
universe, and that the harmony of nature can only be explained on tlif- 
supposition of one divine Governor. Both are spontaneous products 
of nature acting according to her own laws. 27, 28. 

Ch. xi 27. unde animum arripuerimus : cf. n 18 nn. and Div. IT 
26 naturale (genus divinandi) quod animus arriperet extrinsecus ex divini- 
tate, unde omnes animos haustos aut acceptos aut libatos haberemus. The 
same form of argument is used by F. "W. Newman (Reply to Eclipse of 
Faith p. 26) : Being conscious that I have personally a little love and 
a little goodness, I ask concerning it, as concerning intelligence, where did 
I pick it up ? and I feel an invincible persuasion that, if I have some 
moral goodness, the great Author of my being has infinitely more (cited 
by Mansel Bampton Lectures p. 197). 

et ego quaere : for the ironical ct cf. i 79 n., below 82 et praedones, 
and Cato 25 din vivendo multa senectus quae non milt videt. Et mult a 
fortasse quae milt. 

unde orationem : the same kind of frivolous objection as we had 
before in 23. Granted reason, you have its developments and applications. 

ad harmoniam canere : cf. II 19 concincntibus mundi partibus n. 
* Pythagoras believed that the intervals between the heavenly bodies cor 
responded to those of the octave and that hence arose the harmony of the 
spheres, which mortals were unable to hear, either because it was too 
powerful for their ears, or because they had never experienced absolute 
silence , Anc. Phil. p. 10; cf. Plato Rep. x 617 upon each of the eight 
circles stands a Siren, who travels round with the circle uttering one note in 
one tone, and from all the eight notes there proceeds a single harmony. 
At equal distances around sit the Fates clothed in white robes, chanting 
to the music of the Sirens, Lachesis of the past, Clotho of the present, 
Atropos of the future ; Zeller I 398, n 653, Cic. R.P. vi 18 (after being- 
shown the planets Scipio asks) quis est qui complet aures meas tantus et tarn 
dulcis sonus ? Hie est, inquit ille, qui intervallis disjunctus imparibus, sed 
tamen pro rata parte ratione distinctis, impulsu et motu ipsorwn orbium 
efficitur et acuta cum gravibus temperans varios aequabiliter concentus efficit ; 
nee enim silentio tanti motus indtari possunt...Summus ille cadi stellifer 
cursus, cujus conversio est condtatior, acuto et exdtato movetur sono, gra- 
vissimo autem hie lunaris atque infimus . . Mi autem octo cursus septem 
efficiunt distinctos intervallis sonos (which we imitate on our musical instru 
ments) .. .Hoc sonitu oppletae aures hominum obsurduerunt...sicut, libi Nilus 
ad ilia, quae Catadupa nominantvr, praecipitat ex altissimis montibus, ea 



BOOK III CH. XI 27. 87 

geiu, quae ilium locum accolit, propter magnitudinem sonitus sensu audiendi 
caret; Plin. N. H. n 22, Shaksp. N. of Ven. v. 1. 60 There s not the smallest 
orb which thou behold st, but in his motion like an angel sings, still 
quiring to the young-eyed cherubins ; such harmony is in immortal souls ; 
but whilst this muddy vesture of decay doth grossly close us in, we cannot 
hear it . Aristotle (Gael. II 9) argues against the Pythagorean harmony of 
the spheres. 

ista sunt : the soul with all its faculties, which you referred to as 
proving a divine Originator. 

art ifi close ambulantis : cf. n 57 naturam ita definit ut earn dicat ignem 
esse artificiosum ad gignendum progredientem via. The change of phrase is 
intended to be ludicrous, artistically walking nature instead of the 
movement of the artistic fire . Ambulo is however used of inanimate 
objects, as by Cato R.R. I 3 amnis qua naves ambulant ; of the Nile by 
Plin. N.H. v 10 ; of light, ib. xxxvn 47, where it is said of a precious stone 
inclusam lucem transfundit cum inclinatione, velnt intus ambulantem ex olio 
atque alio loco reddens [of machinery, ib. xvm 317. For artificiose cf. 
Ambr. Off. i 93. J. E. B. M.] 

omnia cientis mutationibus suis : Gotta here gives to artificiosus a 
different meaning to that which it bore in Zeno s definition of nature, 
actually contrasting it with natural, as in Div. I 72 (genera divinandi) non 
naturalia sed artificiosa. 

28. itaque gives a reason for suis. The character impressed 
on the universe comes from nature herself, not from any adventitious 
source. 

convenientia : cf. II 54 hanc in stellis...convenientiam temporum...con- 
veniens constansque conversio ; and, for the passage generally, n. on II 19 
consentiens conspirans continuata cognatio. 

cognatione continuatam : so MSS. Edd. put both words either in 
Abl. or Ace. But why may we not translate connected by relation 
ship ? We have omnes artes quasi cognatione qiiadam inter se continentur, 
Arch. 2 ; [animus] deorum cognatione teneatur Div. I 64, cf. Plato Meno 81 
are rrjs (pvo-fws (rvyyevovs ovarjs, with the remarks in Grote s Plato II p. 17 
(where parallels are cited from Leibnitz) ; Porphyr. V. Pyth. 49 TO ainov 
TTJS (TV/J-TrvoLas KOI rrjs (TV invade las TOJV oXo>ir...!i/ 7rpo(rr]y6pfV(rav 7 Ka\ yap TO ev 
TOLS Kara fj.epos V TOLOVTO UTrap^et, T\VK>^VOV rots //epecrt Kal o~vp.7rvovv Kara 
fterovo-iai/ TOV Trpcorou airiou. Consentio and conspiro are frequently joined, 
as in Tusc. v 72 (in friendship we see) consilium omnis vitae consentiens et 
paene conspirans ; Fin. v 66 conspiratio consensusque virtutum ; Fin. I 20, 
Oecon. 1. 

ilia vero cohaeret naturae viribus : if we keep the MS reading, ilia 
here can only refer to natura, some edd. have therefore proposed to make 
it plural, reading continerentur, cohaerent, permanent ; but Cic. is not very 
careful about avoiding repetitions, cf. below 34 natura...ex naturis...quo 
naturae vi, n 25 puteis jugibus n., Div. I 112 e monte Taygeto extrema 



88 BOOK III CH. XI 28. 

montis quasi puppis avulsa est: moreover we find the sing, in ea just below, 
On vero see I 86 n. 

naturae viribus, non deorum : but to the Stoic, as to the Christian, 
nature was merely the manifestation of God ; of. Lact. u 8 melius Seneca 
vidit nil aliud esse naturam quam Deum. Cum igitur ortum rerum tribuis 
naturae ac detrahis Deo, in eodem luto haesitans versuram fads. A quo 
enim fieri mundum negas, ab eodem plane fieri mntato nomine confiteris. 
Balbus carefully distinguishes the meanings of the term nature II 81, 
and is quite willing to ascribe to nature the ordering of the universe, 
provided that by nature we understand vim participem rationis, and not 
vim quandam sine ratione cientem mot us in corporibus necessaries. 

quasi consensus : see on n 19 ; quasi is merely a modest way of intro 
ducing his equivalent for the Gr., cf. Reid on Cato 47 quasi titillatio 
yapya\icrp.6s, 

B b. Carneades argument showing that no animal can be eternal 
(and therefore that the God of the Stoics is a figment), Ch. xn 29 
ch. xiv 34. 

(1) Whatever is corporeal must be discerptible. 29. 

Much of the following argument is found in Sext. Emp. ix 137 foil. It 
is there employed undisguisedly to disprove the existence of the Gods, not, 
as ostensibly here, to disprove the Stoic view of their nature, cf. above 
20 cum ostendere velles quotes di essent, ostenderes nullos esse. Sextus 
begins, not simply by assuming, but by proving, that the God of the Stoics 
must be an animal, TO yap toov TOV ^.r] a>o?; Kpelrrov. Whatever may be 
the value of the argument, it does not touch the main point of the Stoic 
theology, the belief in the mundane Deity ; for this did not prevent them 
from maintaining the doctrine of the corruptibility of the world, in opposi 
tion to the Aristotelian doctrine of the eternity of the world ; cf. Diog. L. 
VII 141 (pdapTov fivai TUV Kocr/zov are yevrjTov, ov TO. re p.fpr] (pOapTa tVri 
Kal TO oiXov TO. Se /jieprj TOV KOCT/JLOV (pdapTa, els aXX^Xa yap /zera/SaXXer 
(pdapros apa 6 Koa-p.os (see below B b (3)). /cat ei TL em^fkriKov eVri rfjs 
e$ TO xelpov fi6ra/3oX^j, (pdapTov eVrr KOI o KOCT^OS apa- c^av^p-ovTai yttp 
Kal e ^uSaroGrat, Zeller iv p. 152 n. But how is this consistent with their 
doctrine that the world is God, a>ov aOavaTov 1 The explanation is tha.t, 
though the form is transitory, the substance is eternal. The world, as it 
exists at any moment, will be destroyed in the next conflagration, but the 
flame, which destroys it, is itself the seed of the new world which rises out 
of the ashes of the old ; cf. Zeno (Stob. Ed. p. 322) TTJV TWV UVTU>V TTPMTTJV 
v\r]v ircKrav atdiov KOL oure TrXeto) yiyvo\*.ivt]v OVTC e XoVrw, TCI de /wep^ TavTrjs 
OVK aei TavTa bta^veiv dXXa SiatpeTcr$ai Kal crvyx^o-dai^ also Chrysippus ibid, 
and ap. Plut. St. Rep. p. 1052. More fully pseudo-Philo Inc. Mund. 2 ov&fls 
OVTUIS f(TT\i> vr]6r)s wore ajropflv el o KOO-/J.OS (is TO /JLTJ ov (pOeipeTai, aXX 
ei Of ^f rat TTJV e /c Trjs StaKocr/JLijcrews fj.era^oiX ijv, ib. 3 ot Se SrcoiKoi KOCT/IOV 



BOOK III CH. XI 28. 89 

/x,eV ei/a, yeveaeas de avTov 6eov airiov, cpdopas de prjKCTl 6(6v, aXXa TTJV 
ev To7s ovo~i Trvpos a/ca//,arov dvi>a/j,iz>. ..e f)s rraXiv an avay^vvrjcriv 
crvvioTCurQcu Trpop,T)8fl.q roO rf^virov. dvvarai de Kara TOVTOVS 6 p.fv 
TIS Kocr/Ltos 1 didios, o Se (pdapTos \eyeo~6ai, (pdapros p.ev 6 Kara TTJV dia.K.ocrprjo iv, 
dio ios &e 6 Kara rfjv eKTrvpocxrtv TraXiyyeveaiais KOI Trepiodois ddai>aTi6)jievos 
ovSeirore \r)yovo-ai$, Zeller iv p. 153 HD. It may be well to note here that 
the Stoics used the term o-co/ja in the widest sense, including not only 
what we should call matter, but God, the soul, even the affections and 
virtues, which they defined to be the material soul affected in a particular 
way. 

Ch. xu 29. Carneades : we have a specimen of his anti-Stoic 
polemic in Acad. II 119 foil. After a short statement of the Stoic <pvo-io- 
\oyia (hunc mundum esse sapientem, habere mentem quae et se et ipsum 
fabricata sit et omnia moderetur, moveat, regat &c.) he proceeds cur deus 
omnia nostra causa cum faceret sic enim vultis tantam vim natricum 
viperarumque fecerit ? cur mo rtif era tarn mult a ac perniciosa terra marique 
disperserit?...Negas sine deo posse quicquam. Ecce tibi e transverse Strata, 
qui det isti deo immunitatem magni quidem muneris. Negat opera deorum 
se uti ad fabricandum mundum. Quaecunque sint, docet omnia effecta esse 
natura. Compare also Sext. Emp. P.H. ill 1, Zeller iv p. 504 3 foil. 

dissolvitis : cf. Div. nil quomodo mentientem, quern ^evSo/uei/oi/ vacant, 
dissolvas? more common in this sense than solvo, which we find Fin. I 32 
quomodo captiosa solvantur. 

si nullum possit : if all bodies are liable to death, no body can be 
eternal ; but there is no body which is not liable to death, none even that 
is indiscerptible or incapable of decomposition . Since, as Maclv. has 
remarked, the gist of the whole paragraph is to prove nullum animal esse 
sempiternum, and the argument of Carneades in Sext. Emp. ix 138 foil, 
proceeds on the assumption that God is an animal, we should rather have 
expected animal instead of corpus sempiternum ; and so in fact Ba. reads, 
but see the following notes. For ne quidem cf. Deiot. 36 nee unquam 
succumbet inimicis, nefortunae quidem. 

B b. (2). Whatever is possessed of soul is capable of feeling, and 
whatever is capable of feeling is liable to impressions from without, 
and therefore to destruction. 29. 

We may compare with this argument Sext. Emp. ix 146 *ai ^v j 
aio-drjcris erepoicoo-t? TIS eaTiv dfJ.T)\avov yap TO &t ato-^o-ecos- TWOS aWiAa/z- 
ftavonevov (quod per sensum aliquid apprehendii} ^ eTfpoiovo-6ai...fl o\>v 
alo~6ai>TaL 6 $eor, /cat erfpotovrai- ei Se erepoioOrat, erfpcocrecos 1 8(KTiKos O~TI 
KOI neTaftoXfjs ... TTUVTMS KOI TTJS erri TO x f ^P ov fJ-tTafioXfjs, and therefore 
mortal. 

cumque omne animal: this seems to be introduced as a new inde 
pendent argument, but I am inclined to think that in the original it must 
have been joined with the preceding, thus : you say God is an animal; 



90 BOOK in CH. xii 29. 

every animal is a compound of body and soul ; body is discerptible and 
therefore perishable ; soul is sensitive and therefore liable to suffering and 
death ; therefore on both grounds every animal is mortal ; in Gr. some 
thing like this : ndv (pov (rcojuariKoy re e crrt KOI vJ/ i^iKoV, TO de crco/zartKoz> 
didXvroV) TO de "^V^LKOV Tra^roV, TraOrjTiKov apa KOI d~ia\vTov TO &>oz>, TO e 
TOLOVTOV nav 6vr)Tov. The reasons why I am disposed to join the two argu 
ments are (1) that the conclusion at the end of the section evidently has 
reference to both, and (2) that the twofold nature of the argument serves 
to explain the verbiage and repetition which mark the whole paragraph. 

I think however that in any case we must transfer the sentence ergo 
itidem aeternum and place it before cumque omne animal. We thus bring 
together connected clauses and get some reason for the logical particles : 
ergo draws the special conclusion from the discerptibility of body to the 
discerptibility of the animal, in the same manner (itidem} as the more 
general conclusion of the mortality of the animal was inferred from the 
perishableness of the body. Again, atqui will introduce the minor premiss 
after the major si omne animal tale est, thus : if all animals are sensitive, 
there is none which is not liable to be affected from without, and if every 
animal is of this nature, none is safe from death ; but every animal (is of 
this nature, i.e.) is framed so as to be exposed to the action of external 
forces ; therefore every animal is liable to death and discerptible . 

patlbilem : here with an active force capable of suffering , as in Lact. 

II 9 patiblle elementum, like praestabilis above 26, insatiabilis u 98. In 
the only other passage in which it is used by Cic. it has a passive force, 
Tusc. iv 51 patibiles dolor es = toler abiles ; so impetibilis, Fin. n 57. Com 
pare Arist. Anim. II 11 11 TO alcrBavca-Bcu Trdo-xfiv n eoriV, ib. II 5 77 
aicrdrjais ev TCO Kiveladai re KOI Traa^LV (TV(j.fBaivei...doKel. yap dXXoiaxrt? TIS 
elvai. But Ar. guards against the inference that what is capable of feeling 
is necessarily perishable, ib. II 5 5 TO Trao-^f iv TO pev $6opd TIS inrb TOV 
evavTiov, TO Se trwnjpt a p.a\\ov TOV dvvdp.ei oVro? VTTO TOV eVreXe^eta OVTOS, 
Stob. Ed. I 58 (Diels p. 456). Cf. Reid on Acad. I 41 comprehend ibile. 

eorum : sc. animalmm understood from omne animal. Sch. compares 
Fin. iv 57 cumque omnis controversies aut de re solcat ant de nomine esse, 
utraque earum nascitur, where Madv. cites Off. I 41 totius injustitiae nulla 
capitalior. See also Tusc. iv 65 in tota ratione ea quae pertinet ad animi 
perturbationem, una res mdetur causam continere, omnes eas esse in nostra 
potestate ; so in Leg. I 40 jure aliquo is followed by quae si appcllare au- 
dent. 

accipiendi aliquid extrinsecus : but the Stoics expressly denied that 
there was anything outside which could affect their mundane deity, cf. n 
31, 35 nn. Plato s doctrine of sensation is thus summed up in Plac. Phil. 
IV 8 (Diels p. 394) : PI. defines aTo-^/jo-iy to be ^vxfjs *at o-w^aTos Koivaviav 
TTpos TO. eKTos Tj p,ev yap dvvaais ^v^s, TO S opyavov o~a>^iaros" afjtfpco de 
o~ia (pavTa&ias dvTiXrjTrTiKa TWV eoo$ei>. On the force of accipiendi cf. acci- 
pere plagam I 70 and below 32 acdpiat interitum. 



BOOK III CIT. XII 29. 91 

quasi ferendi et patiendi : is this C. s explanation of accip. extr. 
(ect)0ev Aa/i/3ai/e>), or is it simply a translation of TOV Trao-^eii , for which he 
may have thought patiendi by itself to be not sufficiently general 1 On the 
use of quasi in introducing a translation see above 28. Perhaps the Gr. 
may have been something as follows : ovdev eWt oi> on ^ TTJ TOV \aj3e1v 
TI ea)6fv, TOVT ea-rl TOV Tracr^fiv, dvayKfl e^eraf el 8e TTCLV <uoi/ TOIOVTOV, 
ovdev earat q>ov a(pdapTov. 

B b. (3). Whatever is composed of changing elements is itself 
liable to change and therefore perishable ; but the four elements of 
wliicli all animals are composed are changeable and perishable ; there 
fore all animals are mortal. 30, 31. See Diog. L. vn 141 cited 
above under B b (1). 

30. lit enim, si omnis cera item nihil argenteum similiter 
igitur : as, if liquefaction were a property of wax, there could be nothing 
made of wax which would not exhibit this property, and in like manner 
nothing of silver (which would not do the same), if liquefaction were a 
property of silver ; so . For the use of igitur in the apodosis Sch. cites 
33 nullum igitur animal aeternum est, and Invent. I 59 quodsi melius 
geruntur ea quae consilio quam quae sine consilio administrantur, nihil 
autem omnium rerum melius administratur quam omnis mundus, consilio 
igitur mundus administratur. It is not unfrequent in Plautus and Lac- 
tantius, see exx. in Hand s Tursell. s. v. So ergo below 51. 

cera commutabilis : wax is the stock example of dXAotWts, see Arist. 
Phys. vu 3 p. 245 b we do not call an object fashioned in a particular way 
by the name of the material of which it is composed, e. g. we do not call a 
statue bronze, but of bronze, nor a pyramid wax, but of wax ; but the 
material itself we call by the same name however it is altered, for whether 
solid or liquid we still call it bronze and wax ; so Gael, in 7 p. 306 (an 
example of pfTaa-^Tj^a.Tio is} Kadarrep < TOV O.VTOV Krjpov yiyvoir av o~(paipa Kal 
Kvj3os, Anim. II 1 7 oi) Set j^reZy et eV TJ ^v^r] Kal TO <rco/ia, wcnrep ovde 
TOV Krjpov Kal TO o-^^a, Plut. Mor. p. 1075 (the gods, with the exception of 
Zeus, are according to the Stoics) TTJKTOVS ooo-Trep Krjpivovs rj KarrtreptVot/s-, 
Ov. Met. xv 169, Cic. Orat. in 177. [Plin. Epist. vn 9 10 ut laus est 
cerae, mollis cedensque sequatur si doctos digitos jussaque fiat opus, et nunc 
informet Martem castamque Minervam, nunc Venerem effingat, nunc Veneris 
puerum; Hor. A. P. 163 cereus in vitiumflecti. J. E. B. M.] 

si ea, e quibus constant omnia quae sunt : so (partly following Ba.) 
I correct the MS reading si omnia quae sunt e quibus cuncta constant. It 
seems absurd to speak of the four elements mentioned below as omnia ; 
and in any case quae sunt would be out of place in reference to them. 
Ea would be easily lost before e, and if omnia quae sunt got misplaced, it 
would be natural to insert cuncta before constant. 

si esset corpus aliquod immortale, non esset omne mutabile : the 



92 BOOK III CH. XII 30. 

connexion between mutability and mortality is denied by Herm. Trism. 
ap. Stob. Ed. I 35 p. 702 TTOV crcC^ta juera/SA^roz/, ov nav (rco/za SiaXurov, also 
by pseudo-Philo with special reference to the mutability of the four ele 
ments. After citing Eurip. (fr. Nauck 836) xcopei 8 OTTIO-CO ra /zeV e /c 7010? 
(piW es yaiav, TCI aV aldepiov fiKavrovTa. yovfjs els ovpaviov TTO\OV ?/A$e 
TTaXiv Qvi]<TKi $ ovo tv Ta>v yiyvouevutv, 8iaKpivup.evov aAAo Trpos aAAw 
fMopffrrjtt Idiav aVe Sei^ez , he continues 6 KCXT/JLOS a/ie ro^os ara|tas eVnV, 
yap 6e(Tiv /cat evapp-oviov ra TOV <6o~p.ov f i\r/(p TrdVra, cos eKaorov 
Trarpidi (ptAoxcopouj/ /M?) ^rjTflv dfjieivco p.eTaj3o\rjv Earth is in its natural 
place in the centre, water is poured around it, while the lighter elements 
air and fire are placed in order above, so that, if dissolution nev T er occurs 
but where there is an interference with the natural order, there is no 
cause for dissolution in the world (Inc. Mund. p. 498). Again he cites 
Heraclitus ^-v^fjs Qavarov vdcop yeveaOai, vdaros 6a.va.rov yrjv yficcrdaL (By\V. 
fr. 68) and explains Qavarov ov rr\v els ajrav dvaipecrtv 6vop,doc>v, oAAa TTJV 
els erepov (TTOi^elov ju,eTa/3oA^i>, a7rapa/3Ar] roti 17 /cat crvve^ovs rrjs avroKparovs 
i<Tovop,[as ravrrji del (pv Aarro/xeV^?, and a little below rb de (pdo-Kfiv on (pdfi- 
perat, fj.r) <rvvopu)VTu>v eVrt (pvo"Q)s etp/zof (p. 509). This constant flux is 
described by Balbus (u 84) as the life-giving circulation of the universe. 
He does not however pronounce on the question of its eternity. 

etenim shows more fully the reason why all bodies must be mutable 
and therefore perishable. 

31. intereunt : see the passage cited above from Heraclitus. 

B b. (4). Every animal is susceptible of pleasure and pain, but 
that which is susceptible of pain is susceptible of death. 32, 33. 

Ch. xin 32. quod neque natum sit et semper sit futurum : alike 
without beginning and end . Philo (Inc. Mund. p. 489) distinguishes 
three views in regard to the eternity of the universe, rco> p.ev d&iov TOV 
KOfrp-ov (pap,evu>v dyevr]Tov re /cat dvw\edpov (the Peripatetics); TU>V 8e e 
fvavrias yei>r]Tov re /cat (pOaprov (the Epicureans and Stoics in different 
ways); while Plato held that it was ytvrjTov /cat acpdaprov, not meaning by 
this (as Philo explains) that it had an actual origin in time, but that its 
existence depended on the will of the Demiurgus. 

omne animal sensus habet : so Arist. Part. An. in 4 17 ro >ov al- 

a-Qrjo-et captorcu, and again Anim. II 2 8 OTTOV aiaOrjo-is, /cat \VTTT) re /cat r/dovtj. 
For the following argument cf. Sext. Einp. ix 139 el yap fieri 6eol, ^wa elcriv 
el 8e ^"coa etati/, aladavovTai TTO.V yap a>oi> alcrOrjO ecos fjifTo^fj voeirai ^coov. 
et Se aladdvovrai, /cat TTt/cpa^o^rat /cat y\VKaovTai...y\v<a6/.i(i>os de /cat niKpa- 
op.vos evapecTTrjaei Tial /cat dvcrapea-TrjcreL. bvcrapetjTtoV 8e rtcrt /cat 
eorai Se/crt/cos /cat Trjs errl TO ^eipov pera/3oA^s" et 8e roCro, (pdapros 
also ib. 70 immortality is inconsistent with pains and tortures, 
7rav TO dXyovv 6vr]Tov ecrTLV. (The expression eVi ro -^elpov yu.era/3oA^ is 
borrowed from Plato Rep. n 381 if God changes, it must be for the worse, 
since he is absolute perfection, cf. Aug. in Joh. Ev. xxm 9 quidquid et a 



BOOK III CH. XIII 32. 93 

meliore in deterius et a deter lore in melius moritur, non est deus.} A similar 
argument was used by Panaetius (ap. Cic. Tusc. i 79) to disprove the 
immortality of the soul ; nihil esse quod doleat, quin id aegrum esse qiioque 
possit ; quod autem in morbum cadat, id etiam interiturum; dolere autem 
animos, ergo etiam interire. It was criticized by Augustine C. D. xxi 3 
cujus rationis est dolorem facere mortis argumentum, cum vitae potius sit 
indicium? The reason why we find pain kill here is because the con 
nexion between soul and body is not strong enough to sustain the shock ; 
but the soul will live on in spite of pain. The Platonists and Peripatetics 
made the concupiscent part of the soul mortal ; hence Virgil (Aen. vi 730) 
hinc (i.e. ex terrenis artubus moribundisque membris] metuunt cupiu?itque, 
dolent gaudentque. The Stoics considered all emotion to be of the nature 
of disease, Tusc, iv 23 foil, ex perturbationibus primum morbi conficiuntur, 
quae vacant illi vua-rj para... Hoc loco nimium operae consumitur a Stoicis, 
maxime a Chrysippo, dum morbis corporum comparatur morborum animi 
similitudo. Trismegistus ap. Stob. Eel. p. 192 denies that feeling must 
necessarily be of both kinds. 

nec potest jucunda accipere, non accipere contraria : cannot re 
ceive the one without the other . The initial negative applies to the 
combination of the two things ; cf. below 35 non intellego quo modo 
calore extincto corpora intereant, non intereant umore &c. For the Asyn 
deton see Index and n. on I 20 cujus principium. 

accipiat interitum : cf. above 29 accipiendi aliquid n. Here it is 
the translation of <J>dopas eWcri Se/mKoj Sext. Ernp. IX 145. 

33. praeterea : the particle is misleading here. What follows is 
simply the preceding argument put into a negative form. 

sin autem, quod animal est : I see no reason for the change of quod 
into quid (Heind. Mu.). The argument proceeds regularly : if there is 
any thing of such a nature as not to feel pleasure or pain, it is not a living 
creature ; but if all that is living must feel them, and that which feels 
them cannot be eternal (and, as we said, all living creatures feel) ; then it 
follows that no living creature is eternal . Walker omits the clause et 
omne animal sentit before the conclusion, on the ground that it id otiose 
and would in any case require ea. Logically ho is right, but a certain 
degree of laxity is excusable in a dialogue, and logical exactness can hardly 
be called a characteristic of Cicero s writings. For igitur in the apodosis 
see above on 30. For et with minor premiss cf. I. 110, Draeg. 311. 14. 

quod ea sentit : the MS reading sentiat might be understood as giving 
an indefinite force to the Eelative ; but as the definite statement prevails 
throughout the passage, it seems more natural to suppose that the mood 
was assimilated by an error of the copyist to the preceding necesse est sentiat. 

B b. (5). Every animal has instinctive likes and dislikes for that 
which is in accordance with, and that which is contrary to, its nature ; 



94 BOOK III CH. XIII 33. 

bat that which is contrary to nature its destructive to life; therefore 
every animal is liable to destruction. 33. 

The same argument occurs in Sext. Emp. IX 143 ei aio-0aWai...eart TIVU 
TO. Kaff eK.do Trjv aio drjo iv ot/cetoOira avTov /cat a AAorptoiWa, and, if so, tort 
riva T<M 6ea> o^Arjpa, lience -ytWrat eV rfj eVt TO ^elpov /u.era/3oA^ $eor, cocrre KOI 
ev 0$opa, cf. Arist. Rliet. ill V7roK6io~d(o rrjv r]$ovr)v KLvrjfriv Tiva r/}? tyv^s /cat 
Karao-rao-tv ddpoav Kal alad^Trjv els TI]V vTrapxovcrav cpuo-ty, \v7rrjv Se TOVVCLVT IOV. 

appetitio et declinatio : see mi. on I 104, II 34 bestiis dedit cum quo- 
dam appetitu accessum ad res salutares &c. 

quod autem refugit : it has been proposed to read a quo, but ref. is 
often used transitively by Cic., e.g. Caecin. 22, Verr. \ 50, Rose. Am. 45. 

B b. (6). Sensation, whether pleasurable or painful, tvhen it 
reaches a certain point, is destructive to life. 34. 

34. COgi : cf. Fat. 9 ex eo coyi putat, Leg. II 33 ex quibus id quod 
volwnus efficitur et cogitur. So avayKr] and ava.yK.afa of demonstrative 
reasoning. 

Q.uin id . cf. n 24, and Index under Pleonastic Demonstrative. 

amplificata interimunt : so Arist. Anim. in 13 the other objects of 
sense, such as colours, sounds and smells, do not by their excess destroy 
the sensitive animal, but only the organ , T) de TWV O.TTTWV vnepftoXr] olov 
depfj-wv Kal "^vxp^v not (TK\rjp(c>v avaiptl TO (pov.*.uvv yap dcprjs dedeiKrai 
on advvarov eiVat &>ov, dio ?} TK>V CITTTWV ^Vep/SoA?) ov ^JLOVOV TO ala6rjTrjpinv 
(pOeipfi a\Aa Kal TO (/woi , 3Fag. J/or. I 5 4 ecrn ij dpeTTj rj qdiK.rj VTTO 
evSeias /cat u7rep/3oA^? (p6fipofj.6vrj. ort Se rj eVSeia /cat vrrepjBoXr] (pdeipei, rour 
iSeti/ eo-Tiv eVc TWV al<r6tj<rea>v (so Spengel for ^iiccoi/). For exx. of death from 
excessive joy see Val. Max. ix 12 2, Plin. jY. II. vn 53, Gell. in 15. 

Bb. (7). All things must be either simple or compounded of 
different elements. A single animal is inconceivable : in a compound 
each element lias a tendency to fly apart to its proper sphere, so that 
decomposition is inevitable. 34. 

The argument occurs in Sext. Emp. ix 180 si 5e o-oj/zti CO-TIV, TJTCH 
frvyKpiud eo~Tii> e /c TO>V CITT\WV crrot^ftco^, 77 d.TT\ovv ecrrt /cat crroi^etcoSes (rcop.a 1 
feat et inv avyKpL/jid eVrt, <pdap-6v eVrr nav yap TO Kara o~vvo&ov TIVWV aTrore- 
\eo~6ev dvdyKrj diaXvo/Jifvov (pdeipeadai. el de aTrXovv ecrri cro5p,a, ryrot irvp 
<TT\V rj drjp rj v8a)p r) yij- orrolov S av ?) TOVTCOV, a^/v^ov eori Kal (i\oyov 
orrep UTOTTOV. As the argument is closely connected with B b (3), and is 
introduced by etenim, and as 32 begins with announcing the speaker s 
intention to have done with the previous argument (ut haec omittamus] 
it is natural to suppose that it may have got misplaced here : it stands 
alone in Sextus, being interposed between an argument to prove that virtue 
cannot be ascribed to God (see below 38) and the sorites by which it is 
attempted to prove that it is impossible to draw the limit between what 
is divine and what is not (see below 39 foil.). 



BOOK III CH. XIV 34. 95 

Ch. xiv. etenim : if we transfer this argument to the end of 31, 
would have its common force, and give a further reason why an 
animal must be mortal owing to its bodily constitution. As it stands, it 
no doubt gives a further confirmation of the general conclusion nullum 
animal aeternum est, but it is not specially connected with the preceding 
argument. Moreover it follows another etenim, and the phrase innumera- 
bilia sunt at the beginning of 34 suggests a sort of final summing-up. 

animalis : aerial , as in n 91. 

ne intellegi quidem: just so Velleius objects to the doctrine of 
Anaxagoras (i 27) aperta simplexque mens fugere intellegentiae vim videtur, 
and to Zeno (i 36) aether a deum dicit, si intellegi potest nihil sentiens deus. 

concretum : Ba. and Mu. accept Dav. s correction concreta, but after 
the parenthesis it is not unnatural that animans should be substituted in 
thought for natura animantis, cf. im. on II 114 quern after flumen, n 92 
mota after ignes. 

naturis : in this sentence the word natura bears three different mean 
ings : (1) the constitution of an animal, (2) here elements , see above 
i 22 n., (3) universal nature. 

quarum habeat : Subj. because the Eel. has much the force of ut sit 
in the preceding clause. 

suum quaeque locum : cf. i 103, n 18, 44 nn. and Origen (ap. Hieron.) 
cited in vol. 17 p. 62 Lomm. cum igitur anima caducum hoc frigidumque 
corpusculum dimiserit, paulatim omnia redire ad matrices suas substantias; 
carnes in terram relabi, halitum in aera misceri, umorem reverti ad abyssos, 
color em ad aether a subvolare. 

quo feratur : I have followed the other edd. in reading feratur, but I 
think the efferatur of MSS is defensible, the different elements being drawn 
away from the compound, of which they are constituent parts, each to its 
own sphere, fire aloft, earth below &c. 

Be. (1). Fire, the divine element of the Stoics, is no more essential 
to life than the other elements. 35. 

35. Heraclitum : cf. Bywater fr. 20 KOO-^OV TOV UVTOV cnravrav ovre 
TIS 6ea>v ovTf dvdpcoTrav iroirj<rf 1 aXX r\v aiei KCU ecrn KOI ecrrai nvp dei^wov 
drrTOfJievov fjifTpa KCU a-rrocr^evvv^vov /ze rpa, Anc. Phil. p. 4 foil. 

ipsum : the founder of the system as opposed to his followers. 

non omnes interpretantur uno modo : cf. Arist. Rhet. in 5 6 with 
Cope s n. To punctuate Heraclitus is a hard matter owing to the uncer 
tainty as to the connexion of the words, olov lv dpxy TOV 0-vyypdp.p.aros 
<pr)(rl yap "TOV Xdyou rou5 eovros del d^vvfroi av6pa>iroi yiyvovrai", adr)\ov 
yap TO del npos orroTepco Siao-Ti^at, Lucr. I 640 clarus ob obscuram linguam 
magis inter inanes quamde graves inter Graios qui vera requirunt ; where 
Munro says the epithet CTKOTCIVOS is first applied to Heraclitus in the 
pseudo- Aristotelian Mund. 5 p. 396 b. See also above i 74 n. 

qui quoniam intellegi noluit, omittamus : in complex relative 



96 BOOK III CH. XIV 35. 

clauses, in which the verbs require different cases, the relative is usually 
found in the subordinate clause only, being understood in the principal 
clause, if it is the object or subject of the verb, or else having its place 
supplied by a demonstrative ; cf. above II 62 quorum cum remanerent 
animirite di sunt habiti, Fin. II 64 aberat omnis dolor ; qui si adesset, nee 
molliter ferret (sc. eum], et tamen uteretur, and other exx. quoted on I 12 
ex quo cxsistit, also Krueger Unters. 97 p. 241 foil. 

omnem vim esse ignem : cf. n 24 earn caloris naturam vim habere in 
se vitalem per omnem mundum pertinentem ; ib. 32 ex mundi ardore motus 
omnis oritur, ib. 28 in eo (calido atque igneo] insit procreandi vis. I do not 
see why the edd. should alter the text by reading igneam, cf. below 36 
nihil esse animum nisi ignem, Acad. I 39 ignem esse ipsam naturam, 
Cleanthes ap. Plut. Mor. p. 1034 7r\rjyf) uvpos 6 TOVOS e o-rt, Kav IKCIVOS cv rrj 
^ v Xfl y^vrjTai TTpos TO erriTf\elv rot eVi/SaXXovra, tcr^us KaXeirai /cai Kparos. 

in omnI natura : cf. n 24 quod vivit, sice animal sice terra editum, id 
vivit propter inclusum calorem. 

calore exstincto : cf. Plac. Phil, V 30 ol 2r<ut/cot o-u/^coVo)? TO yfjpas 
yiyveadai 8ta TTJV TOV dfpp.ov e\\i\l/ii>, Arist. liesp. 17 TTCKTI /xei/ ovv rj (pdopa 
yiverai Sta dep/jiov TLVOS e/cXei\^tv. 

intereant, non intereant : see above 32. On the thought cf. Alc- 
maeon in Plac. Phil. V 30 rfjs ptv vyieias elvai 0-weKTiK.fjv TTJV Itrovo^Lav TO>V 
oi , vypov ^rjpov "^fv^pov depp-ov K.r.X., rfjv & eV avrols p.ovap^lav vocrov 
rjv <p6opO7TOLoi> yap eKarepov p,ovap%iav. 

36. commune est de calido : the assertion you make about heat 
might be made about the other elements . 

videamus exitum : let us see how it turns out , the issue , cf. i 
104 n. 

nihil esse animal extrinsecus : so the MS.S, but edd. read iatrinsecus, 
and Ba. also animale. The latter is perhaps right, as we should have ex 
pected mdluni rather than nihil with animal. There is however no objec 
tion to fire being called animal here any more than below quod si ignis ex 
sese animal est. As to extrinsecus, I understand this to mean extra corpus 
humanum and to be equivalent to the words which follow (iii natura atque 
mundo], opposed, like the ignis nulla se alia admiscente natura below, 
to ignis cum inest in corporibus nostris. We have the same opposition 
above, between the fire which gives energy to living creatures and the fire 
in omni natura. Compare Fin. v 68 haec quae sunt extrinsecus, id est, quae 
ncgue in animo insunt neque in corpore. I think animantium quoque sug 
gests the same opposition between the air in the outer w r orld and the air 
in living creatures. Edd. give to their intrinsecus the meaning in itself , 
of its own nature . 

unde constet animus : I think the Subj. here gives the reason, 
1 seeing that the soul is composed of an aerial substance . This was the 
doctrine of Anaximenes (i 26), Diogenes of Apollonia (i 29), and others 



BOOK III CH. XIV 36. 97 

cf. Tusc. i 19 animum alii animam, ut fere nostri: declarant nomina, nam 
et agere animam et efflare dicimus...ipse autem animus ab anima dictus est. 
Zenoni Stoico animus ignis videtur. The Stoics however did not confine 
themselves to this way of speaking. It was equally common with them to 
describe the soul as ivvev^a 6pp.6v, Diog. L. vii 156, Plac. Phil, iv 3, 
Theodoret Th&rap. v p. 345, Chrysipp. ap. Galen Hipp. Plat, in 1 p. 287 
77 ^vx*) Trvevfjid eo~Ti (rv/jiCpvTov ijfjuv rravrl ro> o-(op.ari dtrJKov, Alexander de An. 
127 ol aVo TTJS Sroas nvevfjia avrrfv Xeyoi/res elvat, (rvyKfl^evov TTCCS K re rrvpos 
KOL d epos (cited by Zeller iv p. 195). See more below. 

ex quo animal dicitur : from which the name animal comes , cf. i 26 
and Sen. Ep. 113 2 animum constat animal esse, cum ipse efficiat ut simus 
animalia et cum ab illo animalia nomen hoc traxerint. 

quasi concedatur sumitis : so above 21 videre oportet quid tibi con- 
cedatur, non te ipsum quod velis sumere. 

ex igni atque anima temperatum : but this, as we have seen, was the 
common Stoic view. Even Zeno does not seem to have meant that the 
soul was pure fire as distinguished from breath. Galen (Hipp. Plat. 
p. 283) reports him as saying rpecpeo-dai /MCI/ e ai/zaros rfjv -^vx^jv, ovo-lav fie 
O.VTTJS vTrdpxeiv TO trvevp-a. We may take Cicero to represent the Stoics 
generally when he says (Tusc. I 43) the soul consisting of inflammatoi 
anima soars upwards after death, till, on reaching naturam sui similem, it 
comes to rest junctis ex anima tenui et ardore solis temperato ignibus. 
The Epicurean view was much the same, cf. Diog. L. x 63 (q ^vx 7 ?) 
7rpoo~ep,<pepeo~TaTOi> Trvev/JiaTt Oeppov riva Kpao~iv 



Be. (2). If fire is the cause of feeling in man, it must itself 
be endued with feeling, (and therefore (by B b. 4) liable to destruction. 
36. 

id necesse est sentiat venire : cited for the mixture of Subjunctival 
and Infinitival constructions by Madv. on Fin. v 25 necesse est Jinem quoque 
omnium hunc esse, ut natura expleatur...sed extrema illa...distincta sint 
(for esse), who also quotes Acad. n 39 ante videri aliquid quam agamus 
necesse est, eique quod visum sit assentiatur (where we should have expected 
assentiri in passive sense). Perhaps this may justify deos in n 76. 

B c. (3). Moreover fire is not self-existent, it needs fuel for its 
support. 37. 

37. ignem pastus indigere : cf. n 40 nullus ignis sine pastu aliquo 
possit permanere, also 83 and 118 nn., Seneca N. Q. vn 21 quare non stat 
cometes sed procedit? Dicam, ignium modo alimentum suum sequitur...nulla 
est enim illi via sed qua vena pabuli sui duxit, ilia repit. The same argu 
ment has been used in modern times to prove that the sun must at length 
lose its heat. ( The great mystery is to conceive how so enormous a 
conflagration (if such it be) can be kept up . Herschel 400. 

M. C. III. 7 



08 BOOK III CH. XIV 37. 

cur se sol referat : cf. Arist. Meteor, n 2 6 foil, with Meier s nn. yeXoiot 
TTOLVTCS oo-oi T>V Trporepov v7re\a(Bov TOV fj\iov Tpecpeo-dai TU> vypto- KOI 8ia 
TOVTO evioi ye (pao~t KOI Troie icrdai rets rpoTrcts avrov ov yap del rovs aijrovs 
TOTTOVS irapao~K.evaeiv avTO) TTJV TpocpTJv. avayKaiov 8 flvai TOVTO 
Trepl avrov rj (pOeipea dai, KOL yap TO (pavepov nvp, eooy av exfl Tpocprjv, 
TOVTOV TJV, TO 5 vypov TW nvpl Tpo(pr)v elvai povov, Lucretius V 523 
siveipsiserpere possunl quo cujusque cibus vocat atque invitat euntes,flammea 
per caelum pascentes corpora passim, Macr. Sat. I 23 ideo, sicut et Posidonius 
et Cleanthes affirmant, soli s meatus a plaga, quae usta dicitur, non recedit, 
quia sid> ipsa currit Oceanus, qui terrain ambit et dividit (separating, that is, 
the northern and southern olKov/j-tvai, see above on n 165, and Macrob. 
& Scip. ii 9 4) ; Philo Prov. n 64, Plac. Phil n 23. On the hexameter 
see ii 25 and Madvig Fin. n 15 cognomento qui O-KOTCIVOS perhibetur,quia de 
natura nimis obscure memoradt. Perhaps this accounts for the less usual 
form of the abl. orbi, cf. Munro on Lucr. I 978. 

itemque brumali : in the preceding verse solst. orb. is probably used 
in the wider sense, of the course bounded by the two solstices, as in Liv. 
I 19 6 (annus) qui solstitiali circumagitur orbe, but C. takes it in the 
narrower sense, of the summer curve, and therefore thinks it necessary to 
add, that it is equally true of winter. 

hoc totum mox: this probably means the whole question as to 
the personality of the heavenly bodies, on which see n 44 n. There is 
no further reference to this topic in what remains to us of Cotta s speech. 
On the Ellipsis with mox see Index. 

B d. Virtue, as we understand it, is incompatible with our idea 
of the Divine nature. Yet it is impossible to believe in a Deity with 
out virtue (conclusion unexpressed : therefore God does not exist]. 
The incompatibility of virtue with our idea of God is shown in the 
case of each particular virtue, prudence (Injustice (2), temperance (3), 
fortitude (4). Ch. xv 38. 

The argument is given at much greater length in Sext. Emp. ix 152 
177, and in Hansel s Bampton Lectures, esp. Lect. vn ; cf. above I 60 n. on 
Simonides. 

Ch. xv 38. deum nulla virtute praeditum : for the use of intelle- 
gere see I 21 n. on spatio tamen ad fin. Balbus in common with all the 
religious philosophers, had ascribed to the Deity the perfection of wisdom 
and virtue (ii 30 39), and had expressly argued that virtue and reason 
must be identical in God and man (n 79), though on a greater scale in the 
former. So Isocrates (xi 43), expressing the ordinary opinion, ey&> ^eV 
ov% OTTCOS TOVS 0eovv, dAX ov8e rots e cKeivoav yeyovoTas ovdffjuas rjyov^ai 
KdKias ^Taa~x^v, aXX CIVTOVS re nac-as e xovras ray aperas- (pvvai K.r.X. But 
philosophers differed with regard to the relation between divine and human 
virtue. Aristotle was apparently the first to give prominence to this 
question in his saying (Eth. vn 1), that we could no more ascribe virtue 



BOOK III CH. XV 38. 99 

to God than vice to a brute, aXX rj pei> ri/LUcorepov aperr)?, rj 8e erepov TI yevos 
KaKiar, and more fully in his proof that the Divine activity must consist, 
not in doing or making, but in Qewpia (ib. x 8 7) Trpdgeis e iroias a7roi/ei/zcu 
Xpecoi> avrols ; rrorepa TU.S StKaias ; 77 yeXoioi (pavovvrai trui/aXXarroi/re? Kal 
TrapaKaraOrjKas aTrodidovres Kal ova aXXa Toiavra; aXXa ras dlt&ptiovSj inro- 
fjievovras TO. (poftepa KOI Kivfivvevovras, on KaXov; rf ray e\ev6epiovs ; r(vi de 
a><rot/(rii ; aronov de el KOI carat avrols vo/j-iap-a TJ TI TOIOVTOV. el de (raxppoves, 
ri av eiev ; rj cpopTiKos 6 ejraivos on OVK e^owi (pavXas firiOvpias ; 8ieiov(ri 
8e irdvra (paivoir av TO. Trepl ras 7rpdeis /JiiKpa Kal dvd^ia 6ea>v. Similarly Cic. 
in his Hortensius (ap. Aug. De Trin. xvi 9 12), which, as By water has shown 
( J. of Phil, n p. 62), was probably taken from Aristotle s Protrepticus, ( in 
the Islands of the Blest there will be no use of eloquence or even of virtue, 
nee enim fortitudine egeremus, nullo propcsito aut labore aut periculo, nee 
justitia, cum esset nihil quod appeteretur alieni, nee tenipcrantia, quae regeret 
eaSj quae nullae essent, libidines: ne prudentia, quidem egeremus, nullo 
delectu proposito bonorum et malorum . So Plotinus : if, as Plato says, we 
are made like to God by virtue, it would seem that we must ascribe virtue 
to God : but is it in accordance with reason to ascribe .to Him the political 
virtues ? God is the exemplar of all virtue, and man receives his virtue 
from Him, but the divine goodness is something beyond virtue. What we 
term virtues are merely purificatory habits, the object of which is to free 
the soul from the bondage of the flesh. With God virtue is nature, with 
man it is effort and discipline (a brief abstract of Enn. I 2). On the 
contrary in Cic. Legg. I 25 we have the Stoic view virtus eadem in homine 
ac deo est neque olio ullo in genere praeterea, cf. above n 153 nn. The 
Christian Fathers were divided on the subject, Origen maintaining that K.aQ J 
ijfj,as r) avrf) dperi] eari TK>V jj-aKapicov Travrcov, ware Kal TJ avrrj dperrj dvOptoirov 
Kal 6eov- bionep yeveo-dai reXeioi, cos 1 d 7rarj)p TJ/MCOJ/ d ovpdvios reXfios eo~Ti, 
SiSao-fcd/ie^a, but carefully distinguishing this from the similarly expressed 
Stoic doctrine (Gels, vi 48) ; while Clement (Strom, vn 88 p. 320) and 
Theodoret (Serm. xi De Fin. et Jud.} cited in Spencer s n., speak of the 
latter as a daring and impious opinion. Clement tries to explain away the 
text cited by Origen (Matt. v. 48) ; but there can be no doubt that the 
Christian Revelation proceeds throughout on the supposition of the real 
identity of goodness in God and man, and that this lies at the very heart 
of the doctrine of the Incarnation. The Christian definition of virtue is 
the divine Spirit working in the heart of man under the conditions of 
humanity. In so far as man is virtuous, in so far he approaches the ideal, 
God manifest in the flesh. Our idea of the goodness of God is simply 
goodness, as we know it in man, but stripped of its association with weak 
ness. Thus we speak of God as holy, loving, just, wise, but not as courageous 
or temperate, because these latter qualities imply the coexistence of a lower 
nature with the higher. See Aquinas Summa I qu. 21 virtutum moralium 
quaedam sunt circa passiones, sicut temperantia circa concupiscentias, forti- 
tudo circa timores, mansuetudo circa iram ; et hujusmodi virtutes Deo attribui 

72 



100 BOOK III CH. XV 38. 

non possunt idsi secundum metaphoram ; quia in Deo neque passiones sunt 
neque appetitus sensitivus, in quo sunt hujusmodi virtutes, sicut in subjecto. 
Quaedam vero virtutes morales sunt circa operationes, utjustitia, ut liberalitas 
quae etiam non sunt in parte sensitiva sed in voluntate. Unde nil prohibet 
hujusmodi virtutes in Deo poncre, non tamen circa actiones civiles, sed circa 
actiones Deo convenientes. Dean Mansel in his notorious Lectures maintained 
that we cannot argue from man s view of right to God s view of right, and 
therefore that objections founded on the supposed immorality of Scripture 
were unworthy of consideration. The logical consequences of his theory 
were pointed out at the time in Maurice s book on Revelation, and are now 
sufficiently evident to all. See H. Spencer First Principles ch. 4. 

prudentiam : we find the same definition in Sext. Emp. ix 162, xi 170 
(01 STOHKOI avriKpvs (pacri TTJV (ppovTjviV) eTricrTT; p.rjv ovaav ayaO^v KOL K.O.K.WV KOI 
ovdfTepvv, Tcx vr ]v VTrdpxfi-v Trept TOV fiiov), ib. 184, 246, Diog. L. VII 92. 
The argument however is differently given in Sextus ix 162, to know these 
things he must have experienced them, e.g. he must have experienced pain, 
and it has been shown that to be sensitive to pain is to be liable to death , 
(abbreviated). On the cardinal virtues see Plato Rep. iv 427 foil. 

cui mail malorum : this would appear to follow from the maxim 
common to all the philosophers, that God can neither do nor suffer evil, 
see on I 45 quod beatum. The fallacy lies in the ambiguity attaching 
to the word evil . On the Stoic supposition, God being interested in 
the world, which He administers, if any evil befel it, He would himself 
feel it as evil, and therefore exercise the faculty which discriminates 
between good and evil ; but in reality all evil is overruled by Him for 
good. 

ratione intellegentia : cf. mi. on n 147. The words are often joined 
together to express the pure intellect, Die. I 70 quae autem pars animi 
rationis atque intellegentiae sit particeps, earn turn maxime vigere cum pluri- 
mum absit a corpore ; Orat. 10 (Plato ideas) ait semper csse ac ratione et 
intellegentia contineri ; Off. in 68 ; Tim. 2 (the eternal) intellegentia et 
ratione comprehenditur ; Leg. I 27. Here however ratio must have ito 
special force of ratiocination, as appears from the clause which follows, cf. 
Acad. ii 26 arguments conclusio, quae est Graece aTroSet^ty, ita definitur, 
ratio quae ex rebus percept is ad id, quod non percipiebatur, adducit. What 
then is the force of intellegentia ? Probably it refers to the full realization 
of the meaning of each term in the argument, as contrasted with the 
recognition of the logical connexion of the propositions, cf. Acad. II 92 
ambiguorum intellegentiam concludendique rationem, Invent. II 160 intelle 
gentia est per quam animus ea perspicit quae sunt. Or should we take 
it more^generally, as in the verse quoted from Sir John Davies by "\Vhewell 
Lecture on Reason and Understanding ; when she (the mind) rates things 
and moves from ground to ground, the name of Keason she obtains from 
this : but when by reason she the truth hath found, and standeth firm, 
she Understanding is ? The Schoolmen, following Aristotle, ascribed 



BOOK III CH. XV 38. 101 

to God only one intellectual virtue , that of Intuition, 0ecop/a, voyais, while 
man attained knowledge also by the discursive faculty, Sidvoia ; cf. Aquinas 
Summa I 14 1 homo secundum diversa cognita habet diversas cognitiones. 
nam, secundum quod cognoscit principia, dicitur habere intellegentiam ; 
scientiam vero, secundum quod cognoscit conclusiones ; sapientiam, secundum 
quod cognoscit causam altissimam ; consilium vel prudentiam, secundum 
quod cognoscit agibilia. sed haec omnia Deus una et simplici cognitione 
cognoscit; ib. 7 in scientia divinanullus est discursus... Deus omnia videt 
in uno, quod est ipse. ..unde simul et non successive omnia mdet. Compare also 
the Angel s speech in Milton s P. L. v 486 whence the soul reason receives, 
and reason is her being, discursive or intuitive ; discourse is oftest yours, 
the latter most is ours . 

ut apertis obscura assequaimir : a similar argument is used by Sextus 
ix 167 to prove that ev/3ovXia is not an attribute of Deity : ei de rvftovXiav 
X et > Ka ^ jSovXetJerai" fl 8e /SovXeverat, eort TI adrj\ov avra : to which he adds 
and if there is anything obscure to him, it is probably obscure to him 
whether infinity may not contain some power which is capable of destroy 
ing him ; but this would naturally give rise to fear ; and where there is 
fear, there is possibility of a change for the worse, i.e. of death . 

nam justitia : in an absolutely solitary being this might be true ; but 
the argument is inapplicable to the Stoics, who assumed a community both 
of the gods amongst themselves, and between gods and men ; for wherever 
there is a community, there are relative duties, and therefore occasion for 
the exercise of justice in the strict sense of the term. It is still more 
inapplicable when God is further regarded as a Creator and Governor, for 
the fact of creation gives rise to very stringent duties on both sides, and 
government consists mainly in giving to all their dues. For the transitional 
nam see Index. 

suum cinque : Justinian s Institutes begin with the words justitia est 
constans et perpetua voluntas suum cuique tribuendi. Cf. Fin. v 67, Off. I 14, 
[ad Ilerenn. in 3, Invent. II 160, Leg. I 19, Macrob. Comm. I 10 3, Sen. 
Ep. 81 7 hoc certe justitiae convenit suum cuique reddere, beneficiae gratiam, 
injuriae talionem, aut certe malam gratiam. J. E. B. M.] and Simonides 
definition of justice as TO TO. ofaikopcva endo- aTrodidovai (Plato Rep. 
i p. 331). Stobaeus (Ed. n c. 6 p. 102) gives the Stoic definition cirioTJprjv 
di7ovep.rjTi.Kriv rrjs dias e/cacrro). 

hominum communitas justitiam procreavit : cf. n 148 with nn. But 
the Stoics never said that justice had originated in human society, but in 
the divine law, cf. Leg. I 19 constituendi juris ab ilia summa lege capiamus 
exordium, quae saeclis omnibus ante nata est, quam scripta lex ulla, aut 
quam omnino civitas constituta ; ib. 23 prima est homini cum deo rationis 
societas. 

temperantia : Sext. Emp. IX 175 et prjScv lariv o ras TOV Seov opegets 
T/Se ?OTI rt o eVio-Trao-ercu TOV 6t6v, ncos epov/jicv avTov elvai (raxfrpova. ;... 
yap OVK av f tVotjuei/ TOV Kiova o~a)(ppove iv, xara TOV avTov Tponov ovSe 



102 BOOK III CH. XV 38. 

TOV 6eov. Sextus-also proves that the cognate virtues of lyKparaa and 
are inconsistent with Deity ; otherwise there would be riva TU> 
8vo-v7rop.ei>rjTa KOI Suo-aTrocrxera : from which it would follow that God 

(O~TIV O^A^CTeCDS KOI TTjS 1T\ TO %flpOV fJ.Ta^O\fjS, 8lO KO.I (pdopUS 

ib. 152157. 

est etiam voluptatibus : i 94, 112 nn. 

fortis : SO Sext. ib. 158 el 8e avdpeiav e^et, c7Ti(rTr)p,r)v e^ei deivwv KOI ov 
Seivaiv KOI TCOV peTci^v. KCU el TOVTO, eort TI 6ea> dfivov. Hence emdeKTiKOS 
to-Tiv ox^rjo-fo)?, 8ia oe TOVTO KOI (pOopas. The definitions here given of the 
virtues are also found Fin. v 67 (each virtue has its own province) ut forti- 
tudo in laboribus periculisque cernatur, temper antia in praetermittendis 
voluptatibus, prudentia in delectu bonorum et malorum, justitia in suum 
cuiquQ tribuendo. 

B e. Even if we grant the divinity of the universe, what ground 
is there for admitting a host of other gods ? Ch. xv 39 ch. xxv 
64. 

(1) The vulgar mythology is not more irrational than that of the 
Stoics, who make gods of the stars, and of food, and of dead men. 
3941. 

39. nec vero vulgi : cf. Lact. u 5 quid mirum si aut barbari aut 
imperiti homines errant . ? cum etiam philosophi Stoicae disciplinae in cadem 
sint opinione, ut omnia caelestia, quae moventur, in deorum numero habenda 
esse censeant. Compare the contemptuous language in which the vulgar 
superstition is referred to by the Epicurean speaker in I 42, and by the 
Stoic in II 70. 

sunt enim ilia : this refers to the following exx. of popular superstition 
(piscem Syri &c.), which are contrasted with the Stoic dogmas in 40,41. 
For ilia see on I 20, n 126 and Index. 

piscem Syri : Atargatis or Derceto, thus described by Diod. II 4 TO jueV 
7rp6o-(07rov e xei yvvaiKos, TO oAXo awp.a nav lx@vos. She was worshipped 
at Ascalon. See above n 111 on Pisces, Ov. Met. iv 45, Herod. I 105, 
Lucian Dea Syria c. 14, Xen. Anab. I 4 9 (the Greeks found the river 
Chains full of tame fish) ovs ol 2i;poi Oeovs v6fj,iov KOI aftine iv OVK. eiW, 
Articles on Dagon and Atargatis in Smith s D. of Bible. 

Aegyptii : i 43 nn. 

jam vero : nay, even when you come to Greece . 

Alabandum Tennem : these were the eponymous heroes of Alabanda, 
an important city in Caria ( Juv. in 70), and of the isle and city of Tenedos 
off the coast of Troas. Tennes, or Tenes, son of Cycnus, grandson of 
Poseidon and brother, as some said, of Leucothea, was killed by Achilles 
(Plut. Nor. p. 297). His name occurs in Verr. I 49 Tenedo Tenem ipsum, 
qui apud Tenedios sanctissimus deus habetur, qui urbem illam dicitur condi- 
disse, cujus ex nomine Tenedus nominatur ; hunc ipsum, inquam, Tenem 



BOOK III CH. XV 39. 103 

pulcherrime factum Verres abstulit magno cum gemitu civitatis. We find 
Cic. pleading in vain that the people of Tenedos might be allowed to retain 
their own laws (Q. Fr. n 11 2). Alabanda is spoken of Fam. xm 56, 
where we have the double form Alabandis ( AXa/3aySets Wes.) as here, and 
Alabandenses, as below 50. Alabandensis is also found in Orat. II 95 
and Alabandeus in Brut. 325 ; see Lachmann on Lucr. p. 281. 

Leucotheam : Ino is a goddess of the sea, known by the epithet Leu- 
cothea, which was also used of the Nereids. She gave to Ulysses the veil 
which supported him after his shipwreck until he reached Phaeacia (Od. v 
333 461), and was believed generally to help those who were in danger at 
sea. According to the mythologists she was daughter of Cadmus and 
Harmonia, and wife of Athamas : after plotting the death of her step 
children, Phryxus and Helle, in a fit of madness she threw herself and her 
son Melicertes into the sea. The words of Xenophanes in reference to her 
worship are recorded by Aristotle (Rhet. u 23 27) Sevocpdvrjs EXearais 
epcdroucriz/ fl dvcocri Trj AeuKotfea Kat OprjvoHTiv 77 JUT/, o-vvtftovXevsv el /nei/ 6eov 
v7ro\afjL^dvov(TL pr) 6pr]velv, et 6 avOpanov ^117 6veiv. .Ill reality in this case, 
as in so many others, a deity has been degraded into a mortal. She was 
especially worshipped at Tenedos, where she was regarded as sister of 
Tennes. The Romans identified her, probably on account of some simi 
larity in her ceremonial rites, with their Matvta, the goddess of dawn, also 
worshipped by matrons as goddess of birth ; and hence the latter also 
came to be regarded as a marine deity ; cf. Tusc. I 28, Ov. Met. IV 410 foil., 
Fast, vi 475 563, where we have an Italian continuation of the Greek 
myth. See on this and the following names Preller Gr. Myth., Welcker 
Gr. Gotterlehre, as well as the Articles in Diet, of Myth. 

Palaemonem : Melicertes, another form of the Phenician Hercules 
(Melkarth) was identified with the sea-god Pal. who was worshipped with 
infant sacrifices at Tenedos. The Isthmian games are said to have been 
originally instituted in his honour (Paus. I 44 11). The Romans con 
sidered him to be the same as their Pater Portunus, the god of harbours, 
on whom see II 66. For the order ejus Pal. filium, cf. below 48 hujus 
Absyrto fratri. 

Herculem Romulum: see nn. on n 62. These, as Italian deities 
whether by birth or adoption, are contrasted with the preceding foreign 
deities. 

ascripticios : the adjective is not found elsewhere in the classical 
period, but C. not unfrequently uses the verb, as in Arch. 6 ascribi se in 
earn civitatem voluit, ib. 7 si qui foederatis civitatibus ascripti essent. 

Ch. xvi 40. omitto ilia praeclara : I say nothing of those other 
dogmas : verily they are admirable . Of course ironical, as in Acad. n 86 
jam ilia praeclara, quanta artifieio esset sensus nostros mentemque. . .fabricata 
natura : see n. on palmaria I 20. Instead of enim we might perhaps have 
expected quamquam, l though they are indeed fine specimens ; but enim 
refers not to omitto, but to ilia. If we supply any link of thought, it 



104? BOOK III CH. XVI 40. 

might be tempting as they are . By ilia we must understand what 
follows to the end of the paragraph. 

hoc credo illud esse : this, I suppose, is what is meant by the line . 

sublime : see above 10. 

mihi quidem sane multi videntur : on the turba deorum cf. Plin. 
jV. II. ii 16 major caelitum populus etiam quam kominum intellegi potest, 
cited in Mayor s n. on Juv. xin 46. I think multi here must have the 
sense of tedious , as in n 119. But in any case I am disposed to regard 
it as a gloss, like et tamen multa dicuntur in n 132. Possibly C. may have 
employed some one else to translate his authority, for it is hardly conceiv 
able that he should himself have gone into such wearisome detail as 
follows, on a point which there was no need for him to elaborate : in that 
case we may imagine these words to have been his own exclamation of 
weariness, dutifully taken down by the amanuensis. If w r e further suppose 
him to have intended to omit 53 60, this would account for its being 
inserted in the wrong place by the editor who published the book after 
C. s death (see below 42). But without indulging in speculation we may 
safely assume that the gloss represents the feeling of most readers of the 
mythological section which follows : it is not therefore improbable that 
some one of the number should have given vent to his impatience in 
the margin. As to C. s own belief, it was much in accordance with that of 
Seneca (Fragm. 39 Haase) omnem istam ignobilem deorum turbam, quam 
longo aevo longa superstitio congessit, sic adorabimus, ut meminerimus cultum 
ejus magis ad morem quam ad rem pertinere, 

Stellas : constellations , said in lexx. to be only used in this sense by 
poets. For the names see the Aratean section II 105 114. 

numeras : see i 33 and below 43. 

inanimarum : also found in i 36, n 76. 

41. non modo sed: I do not say to be allowed, but actually to be 
understood cf. u 61. 

Cererem Liberum : the Stoic theory is given above 11 60 quicquid 
magnam utilitatem generi afferret humano, id non sine divina bonitate erga 
homines fieri ; but this must be interpreted in accordance with the general 
principle stated in n 71, that after all the real object of worship is the 
deus pertinens per naturam cujusque rei. 

illud quo vescatur : so Sext. Emp. ix 39 those who believe that the 
ancients deified all that is of use for life, impute to them extreme folly , 
ov yap ouro)? CLKOS (Kfivovs acppovas flvat coorf TO. 6(p6a\p.o(f)ava)s cpdfipo/Jiei>a. 
flvai ueovs, rj rols Trpos CLVTWV KaTamvofJievoi.s KCU 8ia\vop,ei>ois Oe iav 
vva^iv. Cf. Juv. xv 10 porrum et caepe nefas violare et 
frangere morsu : sanctas gentes quibus haec nascuntur in hortis numina ! 
The doctrine of Transubstantiation gave rise to similar taunts on the part 
of Jews and Mahometans, cf. Campanella in Burton s Melancholy p. 687 
ed. 1845. The fact that we find no trace of such taunts in the ancient 
writers and that the Fathers betray no misgiving in following the lead of 



BOOK III CH. XVI 41. 105 

Cicero here (cf. Theodoret qu. 55 in Genes. a /3eXrepta? yap eV^ar?;? TO ecrOio- 
pwov TTpoo-Kvve iv) is with justice adduced by Daille (De religiosi cultus 
objecto ii c. 4) as a proof of the novelty of the doctrine. [Cf. Bayle s. v. 
Averroes n. H. J. E. B. M.] 

nam : see above 15. 

quos : this is cited by Roby 1743 as an instance of the Relative 
used for quod with Demonstrative. Perhaps it may be explained more 
simply by saying that the Antecedent de his has to be supplied with 
reddes. 

til reddes : * it is for you to explain how that could be . For the 
Imperative force of the Put. cf. tu videbis Fam. iv. 13 4; sed valebis 
meaque negotia videbis, meque dis juvantibus ante brumam expectabis Fam. 
vn 20 ; Roby 1589, 1595. See on tu videris above 9. 

id fieri potuerit : in place ofpervenire potuerint. 

fieri desierit : C. s practice with regard to his daughter Tullia (on 
which see i 9 n.), arid the subsequent prevalence of apotheosis under the 
Empire show that Cotta is not here representing either the general belief 
or C. s own feeling. 

quo modo mine est : t as at present informed , cf. Att. xm 2 2 quo 
modo nunc est, pedem ubi ponat, non kabet. 

cui illatae lampades : to whose body torches were applied , so Catil. 
in 22 tectis ignes inferre. If we suppose in montem Oetaeum to be the true 
reading, we must translate for whom torches were brought to Mt. Oeta . 
Ribbeck (Trag. Rel. p. 341 J ) compares Eurip. Heracl. 910 CO-TIP lv ovpavm 
/3e/3aK<o TCOS yovos, <u yepaia, (pevyei \6yov as Tov"A.ia o/zoi> /care/So, irvpos 
deiva (pXoyi <ro3|u,a daicrdeis. Sch. suggests that the quotation may be from 
the Philoctetes of Accius. 

fuerunt . most MSS hswefuerint, which would mean one such that . 

aeternam : there is no reason for the conjecture aetheriam. We find 
aeterna cadi templa in a tragic fragment (Ribb. p. 229 J ), cf. above 11 111 
on huic equus ille. 

Homerus : we have a similar ref. above 11, to prove the mortality of 
Pollux. The passage here referred to (Od. xi 600) cannot be said to prove 
the point at issue : according to the existing text it recognizes a divine, as 
well as a human, Heracles ; TOV 8e /zeY cla-evorjo-a filrjv HpaKk^eirjv, ei ScoXoz/, 
avros Se fier ddavdroKTi deula-i repTrerai ev 0a\iflS KOI e\i Ko\\[(r(pvpov 
"Hftrjv, The verses were however obelized by Aristarchus, (1) because they 
are inconsistent with II. XVIII 117 ovde yap ovde jBirj Hpa/cX^o? (pvye Krjpa... 
aXXa e /LtoTp e8dpa<ro- KCU apyaXeoy ^oXos "Hprjs, (2) because the distinction 
between soul and shade is un-Homeric, (3) because Hebe is a virgin god 
dess in the Iliad. The lines were attributed by some to Onomacritus, 
see Nitzsch in loc. They gave rise to much speculation on the part of 
the Neo-Platonists, cf. Lucian s amusing dialogue between Diogenes and 
Heracles. 

conveniri facit: for constr. cf. i 31 n. 



106 BOOK III CII. XVI 41. 

B e. (2). Even if we accept the principle of apotheosis, hoiv are 
we to pick out the real claimant from among the many pretenders to 
each divine name ? 42, 53 GO. 

The Stoic might answer I find the mass guided in their conduct to a 
certain extent by religious sanctions. These sanctions are closely con 
nected with their forms of worship and sacred traditions. In so far as the 
latter involve the belief in an all- wise Euler of the universe, in so far they 
are right. But at present they are mixed up with much which is shocking 
to reason and conscience. We w r ish to make people feel that this is only 
the outer husk of the truth, that the truth is deeper-lying and distinct 
from its shell or husk. (This distinction was marked by the opposition 
between TOV apepio-Tov KOI TOV /xe/nepto /iei/ov vovv Firm. 7, where see Oehler ; 
and the phrase in Lydus IV 48 rives 8e Kara TOV T/POHKOZ/ KCU p-tpio-Tov \6yov 
rpely Amy fivai (3ov\ovTai . . . TroXXol K TOV 6 Aou Atos 1 Ai ot, eoerTrep ATroXXcoves 
77 Aioi/vo-ot.) After a time they may perhaps get rid of the husk altogether. 
Meanwhile you bring it as a charge against us that the traditions differ. 
That is all in our favour : it helps to show the unimportance of the husk . 
Just so in India at the present day ; the inconsistency of traditions, the 
rival claims of different divinities, are all in favour of the Brahmo Somaj. 
The argument of Gotta was employed with more justice by the Christians 
against the vulgar polytheism, as by Arnobius iv 16, Firm. 15, 16, Clem. 
Protr. 2631. 

42. potissimum : the adverb, as in n 58. 

interiores scrutantur et reconditas litteras : Cic. mentions interiores 
litterae (Fam. in 10 9) as a part of the studiorum similitude which bound 
him to Appius, probably referring to their common antiquarian tastes. 
The phrase is similarly used of Volumnius Fam. vn 33 2. The word 
implies the opposite to that which is superficial and commonplace, and 
in philosophy is opposed to ecorfpiKa, as Cicero understood that term 
(Fin. v 12 and Madv. exc. 7); cf. Div. n 124 sed haec quoque in promptu 
fuerint; nunc interiora videamus; Acad. n 4 nos autem ilia externa cum 
midtis, haec interiora cum paucis ex ipso Lucullo saepe cognovimus ; so 
ex intima philosophia Ac. I 8, reconditiora Ac. n 10. Here however it 
is used of research in the region of mythology. The writers alluded to 
are afterwards spoken of as genealogi antiqui 44, ii qui theologi nomi- 
nantur 53, antiqui historici 55, such men as the learned scholiasts and 
mythologers of Alexandria, Euhemerus, Callimachus, Apollodorus, Lyco- 
phron, above all the Orphic poets. Thus Plutarch (Or. Def. 456 D) cites 
the tine Orphic line Zeus "PX 7 ?; Zeuy /zecro-a, Aios 8 e TravTa TTVKTCU as 
uttered by oi o-(f)68pa TmXatoi tfeoAdyoi, and Proclus continually refers to 
Orpheus as o QeoXoyos, cf. Herm. Orph. pp. 456, 457, 465 &c. Arnobius, 
who has copied much of what follows (iv 13 15) names as his authorities 
theologi vestri et vetustatis absconditae conditores; cf. Aug. C. D. xvm 12 
secretiore historia plures fuisse dicuntur et Liberi patres et Hercules; Lobeck 



BOOK III CH. XVI 42. 107 

Aglaoph. pp. 465 foil. 994 foil. In order to reconcile inconsistent legends 
the mythologists multiplied the gods, just as the harmonists have multi 
plied the miracles of the Gospels in order to avoid seeming contradictions, 
see for example the commentators on Matt, xx 29. The true explana 
tion of these inconsistencies is (1) that the same original Aryan myth 
became variously modified in different localities, (2) that the Greeks and 
Komans identified their own divinities with those of foreign nations, in 
accordance either with their relative dignity or with some resemblance of 
worship, even where there was no real connexion, as in the case of Matuta 
and Leucothea. The mythological section, which follows, differs very 
much from the usual tradition, but is to a certain extent in agreement 
with four later writers, whom I have compared in the Appendix, viz. 
Clemens Alexandrinus, Arnobius, Ampelius and Laurentius Lydus. But 
there are many points in which Cic. differs both from these and from 
every other ancient mythologist known to us. Though I have not been 
able myself to arrive at any definite conclusion as to the sources of the 
tradition followed by Carneades, I hope that the comparative view given 
in the Appendix may be of use to others who are interested in the history 
of mythology ; and it will at any rate show the need of caution, in 
assimilating the texts of the parallel writers. 

antiquissimum Jove natum : we are told that Varro reckoned up 44 
deities named Hercules, finally coming to the conclusion that omnes qui 
fortiter fecerant Hercules vocabantur (Serv. ad Aen. vm 564). Herodotus 
(n 44) distinguishes the Egyptian and Phoenician from the Greek Hercules, 
whom he regarded as much the youngest, and says that in any case we 
must separate the hero from the god ; see nn. in Rawlinson s ed. Compare 
Plin. N. H. xi 17 quaerat nunc aliquis unusne Hercules fuerit, et quot 
Liberi patres, et reliqua vetustatis situ obsita, * when we don t even know 
whether the queen bee in the hive close by has a sting or not . Pausanias 
tells us that there were two different gods of the name of Hercules, who were 
worshipped in Greece (v 14 7, ix 27 5). 

Joves plures : see below 53. 

Lysithoe : the only other place in which she is mentioned is Lydus 
Mens. iv 46 cited in the Appendix. Sch. suggests that she is the same as 
Lysithea, whom Lydus calls mother of Dionysus (iv 38), this god being 
often confounded with Hercules. 

de tripode : Hercules having, in his madness, slain his friend, Iphytus, 
the son of Eurytus, came to Delphi to consult the oracle, but the Pythia 
refused to give any response. On this he threatened to carry away the 
tripod and establish an oracle for himself elsewhere. Apollo then appearing, 
a struggle between the two gods was imminent, had not their father inter 
vened and reconciled them (Hyg. Fab. 32). Plutarch (S. Num. Vind. 
p. 557) says that the tripod was actually carried away to Pheneus in 
Arcadia (cf. below 56) ; and that the insult was avenged by the flood 
which destroyed this city many centuries afterwards. There was a temple 



108 BOOK III CH. XVI 42. 

of Apollo still existing there in the time of Pausanias which was said to 
have been founded by Hercules (Pans, vin 15). The same writer mentions 
a tradition of the people of Gythium, that their town was built by Hercules 
and Apollo in common, after they had made up their dispute about the 
tripod (in 21 7); about which he tells the following story (x 13 4) Xeye- 
TCU VTTO AeXcpcoi Hpa/cXe! r<y Ap,(j)iTpva)Vos eXdovn eVi TO ^prjcrrijpiov TTJV 
TrpopavTiV EevoKXelav OVK e6f\rjcrai ol xpai> did TOV icpirov TOV <povov TOV Se 
dpd/jivov TOV rpiVoSa e /c TOV vaov (pepeiv eco, elirelv re df} TTJV 7rp6fj.avTLv"A\\os 
dp Hpa/cX^? TipvvOios ov^l K.ava>(3evs. Trporepov yap en o AlyvrrTLOs HpaKX^s 1 
d(piKTO es AeXcpous 1 . Tore Se o Afj,(piTpva>vo$ TOV re rpiVoSa aTroSi daxrt rco 
Kal Trapd TTJS SevoicXfias oTrocra e Serro ediSdxdr]. TrapaSe^a/iewi Se 01 
TOV \oyov pd^rjv HpaK\fovs Trpos ATroXXoova vnep Tpirrodos adovo~iv, cf. 
Plut. Nor. 387. The subject was often treated in works of art ; Pausanias 
I.e. describes an offering by the Mantineans at Delphi, in which Hercules 
and Apollo were represented as both grasping the tripod and held back, 
the former by Athene, the latter by Leto and Artemis. Sch. refers to 
O. Muller s Dorians n 11 8. 

Nilo natus : Wilkinson (in Rawlinson s Herod, n 43 n.) says there 
were two Egyptian gods, Khons, the third member of the Theban triad, 
and Moui the splendour of the sun , whom the Greeks identified with 
their Hercules. Heracleopolis was the name of an important city and 
nome in Middle Egypt. There was also a temple to Hercules, near one of 
the mouths of the Nile, which was visited by Germanicus, Tac. Ann. u 60 
proximum amnis os dicatum Ilerculi, quern indigenae ortum apud se et 
antiquissimum volunt, cf. Macrob. /Sat. I 20 sacratissima ct augustissima 
Aegyptii cum religione vencrantur, ultraque mQmoriam...ut carentcm initio 
cohmt, Diod. I 24. The Nile was thought to be the same as Oceanus and 
to have given birth to all the gods (Diod. I 12, Heliod. Aet/i. ix 9). This is 
however the only passage, excepting that quoted from Lydus in the Ap 
pendix, in which Nilus is called expressly father of Hercules. The image 
of the Idaean Hercules at Erythrae was said to have come from Tyre and 
to be exactly of the Egyptian pattern (Pans, vn 5 3). 

Phrygias litteras conscripsisse : to have drawn up the Phrygian 
traditions . We should rather have expected this to be said of the Idaean 
Hercules mentioned below, to whom Diodorus (v 64) ascribes the authorship 
of certain charms and mystic rites. But Wyttenbach in his note on this 
place (not on Plut. Is. et Os. I.e., as Sch. and Kiihner have it) is certainly 
wrong in considering our Phnjgiae litterae to be nothing more than magical 
figures. They must be explained by Diod. in 66 TTJV <&pvyiav KaXou/ze ^v 
Troirjo-iv, the authorship of which is usually assigned to Linus the re 
puted instructor of Hercules ; also by Pint. Is. et Os. 362 we need not 
pay any attention rots- 3>pvyioLs ypd/ji/jLao-Lv, in which Isis is said to be the 
daughter of Hercules ; and Frag. p. 18 Didot (taken from Euseb. Pr. 
Ev. in 1) that the old mythology concealed a theory of nature is plain 
from the Orphic and Egyptian and Phrygian books . Probably this 



BOOK III CH. XVI 42. 109 

was a theological treatise professing to be written by Hercules, just as 
the Poemander professed to be written by Hermes. Clement mentions 
that the priests of I sis were required to know by heart the Hermetic 
books, 42 in number, and that these were regularly carried through the 
temple in procession (Strom, vi 4). We have a specimen of the sacred books of 
the Egyptians in the Ritual of the Dead lately deciphered and translated. 
Plato alludes to them (Tim. 23), where he represents a priest as addressing 
Solon in the words TroVra yeypap-peva en TraXaioC r^S eVrii/ ev rots lepols 
...Trjs 8e evdadf diaKoo~/J.^o~0)S Trap TJp.lv ev rots iepois ypa.p.p.aaiv o/craKio^tXicof 
e rcov api.6p.os yeypanrai. We must also distinguish our Phrygiae litterae 
from the Qpvyioi Aoyoi of Diagoras, mentioned by Tatian c. 44, in which 
the mysteries of Cybele were ridiculed. 

ex Idaeis Digitis : on this very obscure subject cf. Diet, of Biog. s. v., 
Lobeck Agl. pp. 11561181, Diod. v 64, Strabo x p. 715 foil. They were 
commonly connected with the Cretan, but sometimes with the Phrygian 
Ida, as by Clem. Strom. I 15 73 some say that certain of the so-called 
Idaean Dactyli were the first wise men, and that they invented musical 
rhythms and the E$eVta ypa^ara. Now these Dactyli were Phrygians and 
barbarians. HpoScopos e TOV Hpa/cXea, pavTiv KOI (pvo-iKov yevop-evov, to-rope? 
napa* KrXavTOS TOV /3ap/3apou TOV <&pvyo$ SiaSe^ea-^at rot s TOV Kooyzov Kiovas, 
i.e. the knowledge of astronomy (Philostr. Prooem. Heroic. 12 refers 
the origin of poetry to Hercules, son of Alcmena, and says that he was the 
instructor of Linus); Arnob. in 41 Nigidius identifies with the Lares 
sometimes the Curetes, sometimes Digitos Samothracios, quos quinque indi 
cant Graeci Idaeos Dactylos nuneupari . Pausanias speaks more than once 
of the Idaean Hercules, as worshipped in Greece e.g. at Thespiae (ix 27 5) 
aXXa yap ecpcuWro p,oi TO iepov TOVTO ap^atorepov r) Kara Hpa/cXea TOV A/z0t- 
Tpvonvos, Kal Hpa/cXe ous elvai^ TOV KaXovp,evov TWV iSaicoi/ Aa/cruXcoi , ov 8rj Kal 
Epvdpaiovs TOVS es itoviav Kal Tvpiovs iepa e^ovTas vpio~K.ov. ov nrjv ovff ol 
Boiooroi ro HpafcXe ovs ijyvoovv TOVTO TO ovop,a, OTTOV ye a^roi TTJS blvKa\r)o-o~ias 
Ay/jirjTpos HpaxXet ra> latoj ro lepov erriTeTpdcpdai Xeyovcrti/, also ib. 19 4 and 
v 14 7. Diodorus says (v 64) that Hercules was the eldest of the five 
Dactyli and that he founded the games at Olympia. The phrase employed 
by Cic. ex Id. Dig. is probably a translation of a partitive genitive, such 
as we find in the above quotation from Pausanias. 

cui inferias afferunt Coi : Herod, n 44 < I think those Greeks act most 
rightly, who have established a double cultus of Hercules /cat ra> /xeV 
cos ddavaTco OXn/iTrico de iro>WfJiir)V Bvovcri, r<5 5 erepa) cos 1 T^ pan eVayt- 
COUQ-I. The phrase inf. af. corresponds to ^oas tTrxpepovo-iv (Plut. Rom. c. 
4). The reading Coi is a correction for the cui of MSS. On the worship of 
Hercules at Cos see Plut. Nor. p. 304 and Osann s n. on Cornutus c. 31. 
We do not however read elsewhere that it was addressed especially to the 
Idaean Hercules or that it was distinguished for its mournful character. 

1 I have altered the position of elvcu, which in SiebehV ed. follows H/xx/cAe a. 



110 BOOK III CH. XVI 42. 

Asteriae : the only other authority for this statement is Eudoxus the 
famous astronomer, on whom see II 104 : cf. Atheu. ix 392 E Eu8oos o 
KWStos ev vrpcoro) yfjs TreptoSov TOVS QoiviKas Xeyfi ^ueivrcp HpaKXei oprvyay, Sta 
ro TOV HpafcXea TOV Aorepias" Koi Ato? Tropevop-evov els Aiftvrjv dvaipeOrjvai p.ev 
VTTO Tv<paJi>oS) loXaou & aura) TrpcxreveyKavTos opruya...o(r<ppai $W dvaj3ia>vai, 
copied by Eustath. ad Odyss. xi 601. According to Hesiod (Thcog. 409) 
she was sister of Leto wife of Perses and mother of Hecate (see below 46) : 
according to the more common tradition (Hyg. Fab. 53, Apollod. I 2 2) 
she changed herself into a quail to escape from the pursuit of Zeus, and 
having afterwards thrown herself into the sea was metamorphosed into the 
island Ortygia (Delos). Probably the name Asteria was selected by the 
mytnologers as approaching most nearly to Ashteroth and Astarte (see 
below 59). Thus Lydus (IV 44) 01 6e Qoivuccs Aoraprqi/ rqv (rcpav TTO\LOV- 
%ov, olovfl rr)v *A0reptai> (which, in n 10 p. 24, he tells us is a title of Aphro 
dite) /} TTJV TTjS (i(TTCOS dpfTTJV elvctl T^V ACppoSlTrjV j3oV\OVTCll. AmpellUS C. 9 

gives a slightly different account (see Appendix). Similarly Damascius ( Vit. 
Isidor. 302) calls the Phoenician mother of the gods Astronoe. Perhaps 
the allusion to Karthago ( = Neapolis) here, as below 91, is due to Clito- 
machus the Carthaginian. 

Belus : ie. Baal or Bel ( Lord ). It was a title used for Melkarth, the 
Tyrian Hercules, and also for the chief of the Babylonian divinities, whom 
Herodotus identifies with Zeus. Diodorus (i 28) and the Greeks generally 
say that Belus was son of Libya and Poseidon, and father of Aegyptus and 
Danaus, and that he led a colony to Babylon. Herodotus (i 7) makes 
Ninus son of Belus, son of Alcaeus, son of Heracles. Professor Sayce 
thinks the Greek Heracles was derived from the Babylonian Gisdhubar 
through Melkarth. Compare Nonnus XL 400 ao-rpoxtrcoi/ "HpaxXes, aVa 
Trvpos, op\ap.e KocrfJLOVj B/jXos eV Eu(pp^rao, Ai/Sus KfK\r)fj.i>os "Ap-fiajv. The 
Indian Hercules is called Sandesby Nonnus xxxiv 196, Dorsanes by Hesy- 
chius ; Pliny (N. II. vi 16 speaks of his conquests in India, and mentions 
(vi 24) that his worship extended even to Taprobane, cf. Megasthenes 
(Didot fr. n pp. 404 and 418), who identifies him with Krishna. 

sextus hie : the sixth is our own familiar Hercules , cf. II 6 hujus 
adolescentis. 

lit jam docebo : this phrase naturally leads us to expect that the 
explanation referred to will follow at once, as in Cluent. 30 acervatimjam 
reliqua dicam ; Murena 43 dicamjam apertius ; Gael. 44 dicam jam confi- 
dentius; Plane. 27 de qua vita jam dicam. If anything were interposed, 
we should certainly expect it to be introduced by some sort of explanation 
or apology, not by a quando enim, which implies that what follows, follows 
in the natural course. The other reasons which have led me to transpose 
53 60 and insert them here, are (1) that they continue the previous 
argument; (2) that the commencement of 53 has no reference to the 
argument of 51, 52 on the divinity of material objects, but has a plain 
reference to the contrast drawn in 40 42 between the vulgar and 



BOOK III CH. XVI 42. Ill 

the learned, ii qui interiores scrutantur litteras, called in 53 illos etiam 
qui non re sed opinione, &c. ; (3) that 61 which immediately follows 
these sections, refers not to them, but to 44 and 47 (mentem, fidem, spem 
...rerum vim habere videmus, non deormn). 

Ch. xxi 53. dicamus contra illos etiam : I cannot be content 
therefore merely to condemn the vulgar superstition (referred to in 39) ; 
the Euhemerist theology, which is supported by the Stoics (cf. 60), is 
just as much to be blamed (cf. 40, 41). 

non re sed opinione : cf. below 63 confitemini longe aliter se rem 
habere atque hominum opinio sit; II 71 his fabulis spretis... deus pertinens per 
naturam cujusque rei, per terras Ceres, per maria Neptunus, alii per alia, 
poterunt intellegi qui qualesque sint, quoque eos nomine consuetudo nuncupa- 
verit ; quos deos et venerari et colere debemus ; 11 66 suscepit vita hominum 
consuetudoque communis ut beneficiis excellences viros in caelum fama ac 
voluntate toller ent. For the phrase itself cf. I 61 n. 

Joves tres : SO Lydus IV 48 Tives Se Kara TOV ijpa) i<ov Kal p,pio~Tov \6yov 
(i.e. the theory which splits up the gods into demigods) rpeTy Am? eii/at 
/3ouAoi>rai, eW p,ev Aldepos, TOV Se erepoi/ ev Ap/caSia Te^dr/vat, d<p } ov (pa&lv 
Adrjvav, TpiTov Se TOV Kp^ra, also Arnob. iv 14, and with slight variation 
Clem. Al. Protr. p. 24, and Ampelius c. 9, quoted in the Appendix. 

theologi : see above on 42 qui interiores scrutantur litteras. The 
mythologists referred to are plainly Euhemerists like Diodorus. 

patre Aethere : in the Hesiodic cosmogony the primaeval Chaos 
begets Erebus and Night, and from Night proceed Aether and Day. 
Hyginus continues the genealogy ex Aethere et Die Terra, Caelum, Mare : 
ex Aethere et Terra Saturnus, Ops, Titanes, &c. We have no early or 
independent authority for the relationship here assigned between Jupiter 
on the one side and Aether and Caelus (the masculine form is implied by 
the following qui} on the other. 

Proserpinam et Liberum : see on n 62 and below 58 ; Lydus 1. c. 

oi Se TrXelorot TWV (pvaiKvv TOV Am iSatoi/ ea/at f3ov\ovTai Kal Tf%6rjvai eV Ty 
"iS//, TovT60~Tiv ev raj TTapa "iS?/ opoo/neVa) ovpavw, Ttjs Se Kopr/j Trarepa avTov 
(pao~iv, TovTecTTL TOV Kopov Kal TTJS evto^/as 1 a lTiov avTov yeveadai. 

principem belli: cf. n 167 principe philosophiae Socrate. 

cujus sepulcrum ostenditur : cf. nn. on i 119. 

Atoo-Koupoi : we nowhere else find this name applied to any of the 
following personages except the Tyndaridae, who in later times were 
confounded with the Cabeiri. Hesychius s. v. says it was also used of 
Amphion and Zethus, and we read in Diog. Laert. n 52 that it was given 
as a sort of nickname to the sons of Xenophon. 

Anactes : so MSS, but most edd. read Anaces instead, according to the 
dictum of Moeris S. V. "AvaKes Kal AvaKiov Arri/o? (cf. Ai/axelov Thuc. VIII 
93), Aioo-Kopoi /cat Atoo-Kopetoz/ EXA^i/i/cooy. But even in Greek writers both 
forms occiir, and it is not likely that a Latin scribe would have altered 
Anaces, if he had found it in his text. In Pausanias x 38 (omj/e? Se 6ea>v 



112 BOOK in en. xxi S 5.3. 

tj 

flolv ol "AvaKTes TratSey, ou Kara raura eVrti/ flprjuevov, aXXa ot /zei> elvai 
AioaKovpovs, ol fie Koup^ray, ot de TrXeof TL firio Tao dai voui^ovres Ka/3etpoty 
\tyova-iv) Siebelis writes avaK.es against the MSS, and so in n 22. Compare 
the Orphic Hymn xxxvm 20 Koupqrey Kopvfiavres oi/oKropey, fvdvvaroi re eV 
Safj.odptJKr/ oVttKrey G/JOI), Zyvos Kopoi aurot, 77^0101 aeVaoi V/ u^orpocpoi ^epoetSety 
otre /cat ovpavioi AiSup,ot KA^ecr$ eV OXJ/z77ft>. ..7rnri e[oiTe"AvaKTes , Alciphl Oll 
III 68 ot 2cor?7pey "A^a/crey. According to Aelian F. II. iv 5 Menestheus 
first gave to the Tyndaridae the names "Ai/a/<rey and Scor^pey : similarly 
Plutarch Thes. 33, who however has the form "Ai/occey, for which he suggests 
various etymologies. The term avaKTopov was used especially for the 
shrine of deities worshipped with mystic rites, cf. Lobeck Agl. p. 59, 
Herod. IX 65 TO eV EXevalvi dvaKTopov, Hippolyt. Ilaercs. (p. 152 Duncker) 
e dyaX/iara dvo (V r&5 2a/zo^paKcoi/ aVa/cropa), and p. 164 eVrt yap 
ro [jivcrTtjpiov EXfvcriv Kai Ai/a/cropcior. 

rege Jove: on Zevs Bao-tXeus- see Preller i 115. The title is probably 
added here as explanatory of Anactes : they were princes as being sons 
of the king of the gods. In reality the name is a survival of an older 
religion in which they held the highest rank. So the Cabeiri and Dioscuri 
are called /neydXoi $eoi (Lobeck 1. c. p. 1229 foil.). 

Proserpina : we do not find this stated elsewhere of Tritopatreus or of 
the Anactes or Dioscuri, but the following notes exhibit similar statements 
in regard to Eubuleus and Dionysus, cf. below 58. 

Tritopatreus : cf. Suidas s. v. A^twz/ (fl. about 300 B.C.) / rfj Ar6i8t 
cprjalv dvffjiovs eivai TOVS TpiTOTrdropas <&i\oxopos Se (a younger contemporary 
of Demon, who also wrote on the antiquities of Attica) TOVS TprroTrarpa? 
TravTtov yeyovevai Trpcorovs. Phanodemus (a writer of uncertain date B.C.) in 
his sixth book (of antiquities) says that the Athenians alone worship and 
pray to them for offspring, when they are about to marry , eV de r<5 Opcpe oos 
vo-iK(p oVo/iaVo-$at TOVS TptroTraropas ) A/jia\KLdrjv Ka\ IIpcoTOKXeoi/ra, Ovpapoi/s 
KOI (pi XnKay ovTas TU>V dvepajv. O $e TO E^y^ri/coi/ noirjO as (a treatise Oil 
the marriage ceremony) Ovpavov KOI Tfjs (prjo-lv OVTOVS tivai naldas, ovo/zara 
8e avTuv KOTTOV Bptapecoy /cat Tvyrjv. Lobeck explains this by a reference to 
Arist. An. I 5 TOTO ireTrovGe Kal 6 ev rots Optpt/coty KO\OV^VOLS eWeo-t Xoyot 
(prjo~\ yap TTJV "fyvxrjv IK. TOV oXou claifvai dvanvfovruiv^ (pfponevrjv CLTTO T(ov 
dvep-wv. In the marriage ceremonies these deities of the wind were invoked, 
as the first parents of mankind, to breathe into the new-born children the 
breath of life, identified with the soul. Hence in Orph. H. xxvm 8 they 
are called Tirfjves TJ/zerepcoi Trpoyovoi iraTepwv . . . ap^at Kat Tn^yat TraVrcof 
6vr]Ta>v TroXf/xo^^a)^, cf. ib. xxxvm 20 cited under Anactes. For the forma 
tion of the word see Pollux III 7 o 770777701; r) Tijdrjs Trar^p trp 077077770$-, ra^o 8e 
TOVTOV av eiTrol.s rptro77aropa, coy ApicrroreX^y. As this is the only passage 
in which Tritopatreus is reckoned among the Dioscuri or Anactes, the only 
passage indeed in which the name is found in the singular, it was natural 
to emend it : thus Hemsterhuis (on Lucian Dial. Deor. 26) suggests 
Tritopatores Zagreus, Lobeck Lrito Zagreus: a more plausible emenda- 



BOOK III CH. XXI 53. 113 

tion is that by Rinck, Tritopatores Triptolemus, for Triptolemus and 
Eubuleus are sons of Dysaules according to the Orphic tradition reported 
by Pausan. I 14 2, and Clem. Al. Protr. 20. I do not think however 
that it is safe to make any change. It is evident that the tradition followed 
by Cicero s authority departs very widely from the ordinary tradition ; and 
in that strange intermingling of mythologies which took place during the 
Alexandrian epoch, it seems not impossible that the name Tritopatreus, 
belonging to the early Attic mythology, may have been connected with the 
equally ancient Anactes. 

Eubuleus : this is properly an epithet or name of Dionysus good in 
counsel , as we read in Plut. Conv. p. 714, on the text 6Vt /SouXeiW&u irapa 
TTOTGV ovx yrrov rfv E\\r)viKov T) IlepaiKov (he might have referred also to 
the Germans and Norsemen) ; hence ol Trap-nav apxaioi rov Aiovvarov avrbv 
fvfiov\fj Trpoo-eiTj-oj/. So, in the Orphic Hymns, Bacchus is addressed as 
Evftov\V 7ro\vftov\e AIDS Kal IlfporfCpoveir)* (XXIX 6), and EvftovXev /j,irpr)(f)6pc 
6vpo-iTivaKTa...7rp(CToy6v HpiKeVaif, $ecoi> Trarep 77 de Kal vie (LI 4). In H. 
xxvui 8 Persephone is styled /^rep epiftpeueTov 7roXuju.op(pov EvftovXrjos, 
while in H. XL 8 the same is said of Demeter. In H. LXXI Artemis is 
called daughter of Eubuleus. Dionysus is also spoken of as son of Eubuleus 
(XLI 1) deo-p-ofpopov KaXeco vap0r)KO<p6pov Aiovvfrov, (nrepp-a 7ro\vp.vr)aTov TTO- 
\vcowp,ov EvfiovXrjos. Again Eubuleus is identified with Pluto (addressed 
in H. xvn 12 as to 7j-oXu&ey/ioi> Eu/3ovXe), with Adonis (addressed in 
II. LV as Eu/3ovXev 7roXu/zop(pe, rpo(pev TTUVTCOV apufyXe), with Phanes, fr. 7 
(ap. Macr. Sat. I 18) ov dy vvv KaXtovo-i ^avrjra re Kal ALOVVO-QV Eu/SouXjya T 
avaKTa KOL Avravyrfv dpi8rj\ov. 

tertii Atrei filii: we are nowhere told that Atreus had sons so 
named. The famous soothsayer Melampus, who is said to have introduced 
the worship of Dionysus into Greece, is entirely unconnected with Atreus. 
Then we read, in Nonnus xiv 16, of an Alcon, one of the Cabeiri, who was 
son of Hephaestus and Cabeiro and brother of Eurymedon. Tmolus is 
a generally accepted emendation by Dav. for Eviolus of MSS (connected 
with Evcos ?) because the former name occurs amongst the ancestors of 
Atreus. I have thought it better to keep to the MSS, as the extraordinary 
eccentricity of C. s mythology really leaves nothing on which to build 
conjecture. 

54. Musae quattuor : so Tzetzes on Hes. Op. p. 6, except that the 
father is with him the first and not (as with C.) the second Jove, "Kparos eV 
Tr) TrefjnrTT) TCOI/ A<rrpiK<V reVcTopap (ray MoiVas) Xeyet AIDS TOV Aldepos Kal 
TfXova-ias vvjLUpr/y, Apx^v MeXer^v Qe\t-iv6r)v Kal AotS^. Mnaseas also, a 
contemporary of Callirnachus, spoke of four Muses filias Telluris et Cadi 
(Arnob. in 37, where we are further told that Ephorus made three Muses, 
Myrtilus seven, Crates eight). Pausanias (ix 29) mentions that one 
tradition recognised only three Muses named MeXe r?; Mvij^rj and AoiSif. 
Compare Diod. iv 7, Cornutus c. 14. 

natae Thelxinoe : the readings are very uncertain : see critical notes. 
M. c. III. 8 



BOOK III CM. XXI 54. 

Some MSS have et after natae, and as the mother s name is given in the 
other cases, Heind. and Creuzer suggest that it has been lost here ; the 
latter would supply Neda from Pausan. vm 47, where she appears among 
the nymphs attendant on the youthful Zeus. His reasons however for the 
selection of this particular name appear to me to have very little weight. 

Piero natae : the edd. appear to be justified in omitting Jove tertio 
before Piero, cf. Pausan. ix 29 (after mentioning the three Muses as above) 
8e vcrTfpuv (pacri Tliepov NLaK0 6va...\dovTa e? QeaTTias e lWa re Moi^trav 
KOI TO. oi/o/xara TCI vvv peradtadat a(picrt.. .fieri Se ol KCU avrto 
6vyaTpas evvea Iliepa) yevecrdai Xe yoixrw KCU TO, ovo^iara aTrep rals Oeais Tfdrjvai 
KCU ravTais. Ovid relates that these Pierian Muses, having dared to compete 
with those of Helicon, were turned into crows (Met. v 300). Epicharmus 
gave to Pierus a different wife, Pimpleis, and only seven daughters, named 
after various rivers (Tzetz. on Hesiod Op. p. 6). Ovid makes the wife 
Euippe. It is only here that we find Antiope named as the mother of the 
Muses. 

Mnemosyne : see Hes. Theog, 50 80. 

isdem nominibus: abl. of quality, Roby 1232, cf. i 83 his vocabulis 
esse deos. 

proximae superiores : cf. n 53 proximum inferiorem n. ; Mu. refers to 
Madv. Adv. II p. 243 n. [add Gell. xvu 2 1 bid no proximo superiors. 
J. E. B. M.] 

cumque tu Solem : whereas you derive the name Sol from his solitude . 
Cf. II 68 and Lydus Metis. II 3 (*HXios) A7roXXo>i> Xeyerru 8ia TO airudev eivai 
T(ov TroXXooy KOI Potyialot 8e avTov croXe/^ r/rot p,6vov Xeyoucriz , he is called 
however by many names r/ HXto?, 7 Qpo?, "Oo-ipis, avag, Aios vios, ATroXXwi/. 
The common tradition makes the Titans, Hyperion and Theia, parents of 
the Sun (Hes. Theog. 371) : Arnobius (iv 20) follows Cic. in a blundering 
way, making Jupiter the father and Hyperiona the mother : see Appendix. 

tertlus VulcanO : SO Suidas S. V. /nera rr\v Te\evTr)v Hf/)aicrrou TOV 
/3ao-iXeW AlyvTTTOv r/ HXios- o vlos avTov rr]v ap^r/v StcSe^aro, See below 55, 
and Sayce lie rod. p. 318 at Memphis the dynasty of gods was composed 
as follows, (1) Ptah or Hephaestus, the father of the gods, (2) Ka, the sun- 
god, his son ; also Rawlinson Herod, n p. 289. 

Heliopolis : the On of Scripture, where Joseph found his wife, and 
Plato and Eudoxus are said to have studied, is situated nearly at the point 
of the Delta. The obelisk, which still stands there, was erected about the 
year 2050 B.C. See the art. in the Diet, of the Bible. 

quartus Rhodi : the text is very doubtful. As to the facts, we know 
that Rhodes was sacred to the Sun, whose colossal statue there was esteemed 
one of the wonders of the world. Pindar (Olymp. vn 23) calls Rhodus 
Tlatd AfppodtTaSj AeXioio re vv^cpav, and tells how Helios c PoSo) p.ix6els 
TeKev fTTTa (rocfrtoTaTa vor) fiar eVt TrpoTepw avftpwv Trapadf^a/jLevovs Traidas, toi/ 
fis peit Ka/ieipoi/ TrpeafivTciTov re laXvcroz^ eT<ev Aa/Soi/ r (1. 130), cf. Tzetzes 
on Lycophron 922. Homer speaks of the Rhodians as distributed between 



BOOK III CH. XXI 54. 115 

the three cities founded by these eponymous heroes, //. II 655 (Tlepolemus 
led to Troy those) ot Podov dfj-cpeve^ovro dia rpi^a K.oo~iJir)QevTes, A.iv8ov lr)\vo~6v 
re Koi dpyivoevTa Kapeipov. The city of Rhodes itself was not built till 
B.C. 408, when the three ancient tribes or states combined for that purpose. 
The Rhodian genealogy is thus given by Diod. v 56 : Helios and Rhodus 
had seven sons, of whom only two, Ochimus and Cercaphus, continued in 
the island : these joined in building the city of Achaia (also mentioned by 
Ergias the Rhodian ap. Athenaeus vni p. 360) ; of which Ochimus was the 
first ruler. After his death he was succeeded by his brother Cercaphus, 
who had married his daughter and had by her three sons , the eponymi 
before-named. Starting with this as his foundation, Creuzer proposes to 
read quartus is, cui heroicis temporibus Achaiae conditores Rhode peperisse 
dicitur, avum et patrem lalysi, Camiri et Lindi, unde Rhodii: Heind. 
would read cui h. t. A cant ho Rhodi peperisse dicitur Cercaphum, quern 
dicunt genuisse lalysum Camirum Lindum Rhodii; Swainson cui h. t. 
Cercaphum Rhode peperisse dicitur patrem I. C. L. unde Rhodii. As far as 
any sense is to be got out of the MS reading, it is altogether opposed to the 
common tradition ; which speaks of the island of Rhodes, not as the birth 
place of Helios, but as raised up out of the sea to be his portion, when the 
gods distributed among themselves the various countries of the earth. 
Again the name of Acantho is unknown in connexion with Helios. The 
nymph Rhodus or Rhode is usually represented as daughter of Poseidon 
and Amphitrite or Halia, and as the bride, never the mother, of Helios. 
Whatever may have been the original reading, it seems to have been early 
changed into something like its present form, as Rhodi appears in the 
locative both in Ampelius and Arnobius, and the latter makes Acantho 
the mother of Sol. See Appendix. 

[heroicis texnporibus : cf. Div. i 1 vetus opinio est jam usque ab heroicis 
ducta temporibus. Swainson.] 

Colchis procreavisse : cf. Apollod. i 9 1 <bpios rjXfav els KoXxovs, 

(t)V A.lrJTr]s f(3ao-i\evcre TTCUS H\iov KCU Hepo-rji8os, d8e\(pos 8e KipKijs Koi TLaai- 
(paqs, see on 48. We find the form Aeeta, like poeta, Ov. Her. xn 29, 
see below on 45. Colchis, locative of the name of the people used for 
the country, as in Ennius/r. trag. 286, 311. 

Ch. xxu 55. Vulcani : see Ampelius and Lydus quoted in Appendix. 

Apollinem eum : sc. natum ferunt ; cf. n 61 cui Proserpinam, where 
perhaps even nuptam was an unnecessary addition. Sch. cites Brut. 105 
hunc qui audierant prudentes homines, in quibus familiaris noster, L. 
Gellius,...canorum oratorem fuisse dicebat, where the predicate to prud. 
hom. is wanting : this however should rather be regarded as a case of 
attraction. 

cujus in tutela Athenas : Apollo was called Trarpwo?, because he was 
father of Ion (Plato Eutliyd. 301) the eponymous hero of the Athenians. 
Clemens Protr. n 28 gives Aristotle as the authority for the story that 
Apollo was son of Heph. and Ath. More commonly Erichthonius is made 

82 



116 BOOK 111 CH. XXII 55. 

their son, as by Apollod. Ill 14 6 TOVTOV ol p.ev H^cuVrof KOI rrjs Kpavdov 
Bvyarpos Ar^i Sos elvai \eyovo-iv, ol e H^aiWou /cat Atf^a?, foil. 

Nilo natUS PhthaS : cf. Diog. L. prooem. 1 Alyvrrnoi Net Xov yevea-dai 
rraida "Hcpaio-rov, ov apgai (piXoo-ocpLas, Palaeph. in Gale p. 64, Lydus in 
A.ppendix, Herod, in 37 with Kawlinson s nn., Amm. Marc, xvn 4, 
Phthas was identified with Hephaestus, like Athene with Neith, from 
similarity of sound. See above on 54 tertius Vulcano, and Nilo natus 
42. 

Jove et Junone : the ordinary tradition, as in Homer 11. I 578. In 
two of the parallel writers Saturn is made the father, see App. 

Memalio : this name is altogether unknown. Lydus has Mavrovs (cor 
rected MavTcpos by Creuzer), Ampelius Miletis (corrected Melites by 
Wolfflin): could it be intended for K^SaAiW, the instructor of Hephaestus, 
on whom see Preller I 141 * ? 

Vulcaniae : Pliny, speaking of the Aeolian or Liparaean Isles, says 
(in 14) they are called Hephaestiades a Graecis, a nostris Vulcaniae. Livy 
employs the same name (xxi 49, 51), so there seems no reason why Cic. 
should have used the Imp. nominabantur, as if the name had gone out 
of use. 

56. Caelo Die : hence he is brother of Venus 59. Cf. Serv. ad 
Aen. iv 577 quattuor Mercurios tradunt, unum Caeli et Diei filium, ama- 
torem Proserpinae &c. cited in Appendix. Of Cic. however Servius says, 
in the same note, referring to the N. 1)., that he held tres esse Mercurios, 
super um, terrenum et inferum. 

natura : Herodotus 11 51 says this was the case with the Samothracian 
gods (one of whom was Casmilus identified with Mercurius), and with the 
Hermae of Athens in accordance with the old Pelasgian usage ; cf. Pint. 
Nor. 797 F, Hippol. Ref. Ilaeres. v 7 1. 45 foil., ib. 8 1. 85. The symbol was 
intended to denote fertility, but was explained by the mysticizing Neo- 
Platonists as follows, SeiKvvo-i TOV aTrepfj-aTiKov \6yov TOV dirjKovra diet irdvrcov 
(Porph. ap. Euseb. Pr. Ev. in 2 27). For the connexion with Proser 
pina or Brimo, see Propert. n 2. 11, and below 60, where Cupido is 
called son of Merc, and Diana, who is often confused with Proserpina 
(see below 58), also Tzetzes on Lye. 698. Like cpvcris (defined by Hip 
pocrates as atria yei/eVecoy the ground of production ), natura came to 
be used euphemistically for the generative organs, whether male or female 
(see Div. n 145, Mimic. F. 9); so loci above II 128, and naturalia in Celsus; 
cf. Beier on Off. i 127. [Add to lexx. Varro E. R. n 4 10, Suet. Tib. 45 
fin. J. E. B. M.] 

Valentis et Phoronidis : this agrees to a certain extent with the 
story of the birth of Asclepius, as given by Pausanias n 26 and with 
slight variations by Apollodorus in 10 3 Coronis, daughter of Phlegyas, 
being with child by Apollo, was married to "itrx^s (Valens, cf. Digitus = 
AaKTuAo? above) son of Elatus ; for this unfaithfulness she was put to 
death by Artemis, and the child Asclepius was saved from the funeral 



BOOK III CII. XXIT 56. 117 

pyre by Hermes , cf. below 57 on the second Aesculapius. But we no 
where else (except in the parallel passage from Arnobius given in the 
Appendix)- find Trophonius identified with Hermes, or represented as the 
son of Ischys and Coronis. He is the son of Erginus or of Apollo (Pausan. 
ix 37, Horn. H. Apoll. 296, Schol. on Aristoph. Nub. 508), and is himself 
entitled Zeus Trophonius (see on 49) as being connected with the unseen 
world, just as he is here entitled Mercury, i.e. Epfifjs X66vio$. The con 
fusion between Troph. and Asclep. seems to have arisen from some 
resemblance in the rites with which they were worshipped, on which see 
Pausan. ix 39. Where the discrepancy from the common tradition is in 
any case so great, there seems no justification for changing the MS reading 
Phoronidis into Coronidis. Ovid uses the patronymic Phoronis for lo, 
as being a descendant of Phoroneus (Met. II 524), king of Argos. He 
makes (1. 569) Coroneus (Dr L. Schmitz in Diet, of Ant. reads Phoroneus), 
not Phlegyas, the father of Coronis. Again Strabo tells us (x p. 471) that 
Hesiod mentioned a daughter of Phoroneus, from whom were descended the 
mountain nymphs and the Curetes. Phoronis is also the name of one of 
the lost Epics of Greece, in the fragments of which there is a reference to 
Hermes and the Idean Dactyls (Lobeck Agl. 1157). 

qui sub terris habetur idem Trophonius : the subterranean deity 
who is also believed to be Trophonius . The parallel in Arnobius (sub terra 
est alter, Trophonius qui esse jactatur, see App.) seems to show that the 
words must be thus taken. Hermes was called xdovios, both as presiding 
over the hidden treasures of the earth and as the conductor of the dead. 

: SO Herod. II 145 IK. nrjveXoTrrjs KOL Ep/xe co Xeyerat yfve<r6at VTT* 
o Yldv. Serv. ad Georg. I 16 refers to Pindar as the authority for 
the legend ; see also on Aen. n 43, and Hemsterhuis on Lucian Dial. Deor. 
22. Preller (i 586) suggests that the name nrjvcXonr) (from 77771/77, Trrjvifa) 
may have had a general sense, like our spinster . 

Aegyptii nefas habent nominare : so the Romans according to Plu 
tarch (Nor. p. 278 p) forbade the name of their tutelary deity to be uttered ; 
compare the feeling of the Hebrews about the ineffable Name. I am not 
aware of any other Greek or Roman authority who makes two Egyptian 
gods answering to the Greek Hermes ; but Thoth was worshipped in 
Hermopolis under the two forms of the Ibis and the Ape ; arid Lenormant 
in his Anc. Hist, of the East vol. I p. 315 tr. distinguishes between the first 
Thoth, who was the celestial Hermes, or the personification of the divine 
intelligence , and * the second Hermes, who was only an imitation of the 
first, and passed for the author of all the social institutions of Egypt . 
Ampelius and Servius, following in the main the same tradition as Cic., 
make one god out of his 4th and 5th. As far as I know, it is never stated 
that Theuth was regarded as an ineffable name. Herodotus however 
often makes a mystery of the name Osiris (e.g. n 86, 132, 170), and pro 
fesses his unwillingness to utter the sacred legends, where it was not 
absolutely necessary. 



118 BOOK in CH. xxii 56. 

Pheneatae : see on 42 de tripode, and the art. on Pheneus in Diet, of 
Geog. It is a district in the N, E. of Arcadia shut in by the spurs of Mt 
Cyllene. The waters of the valley arc carried off by a channel, said to 
have been made by Hercules, which conducts them to a natural tunnel 
(Katavothra) in the limestone rock, and the river which issues from this 
is called the Ladon. Pausanias tells us (vin 14 7) decov TI/JLUXTLV EP/JLTJV 
<&fvearai judXiora, KOI ayava ayovcnv Ep/zata KOI vaos eoriv Ep/zoO o"(picri KOI 
ayaX/za \iOov : he also mentions the sacred springs, at which it was said 
the nymphs had washed the newly-born Hermes (ib. 1C 1). 

Argum profugisse : apparently this is the earliest passage in which 
the slaying of Argus is connected with the appearance of Hermes in 
Egypt. It would be naturally suggested by the wanderings of lo. As to 
the civilizing influence of Hermes see Plato Phaedr. 274 rjnovva nepl 
NaviepaTiv rfjs AlyvrrTOv yeveorOai TWV eKel Trakatwv riva $eooi>, ov KOI TO opveov 
TO lepov, o 5/7 Ka\ovo-iv"lj3LV } avTO) Se ovop,a rw Sat /zoz t etVnt QevO. TOVTOV &e 
TTpwTov api6p.ov T K(il Xoyicrpoi evpflv KCU yeco^erpiW Kal acrrpoi OjMiaz/, f rt 
de TTfrretas re Kal Kv(3eLas, Kal drj KCU ypa^aTa foil.; Phlleb. 18. Lactantius 
I 6 after quoting the present passage, continues idem oppidum condidit, 
quod etiam mine Graece vocatur Ep/noTroXis-, et Saitae colunt eum religiose. 
Qui, tametsi homo, fuit tamen antiquissimus et instructissimus omni genere 
doctrinae adeo, ut ei multarum rerum et artium scientia Trismegisto cog 
nomen imponeret...Ipsius haec verba sunt o Se 6eos els, 6 5e el? ovup.aTos ov 
Trpoo-Seerat- eort yap 6 u>v avtovv/jLos. For the Neo-Platonist writings which 
passed under his name, see articles in Diet, of Biogr. and esp. in Diet, of 
Christ. Diog. under Hermes. 

Aegyptum profugisse : there is no need for inserting in with Ba., cf. 
Sardiniam venit Leg. Nan. 34, Aegyptum iter habere Caes. B. C. in 106, 
and Aegyptum proficisci Tac. Ann. n 59, Nep. Dat. 4 1, Madv. 232 obs. 
4, Draeg. 17G. 2. 

Theuth : Philo Byblius ap. Euseb. Pr. Eo. I 9 19, professing to give 
the Phoenician theology, says that the first-born of all things is Taauros- o 
TWV ypa.fj,p,a.TCi3V Tr]v cvpecnv eVi^o^cras Kal TTJS TWV vTrofj-vrj/jLctTayv ypafprjs KciTap- 



primus mensis : Herodotus tells us (n 82) that the Egyptians had 
learnt to which god each month and day is sacred ; and we read in Pint. 
Is. Osir. p. 378, that the feast of Thoth was in the 1st month, which was 
therefore called by his name ; cf. Censorinus 18 10, 21 10, Macrob. Sat. 
I 15, Rawlinson Herod. App. 2 to Bk. u. In B.C. 24 the 1st day of Thoth 
coincided with Aug. 29. 

57. Aesculapiorum : this is a specimen of the arbitrary procedure 
of the later mythologists. The so-called Phoenician Aesculapius, one of the 
Cabeiri, is omitted, and the Arcadian deity is split up into three because 
of some slight difference in the local traditions. Lydus makes the Apollo, 
who is father of the first Aesculapius, to be the son of Vulcan, and there- 



BOOK III CH. XXII 57. 119 

fore the patron of Athens : if we make Apollinis antecedent to quern 
Arcades cohmt, it would seem to identify him with Apollo No/uos ; but in 
that case we should probably have had ejus before quern. 

specillum : see a full account of its use in Diet, of Ant. s.v. chirurgia, 
Foes Oecon. Hippocr. and the illustration in Rich s Companion. The 
corresponding Greek verb is metaphorically used by Cic. Att. xn 51 roOro 
8e /*r/ A 0)077 vou will probe this . 

obligavisse : cf. Tusc. n 38 medicum requirens a quo obligetur [Bell. 
Afr. 88 4, Sen. Ep. 28 8. J. E. B. M.] : Celsus uses the word deligo in 
the same sense. The former refers properly to the supporting of a broken 
limb by splints ; the latter to the tying down of the broken ends so as to 
prevent their protruding. 

Mercurii frater : see on 56. 

fulmine percussus : after being struck by lightning . According to 
the usual story he was slain by Zeus for raising the dead to life, "see 
Pindar Pyth. in 1105 cited by Clem. Al. Protr. 30, and Diet, of Biog. 

Cynosuris : this is usually understood of a district of Sparta ; whence 
Callimachus (Diana 94) calls the Spartan hounds KwovovpiSes. See 
Clem. Al. 1. C. Ao-K\r]Trios Kelrai KpavvQ}de\s ev rois Kvvoo-ovpio os opioi?. 
Sch. however notes that a Mount Cynosura is mentioned by Steph. Byz. 
p. 490, and suggests that there may have been a Cynosura in the vale of 
Cynuria (Pausan. vm 27). This Cynuria was the parent state of Gortys, 
where there was a tomb of Aesculapius, see below on Lusio Jlumine. 
Possibly Cynosura is a mistake for the well-known Lycosura in Arcadia. 
The most usual tradition makes Aesculapius buried at Epidaurus (Cyrill. 
C. Jul. vi p. 200) ; but in a later passage of the same book (vni p. 
288) it is said that none knew where he was buried. 

Arsippus : he is not mentioned in any independent authority : perhaps 
there may be some confusion with Leucippus. 

Arsinoe : according to the Messenians Aesculapius was the son of 
Apollo and Arsinoe, daughter of Leucippus (Paus. in 12, 26, iv 3. 
Asclepiades, a disciple of Isocrates, is cited to the same effect by the 
Schol. on Pindar in Heyne s n. on Apollod. in 10. 3). Pausanias tells 
a story of an Arcadian who presumed to question the Delphian god himself 
on the subject, and was informed by the oracle that the real mother was 
Coronis (ib. n 26). 

purgationein : see n. on n 126. [Celsus n 11 2 refers to Asclepiades 
on this subject. In vn 12 he treats of dentis evulsio. R.] 

dentis evulsio : Herodotus (n 84) mentions that in Egypt each physi 
cian treated a single disorder, some undertaking to cure diseases of the eye, 
others diseases of the head, the teeth, and so on. Gold stopping has been 
found in some of the mummies. [Add to lexx. Plin. Val. iv 2.9, Gael. 
Aurel. Acut. in 83. J. E. B. M.] 

non longe a Lusio : i.e. at Gortyna situated on the river Aovo-ios, 
a tributary of Alpheius, so called because the infant Zeus was there 



120 BOOK III CH. XXII 57. 

washed by the nymphs (Pausan. viu 28). At this place there was a 
temple of Aesculapius (Pans, v V). 

sepulcrum et lucus ostenditur: for the Sing. cf. passages quoted 
below on 43 deum. 

Ch. xxin. Apollinum antiquissimus : cf. 55 and Clemens and 
Ampelius quoted in the Appendix. 

Corybantis filius : this is the converse of the ordinary story given by 
Apollodorus I 3 4, GaXet a? KOI ATroXXcoyo? tyevovro Kopvfiavrfs. We find 
other traditions in Strabo x 3 p. 472, some say the Corybantes are children 
of Athene and Helios, others of Cronos, others of Zeus and Calliope ; 
Pherecydes says that there were nine Kup/3avras, the children of Apollo 
and the nymph Rhytia, and that they lived in Samothrace , cf. Lob. 
Aglaoph. p. 1141. In Hippol. Ref. Ilaer. v 9 1. 45 Corybas is identified 
with Adonis, Attis, Osiris, &c. 

natus in Greta : the Cretans were the first worshippers at the temple 
of Delphi and were established there as ministers of the god. Apollo 
Delphinius was worshipped from an early period at Cnossus in Crete 
(Preller I 199). This worship was no doubt introduced by the Dorians in 
place of the indigenous worship of the bull-headed Zeus : hence the 
cum Jove certamen, cf. Muller Dorians I 226 tr. In the Kprjres of Euripides 
(fr. 476 Dind.) we find the I dean Zeus identified with Zagreus and connected 
with Bacchus and the Curetes. 

cum Jove certamen : though no other writer mentions this contest, it is 
perhaps alluded to in Fulgentius (Frag. Hist. nip. 152 Didot) Mnaseas tertio 
Europae libro scripsit Apollinem, postquam a Jove ictus et interfcctus est, a 
vespillonibus ad sepulturam elatuin csse. It may be compared with those 
between other gods for the possession of particular countries, e.g. between 
Poseidon and Athene for Attica. 

ex Hyperboreis : they were supposed to dwell in a land of perpetual 
sunshine on the other side of the lihipean Mountains and the cold blasts 
of the north wind, see Diet, of Biog. and Preller I 189 foil., and, for the 
legend of their visit to Delphi, the verses of Boeo recorded by Pausan. x 5 
4, Find. 01 in 25, hthm. vi 34, Pytli. x 31, Herod, iv 33, Diod. n 47. 
Alcaeus (fr. 1 Bergk) agrees with C. in representing Apollo as himself 
coming from the Hyperboreans to settle at Delphi. The prophet Abaris 
was said to be a Hyperborean priest of Apollo (Herod, iv 36). 

N6|Aiov : (fr. vopos pasture) used as an epithet of Apollo by Theocritus 
XXV 21, of Aristaeus by Pindar Pytli. IX 115 onaova p-ijXcov, Aypea KOI 
No/itoi/, also of Pan (Horn. //. xix 5), Hermes and other rural gods ; 
cf. Virgil s pastor ab Amphryso, and Pausan. vn 20 2. The explanation 
of the name here given is mere ignorance, though it was repeated by 
Proclus (see Welcker Gr. Gott. I 486). In Clem. Al. Protr. n 28 and 
Ampelius, this Apollo is called son of Silenus, and Porphyry (ap. Cyrill. 
c. Jul. x p. 342 Spanheim) reports that Pythagoras wrote an inscription on 
the tomb of Apollo at Delphi, speaking of him as the son of Silenus, slain 



BOOK III CH. XXTII 57. 121 

by Python . Perhaps Sileni filius has been lost after quartus. Nowhere 
else do we read that he was the legislator of Arcadia or born there. 
Legislation was however regarded as an office of the Delphian Apollo, cf. 
Plat. Rep. IV 427 (we leave to Apollo at Delphi) ra re peyio-ra KOL xaXXio-ra 
KOL Trpcora ra>v yo/iotfer^arcoi/... euros yap Srjirov 6 deos Trepi ra roiavra TTCKTIV 
Trdrpios f^yrjrrjs V /neVw rrjs yrjs eVi rov 6fJ.<pa\ov KaOrjuevos 
tf Legg. I 632 lv rois rov Aios \eyoptvois VO/JLOLS rols re rov Tlvdiov 
ArroXXcoi/o?, ovs Mii/coy re KOL Avicovpyos ederrjv, eWcrrt raOra navra, Diod. 
I 94, Strabo xvi 38, Cic. Div. I 96. So above Mercury is called the 
legislator of Egypt. 

58. prima Jovis et Proserpinae : Ampelius is the only other 
writer who gives this parentage. Artemis is however sometimes identified 
both with Persephone and Hecate, as in the Orphic hymn cited by Porphyry 
ap. Euseb. Pr. Ev. IV 23 ?? e yco et/u Kopr) iroiXv^dcr paras /c.r.X. ; and we have 
had many exx. of the confusion between parent and child, e.g. 53 on 
Proserpina. 

pinnatum Cupidinem : Pausanias (ix 27) says that Olen calls Eileithyia 
(i.e. Artemis, see on n 68) mother of Eros. The winged Eros is spoken of 
by Plato Phaedr. 252, Eur. Hipp. 1270, Aristoph. Av. 574 and 697, where 
the Scholiast says that it was only in later times that Eros and Victory 
were represented with wings. 

pater Upis : this is another mythological an. Xey. According to 
Herodotus (iv 35) Opis and Arge were two Hyperborean maidens who 
came to Delos with Apollo and Artemis, and were invoked by the Delian 
women and the lonians generally in a hymn composed by Olen. In the 
pseudo-Platonic Axiochus p. 371 we are told that the Magian Gobryas was 
shown two brazen plates at Delos, giving an account of what befel the soul 
after death, and that these plates were said to have been brought there 
from the Hyperboreans by Opis and Hecaergos. In Callim. Dian. 204 
Opis is addressed as OVTTI aVaoV ei]a>7Ti 0ae<T$ope, Kai 6e <re Keivrjs Kp^rae es 
KaXeova-iv 7ra)vvfj.ir)v OTTO vv/j.(pr)s, where see Spanheim ; also ib. 240 ; 
Macrob. Sat. v 22 ; Serv. ad Aen. xi 532 alii putant Opim et Hecaergon 
nutritores Apollinis et Dianae fuisse : hinc Opim ipsam Dianam, Apollinem 
vero Hecaergon. We do not elsewhere find Opis or Upis regarded as 
masculine. Callimachus (Del. 292) makes her a daughter of Boreas, and 
gives her two sisters Loxo and Hecaerge ; Virgil (Aen. xi 532 and 836) 
introduces her among the attendant nymphs of Diana ; Palaephatus 
(Incred. 32) says it is a Lacedaemonian name for Artemis ; finally 
we read in Athen. xiv 10 that hymns to Artemis were called ovniyyoi. 
The name is generally derived from o7ns = vn(o-is, but Preller explains it 
as the eye of night , i.e. the moon. Of Glauce we do not read elsewhere 
in this connexion. 

primum Jove et Proserpina : so Ampelius and Lydus in Appendix. 
The latter cites Terpander the Lesbian as the authority for the tradition. 



1.22 UOOK III CH. XXTII 

Compare also AIT. A nab. n 16 the Athenians worship TOV Aioy KOI Kop?;y... 
Ka\ o "ICIKXOS o fJ-variKos TOVT<X> r<5 Atofi;cra>, oi^i TO> Qrjftaicp eVaSerai , and 
Clem. Al. Protr. 16 [iiywTai 5 o yfvvria-as OVTOO-\ Zevs rfj cfrfpecparn/, r?/ iS/a 
dvyarpi.. .Kvei KOL rj <&epe0arra nalfta raupojuopcpo^, Orphic Hymn XXIX 6, 
Hyg. Fab. 155 and 167. This Dionysus is frequently identified with 
Zagreus and Saba.zius. 

Nilo : see above on Hercules /3 (41), Vulcanus /3 (55), Mercurius 8 (56). 
Herodotus makes Dionysus the same as Osiris (n 42, 48, 144), who is 
sometimes confounded with the Xile ; cf. Plut. Is. et Os. 35 p. 364. 

Nysam interemisse : this is not stated elsewhere. Xysa or Nyssa is 
usually the birthplace of Dionysus ; hence Heind. after Marsus reads 
condidisse for interemisse. There were many places of this name in different 
] tarts of the world each claiming some special connexion with the god, see 
Herodotus n 146 with the note in Kawlinson s ed. Diodorus (66 69) how 
ever reports on the authority of Dionysius the mythographer, that Linus, in 
the so-called Phrygian poem, represented Dionysus as the son of Ammon 
and Amalthea, entrusted by his father to the charge of Xysa, daughter of 
Aristaeus. Hyginus mentions Xysa among the Oceanids who had the 
charge of the infant Bacchus and were restored to youth by Medea at his 
request. If the reading is correct, the allusion may possibly be to the 
cutting Up of the body before renovation as in the case of Pelias. Or 
Xysa, the nurse, may have been confounded with Semelc, the mother 
(Lydus iv p. 94 makes Xysa the mother of the Indian Hercules), 
whose death may be said to have been caused by the son. Another 
explanation, suggested by Creuzer, is derived from Lydus statement that 
vva O a means o KafjLrrrrjp KOL 7TpiK.v\Lo~Ls TOV xpovov . he connects this with 
the story (told by Diod. in 71 and at greater length by Xonnus xvm 
237 foil.) of the first exploit of Dionysus, in which he destroyed the 
monster Ka/zTr?;, whilst on his journey to Xysa ; and supposes this to mean 
the blotting out of the signs of the zodiac by the sun, as he passes through 
them. Perhaps however we should read Xysurn ; see below for his story. 
Human sacrifice was not unknown in the worship of Bacchus even as late 
as the time of Plutarch, as we see by his account of the sacrifice of 
a maiden at the yearly festival of the Agrionia held at Orchomenos (Qu. 
Grace, p. 299 F). 

It is rather curious that the phrase dicitur interemisse is also used above 
of Mercurius and below of Minerva. If the original reading were Xysae, d. 
i nteriisse, this might be explained by the importance attached to the death 
of Dionysus (Osiris) in the Later mysteries, cf. Clem. Protr. 17, Lactant. 
i 22, Firmicus 6. Though we are not told in so many words that it was at 
Xysa he was murdered by the Titans, yet we may infer this from the fact 
that the murder was supposed to have taken place whilst he was still 
a child under the care of the Curetes. 

Cabiro : corrected from Caprio to suit the parallels in Ampelius and 
Lydus. According to Mnaseas, a pupil of Eratosthenes, there were three 



BOOK III CH. XXIII 58. 123 

Cabiri, Axierus, Axiokersa and Axiokersus, corresponding to Demeter, 
Persephone and Hades (Aglaoph. p. 1221). The last is identified with 
Bacchus by Heraclitus ap. Clem. Al. Protr. p. 30 OVTOS Se Ai8/s KQ\ 
Aiovvcros oreo) fjiaivovrai Km Xrjvai^ovtri. 

Asiae praefuisse : cf. Eur. Bacch. 13 17. The story of his conquest 
of India became very popular after the time of Alexander. 

Sabazia : Demosthenes, in depicting the miserable bringing-up of his 
rival Aeschines, describes these rites of the Phrygian Sabazius or Zagreus, 
sometimes identified with Zeus, more often with Dionysus (Coron. p. 313), 
cf. Strabo x 471, Firmicus 11, and Aglaoph. p. 1046 foil., Diod. iv 4 
some tell of a much earlier Dionysus (than the son of Semele), <paa\ yap 
f< Aios KOI Tlepcr(f)ovr]s Aiovvcrov yevfffdai, TOV VTTO rivatv Sa/3atoi> 6vofj.a6- 



Jove et Luna : as Luna is identified with Proserpina, this would agree 
with the parentage of the 1st Dionysus. Herodotus gives Selene and 
Dionysus as the equivalents of Isis and Osiris (n 47). In Ampelius and 
Lydus Semele is made the mother of this 4th Dionysus : or should we read 
2e\ijvr) there ? 

sacra Orphica : see Herod, n 86 ra Op$wca KaXeo/zem Kal Ba^Ka, and 
the Diet, of Biog. under Orpheus. 

confici : cf. Nepos Ilann. 2 4 dwina res dum conficiebatur. 

Niso : also Nyso, a masculine form of Nysa. His story is told by 
Hyg. Fab. 167 and 131, Commodianus Instruct. I 12, Jupiter had given the 
infant Bacchus to Nisus to bring up ; and Bacchus when starting on his 
Indian expedition entrusted Thebes to the care of his foster father. On 
his return Nisus refused to give up Thebes, whereupon Bacchus retook it 
by means of soldiers whom he introduced in female attire at the festival of 
the Trieterica. 

Thyone : connected with 6va>, Bvids, was the name of the deified 
Semele ; hence her son is called Qvavevs. 

Trieterides : a festival held at Thebes every 3rd winter in honour of 
the XOovios Aiovvo-os who then returned from his two years sojourn in the 
realms below, cf. Orphic Hymn 52, Aen. iv 302 bacchatur; quails commotis 
excita sacris Thyias, ubi audito stimulant Trieterica Baccho orgia, nocturn- 
usque vocat clamore Cithaeron. 

59. Caelo et Die : like the 1st Mercurius. Plato calls her a/^rcop 

Ovpavov dvydrrjp (Symp. II 180 D). 

cujus Eli delubrum vidimus : the form Eli is confirmed by the best 
MS in Fam. xm 26 2 Eli negotiatus est, and by the ace. Elim Liv. xxvn 
32 2. This temple is described by Paus. vi 25. It contained a chrysele 
phantine statue of the goddess by Phidias, in which she was represented 
as resting one foot on a tortoise, a symbol of domesticity, according to 
Plut. Praecept. Conj. 32. Probably Cic. had visited Elis during his two 
years stay in Greece ; cf. I 79, and below 46, also Milo 80 quae ego vidi 
Athenis, quae aliis in urbibus Graeciae ! 



124 BOOK ITT CH. XXTTI 59. 

spuma procreata : Hes. Theog. 196. No independent authority speaks 
of Mercury as father of Cupid. 

Jove et Diona : Homer //. v 312, 370. 

Anteros : i.e. the response of love , also rivalry in love ; whence 
he is here and by Lydus made the son of Mars. Pausanias (i 30) men 
tions an altar to him at Athens, and at Elis (vi 23). 

Syria Cyproctue concepta : this agrees with Lydus rera pr^i/ rfjs 
Svpias Kal Kvnpov, and Ampelius Cypri et Syriae filia, but it is a very 
strange expression. Conceptus is never used with the simple Ablative (like 
procreata above), nor of both parents ; and moreover Syria and Cyprus are 
both feminine. If it were not for the parallel passages I should be disposed 
to read a Syria Cyproque accepta borrowed from Syria and Cyprus , cf. 
Herod. I 105 The temple of Uranian Aphrodite at Ascalon is the most 
ancient of all the temples to this goddess ; for the Cyprian temple, as the 
Cyprians themselves admit, was built in imitation of it ; and that in 
Cythera was erected by the Phoenicians, who belong to this part of Syria ; 
Hes. Theog. 199 KvTrpoyei/ea & , on yei/ro rro\vK\vo-Ta> eVi KvTfpco. If the 
reading is right, it may have originated in a misunderstanding of the 
epithet Kun-poyeWia, just as Kopvfpayevrjs may have suggested a Coryphe 
as mother of Minerva. 

Apollinis matrem : see above 55. Ampelius and Firmicus 16 make 
Minerva daughter of Vulcan, perhaps from a misunderstanding of Plato 
Tim. 23 on the part of some earlier writer. 

Orta Nilo : cf. Plato Tim. 21 D (of Sais) 6eos dp^yos ris lanv, Ai- 
yuTTicrri /zez/ Tovi>op.a NrjtQ, EAX^z/tcm. Se, toy o eKeivcoi) Xoyo?, A-dyva, Herod. II 
62 with Wilkinson s n., Plut. Is. Osir. 32, ib. 9, where she is identified with 
Isis and the famous inscription is given, e-yeo flfju. TTCIV TO yeyovbs KCU ov KOI 
fcrofjLfvov, KOL Tov p,ov iTTT\ov ovdeis 7TO) OvrfTos a.TTf<aXv^fv. No independent 
authority makes her daughter of Nilus. Madv., followed by Mr Eeid 
(Acad. I 3 on the words a Socrate ortam\ maintains that Cic. never uses 
the simple ablative after orior ; the latter would therefore insert a before 
Nilo, if Nilus stands for the god (as undoubtedly it does), and not the 
river. As we have natus and procreatus, and (if the text is right) even 
conceptus used with the Abl. in this book, there seems no reason why Cic. 
should have objected to the same construction with ortus ; and in point of 
fact we find it in Phil. II 118 quibus ortus sis, non quibuscum vivas consi- 
dera. 

Jove : see above 53. Arnobius, Firmicus and Clem. Al. make her 
daughter of Saturn and say that she first used armour. 

Coryphe : cf. Harpocration s. v. innia Afyva, Mnaseas says that the 
equestrian Athena was daughter of Poseidon and Coryphe, the daughter of 
Oceanus, and that she was the inventrsss of chariots . She was wor 
shipped as e l7T7ria at Colonos. Virgil attributes the invention to her son, 
primus Erichthonius currus et quattuor ausus jungere equos (Geo. in 113). 
Clemens (in App.) says the Messenians called her Coryphasia aVo rfjs M- 



BOOK m CH. xxm 59. 125 

Ampelius makes her Solis filia. Firmicus I.e. follows a different 
story, quarta Jovis Cretici regis fuit filia, quae occisum patri detulit 
Liberum. Pausanias (iv 36) mentions an Adrjvd Kopv(f>ao-ia worshipped at 
the promontory Coryphasium near Pylos, and again (vin 21) an Atf^i/a 
Kopia worshipped in Arcadia. We find the latter epithet used of Artemis 
(Callim. Dian. 234), where Spanheim explains it to mean patroness of 
maidens . Coryphe is no doubt a personification of the head of Zeus, cf. 
Pindar 01. VII 65 H(pai<rrou re^vaia-tv ^aXfceXarw neXeKfi Trare pos Adavaia 
Kopvfpdv Kar anpav dvopovo-aio-* d\d\aev, Lydus III 24 rr)i> AOrjvdv els rr]V 
^vxyv dvdyovcriv a>s dOdvarov KOI TraiSa TOV Aios CK Trjs avrov Kopv<prjs TJTOI K 
TTJS aKpoTrjTos TOV ovpavov Kartovo-ai/, Arnob. IV 16. See I 41 Diogenes n. 
On quadrigarum cf. Gell. xix 8 3 C. Caesar in libris quos ad M. Cice- 
ronem de analogia conscripsit, quadrigas , etiamsi currus unus, equorum 
junctorum agmen unum sit, plurativo semper numero dicendas putat. 

Pallantis : cf. Firmicus 16 quinta Pallante patre et Titanide (al. Tri- 
tonide] matre orta est, quae patris appellata nomine Pallas est ab hominibus 
nuncupata. Haec parricidalis amentia furoris . . .patrem crudeli morte jugu- 
lavit...et exuviis corporis ejus ornata est; Tzetzes on Lye. 355 (Pallas is so 
called either because she slew the giant Pallas in the battle between the 
gods and the giants), 17 IlaXXai/ra TOV i Sioi/ Trare pa, 7rrepa>roz> VTrdpxovra Kai 
/3idbzra. ..tf rr^v Trapdeviav TL^axra TOVTOV az/eiXe, Kai TO depp,a avTov coy 
atyi Sa 7repif/3aXXero KO.\ TO. Trrepa rots TTOO-J, 7rpo(njpp,oo-v, Clem. Al. Protr. 28 ; 
Diodorus (m 69) speaks of the aegis as the skin of a monster slain by 
Athene in Lybia, cf. Eur. Ion 988. For identity of name in parent and 
child see above on Upis 58. 

pinnarum talaria : winged anklets . Athene is identified with NIK?; 
(Ion 1529), who is usually represented with wings, cf. Aesch. Eumen. 952 
IlaXXdSoy VTTO TrrepoTr oi/ray aercu Trarrfp with Paley s n., ib. 382 Trrepcoi/ arep 
(TrrepcB/i dnep ?) poi(B8ovcra KO\TTOV atyi Sof. Talaria is used by itself of 
wings attached to the ankles, or of winged sandals, like those of Hermes, 
see fig. in Rich Comp.; Pallas is not represented with these in any work of 
art. The word is used metaphorically by Cic. Att. xiv 21 talaria videamus, 
let us think of flight . 

60. Cupido : see 59. By Alcaeus he is called son of Zephyrus and 
Iris (Plut. Amat. 20), by Simonides son of Ares and Aphrodite (Preller I 
394). The son of Hermes and Aphr. is Hermaphroditus (Diod. iv 6). 

intellegis resistendum esse : see n 70. 

quorsum quicque pertineat : what is the reference, the meaning, 
of each . 

revertamur : i.e. to the follies of the Stoics, of which he began to 
speak in 39, and to which he returns in 43. 

B e. (3). The sorites of Carneades shows that it is impossible to 
draw the line between what is divine and what is human or natural. 
s 4352. 



12G BOOK in en. xvii 43. 

Cli. xvii. 43. For the transposition see above on 42 and 53. 

deduxit oratio : see above 5 ducet oratio. 

meliora didicisse capedunculis : I have learnt more as to the 
proper way of worshipping the Cods from Xuma s flagons than from the 
arguments of the Stoics , i.e. I have been taught by those rude earthen 
ware vessels, that the Gods are indifferent to wealth in their worshippers . 
Jure pontificio Abl. of manner qualifying colendis : it embraces the whole 
law of religion, though it is sometimes used in a narrower sense, excluding 
the jus augurium, as in Cato 38. capcd. an. Xey. earthen jugs with one 
handle used in sacrifices ; cf. passages cited on 5, also Parad. ill quid ? 
a Niirna Pompilio minusne gratas dis immortalibus capudincs (so Mu.) ac 
Jictiles urnulas fuisse quam felicatas (engraved with fern-leaves) /Sal io rum 
pateras arbitramur ? Tertull. Apol. 25 ctsi a Xuniu concepta cst curiositas 
super stitiosa, nondum tamen aut simidacris aut tcmplis res dicina apud 
Romanos constaljat ; frugi religio...ct rasa adhuc Samia ; Tib. I 1. 37 
adsitis divi, nee vos e paupere mensa dona nee e purls spernite fictilibus. The 
forms capis, capedo, are also found, cf. Liv. x 7 10 cum eapide ct lituo, 
capite velato, victimam caedct. 

[aureola : Cic.Acad.u 135, Salinas, on Trebell. Gallien. 5 (3, Petron. 60. 
J. E. B. M.] 

si di sunt isti deae : as it makes better sense to take di as pre 
dicate I have inserted isti, which- would be easily lost between the 
preceding and following sunt; or Id might have been lost before di, as 
it is in some MSB below 49 si sunt hi di, cst certe Erechtheus. For 
the use of the fallacy called sorites in what follows, cf. Sext. Emp. ix 
182 77 pa>rr]VTai de KOI VTTO rov Kapvedftov KOL crcopetrt/ccos rivfs (Xoyot), ovs o 
avrov KXetro/za^os cos cnrovftaioTciToys KCU dvvTiKa>Ta.Tovs dvypa\l/ev 
rov rp^-nov TOVTOV el Zevs 6eos ecrri, KOL o Tlocreiftoiv 6eos ecrri x.r.X., 
Clem. Al. Protr. 162, Lactant. I 16. It was a favourite weapon of Car- 
neades against the Stoics, cf. Acad. n 92, 93 (where it is called hibricum 
sane et periculosum locum}. Placet enim Chrysippo, cum gmdatim ititer- 
rogatur, verbi causa, tria pauca sint anne mult a, aliquanto prias, quam ad 
midta perveniat, quiescere, id cst, quod cib Ids dicitur rjo-v^a^eLv. Per me 
vel stertas licet, inquit Carneades, non modo qidescas. Hence Persius gives 
it the name of Chrysippus (vi 80), inventus, Clirysippe, tid Jinitor acervi. 

Panisci : a diminutive like ^arvpto-Kos, cf. Div. I QSfingebat Carneades 
in Cldorum lapidicinis saxo di//isso caput cxstitisse Panisci; ib. II 48, 
Sueton. Tib. 43, Clem. Al. Protr. 61 [Wilmanns Inscr. 149 4. J. E. B. M.]. 
We find Pan used in the plural as early as Plato Leg. vn 815, Aristoph. 
Eccles. 1069. The Stoics were inclined to identify Pan with the Mundane 
Spirit, see Cornut. c. 27. 

si Nymphae sunt dedicata : most edd. put marks of interrogation 
after Satijri, igitur and the 2nd dedicata. I think the argument proceeds 
more naturally without them. If the Nymphs are deities, then so also 
are the Satyrs ; but these are not deities ; therefore neither arc the 



BOOK III CH. XVII 43. 127 

Nymphs. But the latter are recognised as divine by the state. That 
shows that state-recognition is no proof of divinity. Allen and Sch. 
(Opusc. in 380) led the way in the omission of deae after Nymphae. It 
is a natural gloss and its removal greatly improves the sentence. 

Nymphae : the Nymphs are summoned to the general council of the 
gods in Homer II. xx 7, and were honoured with sacrifices and shrines (see 
Diet, of Biog.}. Cicero often refers to the burning of the temple of the 
Nymphs at Eome by Clodius, as in Nil. 73 eum qui aedem Nympharum 
incendit, ut memoriam publicam recensionis tabidis publicis impressam ex- 
stingueret ; Harusp. Resp. 57 idemque earum templum inflammavit dearum, 
quarum ope etiam aliis incendiis subvenitur ; Par ad. iv 31. 

igitur: for position cf. below ne Orcus quidem igitur, Tusc. I 88 ne 
carere quidem igitur, Fin. iv 67 ne vitia quidem igitur. 

publice : as contrasted with family rites or some private super 
stition. 

age porro : cf. n. on i 83. 

deum : the Sing, is scarcely justified by such exx. as N. D. I 4 fides 
et societas et justitia tollatur; Acad. n 113 et Peripatetici et vetus Academia 
eoncedit ; Leg. Man. 35 duabus Hispaniis et Gallia Transalpina praesidiis 
confirmata, Or at. n 53 qualis apud Graecos Pherecydes, Hellenicus, Acusi- 
las fuit ; Fam. vm 8 6 huic s. c. intercessit C. Clodius, C. Pansa, tribuni 
plebis; Div. I 84 hac ratione et Chrysippus et Diogenes et Antipater utitur, 
and other references in Zumpt 373 and Draeg. 102. Perhaps the 
original order was Jovem deum, as we have below 49 Amphiaraus erit 
deus et Trophonius, 51 solem deum esse Lunamque. 

numeras : so above 40 Stellas numeras deos. 

Orcus : an older name than Pluto, used by Ennius, Plautus &c. ; so 
Cic. Verr. iv 111 Orcus sive Dis pater rapuit Liberam. Being also used as 
a local name, it was easy to compare it with the rivers of hell. Even the 
latter were sometimes deified, as may be seen in Porphyr. citing Apollo- 
dorus (ap. Stob. Eel. p. 1010), where we read of the wives of Acheron, 
and that the Styx is deivrjv TWO, KCU (pofifpav daip-ova, cf. Hesiod Theog. 383 
foil. Lydus (Mens. in 4) says that the poets styled Hecate Kepftepov 
olovel Kpeo)[B6pov. The form Pyriphlegethon is not found elsewhere in 
classical Latin ; but it is the regular Greek form, used by Homer Od. x 
513, Plato &c.; cf. such compounds as 7rvpi(p\y^s. 

illi, qui fluere apud inferos dicuntur : the rivers of hell they tell of. 

44. quid minus conveniens : cf. i 3 and 4 ita disseruit ut excitaret 
homines. 

ad occidentem : probably this refers to the Islands of the Blest at the 
ends of the earth near deep-rolling Oceanus, where the ancient heroes dwelt 
under the rule of Cronos, Hes. Theog. 167 foil., Pind. Olymp. n 68. Plu 
tarch places these isles in the setting sun at five days sail from Britain, 
and says that Cronos lies there bound in perpetual slumber (Fac. Lun. 
p. 941, Def. Or. p. 420). Diodorus cites in proof of the statement that he 



128 BOOK III CH. XVil 44 

ruled /xaXtcrra TWV Trpos eairepov TOTTVV, the fact of his worship in Carthage 
and Italy (Saturnia tellus) ; so Crates (Lydus iv 48) TOV Kpovov SiKeXtas 
Kai iraXiar KOL TOV TrXfiVrov pepovs rfjs AijBvrjs ftacriXevo-ai, but was driven 
by Zeus els eo-xarov rrjs dvo-eas. Sch. thinks the reference is to some Celtic 
or Iberian deity identified with Saturn ; cf. Milton P. L. I 519 who with 
Saturn old fled over Adria to th Hesperian fields, and o er the Celtic 
roamed the utmost isles . 

Caeli parentes : so Hyg. I 1 ex Aethere et Die Terra Caelum Mare, and 
the author of the Titanomachia ( probably Eumelus or Arctinus Preller 
p. 33 n.). Hesiod (Theog. 116 foil.) makes Chaos the first of existing things 
and then Earth : from Earth is produced Heaven ; from Chaos, Erebus 
and Night : and these last are the parents of Aether and Day. Night is 
sole parent of Mopes- (Fatum\ OuXor^s- (Amor), ATrarrj (Dohis), Tfjpas 
(Senectus], Qavaros (Jfors), O ivs (Miser ia), Motpai (Parcae), Eo-Trepi Ser, 
"Oveipoi, *Ipis and others. A fuller list is given in Hyg. 1. c. On these and 
similar genealogies Keightley remarks (Myth. p. 50), It is a principle of 
all cosmogony that darkness precedes light, which sprang out of it. Night 
is naturally regarded as parent of dreams, sleep, death, and the kindred 
ideas, also of 0tXoT7?s-, the union of love : deceit, age, strife and woe are 
figuratively her offspring : she was connected with the Hesperides because 
their home was with her in the west (abbreviated). 

a genealogis : only found here in classical Latin. Dionysius Hal. I 13 
calls Pherecydes ra>v ^ Adr/vaicov yevedXoycoy ovdevos dei/rcpov. 

Morbus, Metus : so I read for the modus or mot us of MSS. (the eye of 
the scribe passing from mo to me). The t\vo are combined in the parallel 
passage of Virg. Aen. vi 273 vestibulum ante ipsum primisque in faucibus 
Orci Luctus et ultrices posuere cubilia Curae, pallentesque habitant 3forbi 
tristisque Senectus, et Metus et malesuada Fames ac turpis Egestas, terribiles 
visu formae, Letumque Labosque foil. Also Sen. //. F. 693, Claud. Ruf. 
I 32. 

Invidentia : cf. Tusc. ill 20 non dixi invidiam, quae turn est cum inm- 
detur : ab invidendo autem invidentia recte did potest, ut effugiamus 
ambiguum nomen invidiae ; ib. iv 16 utendum est docendi causa verbo minus 
usitato, quoniam invidia non in eo qui invidet solum dieitur, sed etiam in eo 
cui invidetur ; Apul. Plat. Dog. n 16. 

Gratia : probably this must be taken in the sense of unfair influence , 
as it goes with fraus ; cf. Quint. 84 improbitatem et gratiam cum inopia et 
veritate contendere ; Sext. Rose. 122 nimiam gratiam Chrysogoni dicimus 
nobis obstare ; Mur. 62 cave quicquam habeat momenti gratia. 

monstra : see n. on portenta i 18. 

Ch. xviu 45. ceteros : without conjunction to close a series, as I 
92 cor, pulmones, jecur, cetera ; m 52 Tiberinum, Spinonem, Almonem, 
alia jluminum nomina ; 74 tot judicia de fide mala, tutelae, mandati, pro 
socio, fiduciae, reliqua. 

de Hercule dubitabis : as Balbus had distinctly recognised all 



BOOK III CH. XVIII 45. 129 

these as divinities, it is rather absurd to make Gotta argue on the assump 
tion of the impossibility of such a belief; but this is only a proof that the 
present book is no answer to the preceding, but is merely copied from 
Cameades, who lived long before Posidonius, the authority followed in the 
earlier book. 

multo magis : thus Castor and Pollux were known in many places as 
6fo\ /zeyaXot, and identified with the Cabeiri of Samothrace. See below 
on Alabandus 50. 

Aristaeus : cf. Verr. iv 128 Aristaeus, qui inventor olei esse dicitur, una 
cum Libero patre eodem erat in templo consecratus. He is invoked among 
other deities at the beginning of the Georgics (i 14) and again introduced 
as the instructor of mankind in bee-keeping (ib. iv 283, 315 foil.) ; but 
Minerva is oleae inventrix (Geo. I 18). 

Theseus : according to the common story he is son of Aegeus, king of 
Athens, and Aethra, but another legend made him son of Poseidon (Plut. 
Thes. 6, Apollod. in 15 7, Hyg. 37). In reality Aegeus is only an 
appellative of Poseidon, and Aethra is a goddess of the air connected 
with Athena , Sch. ; cf. below 76. There were temples and a festival in 
his honour at Athens. The difficulty of drawing any distinct line between 
the human and the divine is brought out in Lucian s Concilium Deorum, 
where we have the decree of Zeus requiring each deity to prove his claim. 
See also Grote s Greece i p. 596 foil. the mythical age was peopled with a 
mingled aggregate of Gods, heroes and men, so confounded together that 
it was often impossible to distinguish to which class any individual name 
belonged . 

matres : Grant deae supplied from patres di. 

jure civili : distinguished, as the law of a particular state, from the 
jus naturae which, as common to all mankind, is frequently called jus 
gentium, cf. Off. in 69 itaque majores aliud jus gentium, aliud jus civile 
esse voluerunt. Quod civile, non idem continue gentium; quod autem gen 
tium, idem civile esse debet. 

matre libera liber est : cf. Gains i 82 [who gives this as a rule of the 
jus gentium, adopted in the jus civile of Home, but modified in one or two 
cases by special enactment. See also Ulp. Reg. v 8 10 ; Paul. Sent. 
n 21 A, R] ex ancilla et liber o jure gentium servus nascitur et ex libera et 
servo liber nascitur ; Just. Instit. I tit. 4 si quis ex matre libera nascatur, 
patre servo, ingenuus nihilo minus nascitur ; Dion. Hal. xi 29 rt TOV KOIVUV 
diravT&v K.ara<pvyu> vofjiov, os ov TWV V7ro/3aXXo/ievo)i/, dXXa ra>v p-rjTepwv elvai 
ra enyova StKcuot, e\vQepa>v fiev ovo"(ov eXev$epa, &oi;Xa>z> 6e SoOXa [also the 
legal maxim, partus ventrem sequitur. J. E. B. M.]. 

Achillem : this is the only place in which we are told that Ach. was 
worshipped in the island Astypalaea, one of the Cyclades not far from 
Cos. The Aeacids were however worshipped in Cos, the old capital of 
which was also Astypalaea ; so it is possible that the island may have 
been mistaken for the city. In the Diet, of Geog. s. v. Astyp. it is sug- 
M. C. III. 9 



l. JO BOOK III CH. XYI1I 4j. 

gested that Cic. (rather his authority) may have confounded Achilles with 
the athlete Cleomedes, the patron hero of the island (f 492 B.C.), of whom 
the Delphic oracle uttered the words VCTTOTOS ypo)a>v KAeo/i^S^y AcrruTra- 
\aievs, ov dvcriais n^aff (os p,rjKTi 6vr]Tov covra. On other sacrifices to 
Achilles cf. Diet, of Biog., Preller n 440, Plutarch Pyrrhus 1, Philostr. 
Heroic. 741 foil. 

insulani: a rare w r ord = Greek vrjonutTrjs, used here to distinguish the 
inhabitants of the island from those of the town of the same name. 

Orpheus : son of Oeagms and Calliope. It is natural to suppose that 
he may have received divine honours from his followers, but, so far as I 
am aware, this is nowhere stated. 

Rhesus : Eurip. likes. 393 addresses him as TTCU rfjs /xeXcoSou /ur/r/poy 
Mouo-coi/ ju-ias OprjKos re Trora/Mou Srpv/zwoy, and therefore cousin of Orpheus 
(1. 944). It is prophesied (1. 971) that he would continue to live in a secret 
cavern, dv0p(07ro8aifj.a>v Keto-erai /SXeVcoz/ (paos. Later writers call his mother 
Calliope or Euterpe. In Philostr. Heroic. 681 we read that wild animals 
came of their own accord to offer themselves at his altar in Ehodope. 

nisi forte : ironical, as in I 99, 117, n 158. 

maritimae : unless the son of the sea-goddess Thetis is to claim 
higher rank than the son of the Muse . 

quo JRoAo=nullo modo. 

46. immortalitatibus : pi. because it refers to many different cases, 
cf. above n 98, Zumpt 92. 

tu quoque, Balbe : but in n 62 Balbus assigns the two grounds, cum 
et optimi essent et aeterni. 

Hecate : see above 42 and Hes. Theog. 404 462 (Phoebe and Coeus 
were the parents of Leto and Asteria ; Asteria bore to Perses Hecate TT)I> 
TTfpl Travrtdv Zevs Kpovidys n /z^o-e). In later times she was identified with 
Demeter, Artemis and Persephone : she was especially invoked in magic 
rites, e.g. A en. iv 511, Hor. Sat. I 8. 33. 

vidimus : see 59 about the shrine of Venus at Elis, and below 49 of 
the Erechtheum. Hecate had a famous temple at Aegina (Paus. n 30 2) 
to which C. may here refer. 

Athenis fanum est : one temple near the Areopagus is referred to by 
Aeschylus (Ewn. 817), another is the scene of the Oedipus Coloneus. 

quae si deae sunt quarum lucus Furinae, Furiae deae sunt: 
I understand this as follows, if the Eumenides are divine, who are honoured 
by a temple at Athens and, supposing I am right in my interpretation, by 
the grove of Furina at Rome, that is the same thing as saying that the 
Furies are goddesses, I presume, in their capacity of detectors and pun- 
ishers of crime . Credo is perhaps ironical, as Cic. often speaks of Furiae 
as fiends inciting to crime, cf. Sest. 33 illafuria of Clodius. Ba. following 
Madv. omits quae si deae sunt and Furiae ; but there is nothing to explain 
the addition of quae si; and the position of deae sunt, so far removed from 
its subject Eumenides, seems to me awkward. Furinae : very little is 



BOOK III CH. XVIII 46. 131 

known of her ; Preller connects the name \vith furvus, making her a goddess 
of gloom , Hartung with fornax, a goddess of fire . Even in Varro s 
time her name was all but forgotten, see L. L. vi 19 Furrinalia Furrinae, 
quod ei deae feriae publicae dies is ; quoius deae honos apud antiques: nam 
ei sacra instituta annua et flamen attributus, nunc vix nomen notum paucis; 
ib. v 84, vn 45, Paul. exc. Fest. p. 88. Cic. speaks of a temple of Furina in 
the neighbourhood of Arpinum (Q. Fr. in 1); and an ara Forinarum is 
mentioned in an Inscription cited by Preller R. M. p. 458. It was in the 
Grove of Furina on the Janiculum (called by Plut. Gracch. 17 u\aos 
Epii/veot/) that C. Gracchus was slain. 

vindices sceleris: cf. Leg. I 40 poenas luunt non tarn judiciis...sed 
agitant insectanturque furiae non ardentibus taedis, sicut in fabulis, sed 
angore conscientiae ; Sext. Rose. 66 videtisne quos nobis poetae tradiderunt 
patris ulciscendi causa supplicium de matre sumpsisse...ut eos agitent furiae 
foil.; Piso 46, Clodius 6, Lucr. in 1011 foil. 

47. ut rebus humanis intersint : see n. on i 54 curiosum deum, 
and cf. Aug. C. D. vi 8 5 Varro enumerare deos coepit a conceptione homi- 
nis ; quorum numerum exortus est a Jano eamque seriem perduxit usque 
ad decrepiti hominis mortem, et deos ad ipsum hominem pertinentes clausit 
ad Naeniam deam...Deinde coepit deos alios ostendere, qui pertinerent non 
ad ipsum hominem, sed ad ea quae sunt hominis ; also Preller R. M. p. 572 
foil, on the gods of the Indigitamenta. 

Natio I the goddess of birth, only mentioned here, may be compared 
with Alemona, the goddess alendi in utero partus ; Partula, quae partum 
gubernet (Tertull. Anim. 39) ; with Levana, who takes up the infant from 
the ground ; Cunina who guards it in the cradle, and others mentioned by 
Aug. C. D. iv 11. The form nascio, read by some, seems contrary to 
analogy ; sc being no part of the root, it should not be compared with 
dido, capio, regio, but rather with oblivio from obliviscor. 

cui cum fana solemus : Sch. notes that Strabo (v 3 5) speaks of 
$ special worship of Aphrodite at Ardea, OTTOV Kavrjyvpi&vai Aarii/ot, 
\vhich he thinks may be connected with this. Ardea had been a city 
of importance in early times, and was distinguished for its ancient 
temples, but had sunk into insignificance, like Gabii, long before the time 
of Cicero. 

circumiinus : f we make the round of the shrines , perhaps on occasion 
of a public supplicatio ad omnia pulvinaria. 

tueatur : Subj. because it is not a fact vouched for by the speaker, but 
only alleged by those who would make her a deity. 

a te : cf. II 61. The \yay in which spes is mentioned here does not 
favour Lamb. s proposal to read Spes for Fides there. 

Moneta : as it occurs in a list of abstract nouns, we should probably 
take this in its old sense, = Mi T]fj.oo-vvrj, as in Liv. Andr. filia Monetas of the 
Muse. More commonly it is found (1) as an epithet for Juno, who is said 
to have been so called because of the warning voice which issued from her 

92 



132 BOOK III CH. XVIII 47. 

shrine (Did. I 101) ; and (2) since money was coined in her temple, it is 
used for the mint or even for money itself. 

uncle fluxemnt: the preceding , those with which they are 
logically connected ; so below unde kaec nata sunt ; 48 ex eodem 
fonte fluxerunt they are all of one mint ; 49 unde haec manant ; 
cf. Sext. IX 184 fl 6 rj\ios 6eos t ? crri, KCU r/^f pa av f irj 6e6s...fl oe jj/ze pa 
fart Ocas, Kai 6 \ir\v cart dfus crucrr^jua yap eariv e ^/xfpcoy. ft & o p.r]i> 
6fos eon, K.al o eviavTos o.v f lr] Oeo$...oij)(l df Tovrcf TOLVVV ovftf TO e ap^ry 

foil. 

Ch. xix. quid autem dicis cur non : what reason can you allege 
for refusing to admit "? cf. quid est cur above 7. 

Serapim= Osiris- Apis, so Plut. Isis 29 ; others, as Varro ap. Aug. C. D. 
xviil 5, Clem. Strom. I 21, Suidas s. v., derived it from o-opoy and *A7ur. 
The name denotes the slain Osiris who reigned in the under world and 
reappeared from time to time in the form of Apis in the upper world. 
His worship, which was mixed with Phoenician and Greek elements, took 
the place of the old worship of Osiris about 150 B.C., see Tac. Hist, iv 83, 
84 with Orelli s exc. For the growth of this worship in Rome see Tertull. 
Ad. Nat. I 10 Serapim et Isidem et Ilarpocratum et Anubim prohibitos 
Capitolio Varro commemorat, eorumque statuas, a senatu dejectas, non ni,--i 
per vim popularium restructas. Sed tamen et Gabinius consul Kalendis 
Januariis, cum vix hostias probaret, prae popularium coetu, quia nihil de. 
Serapide et Iside constituisset, potiorem habuit senatus censuram quam im- 
petum vulgi, et aras institui prohibuit (58 B.C.); Yal. Max. (Epit.} I 3 
//. Aemilius Paulus consul, cum senatus Isidis et Serapis fana diruenda 
censuissct, eaque nemo opijicum attingere auderet, posita praetexta securim 
arripuit templique ejus foribus afflixit (50 B.C.). Eight years later the 
triumvirs courted popular favour by building a joint temple to the two 
deities. Cicero mentions a temple of Serapis at Syracuse (2 Verr. II 160) ; 
see further Tertull. ApoL 6, Plut. his 28 with Parthey s n., Preller R. M. 
723 foil. Milman (Hist, of Christianity m 150) describes the destruction 
of his temple at Alexandria 390 A. D., the proudest monument of Pagan 
religious architecture, next to the temple of Jupiter on the Capitol : there, 
he says, the Egyptian arid the Greek met together in common worship ; 
while the Egyptians worshipped in Serapis the great vivific principle of 
the universe, the fecundating Nile... the president of the regions beyond 
the grave ; the Greeks at the same time recognised the blended attributes 
of their Dionysus, Helios, Aesculapius and Hades . 

Isim : even as early as the 2nd Punic war Ennius speaks of Jsiaci 
conjectores. On the later development of her worship at Rome see Diet, of 
Biog. (where however Gabinius is wrongly stated to have resisted the decree 
of the senate mentioned in the last note), Mayor on Juv. xni 93, Boissier 
Rel. Rom. bk n, c. 2. 

barbarorum decs: cf. I 81, 82, 101, where see nn. on crocodilos, ibes, 
fttple*, Tttsc. v 78, Herod, n 65, Strabo xvn 1 40, Diod. i 87. [Sen-ins 



BOOK III CH. XIX 47. 133 

on Aen. in 168 cites Labeo da dis animalibus, see Ouzel on Mimic. 
p. 262 seq. J. E. B. M.] 

boves : beside the sacred bulls Apis, Mnevis, &c., the cow was sacred 
to Isis. 

equos : the horse was not sacred in Egypt, but perhaps the reference in 
the original was to the hippopotamus (equus flumatilis\ which was the 
emblem of Typhon, see Herod, n 71. I see no objection to the et which 
couples the domestic animals, and so contrasts them with the following 
wild animals. 

accipitres : sacred to Ra, the god of the Sun. 

aspidas : sacred to Neph (Plut. Isis 74). 

pisces : Wilkinson mentions five different kinds of fishes which were 
sacred to different gods, cf. Plut. 1. c. 72, Mayor on Juv. xv 7, Obbar on 
Hor. Ep. I 2, 224. 

canes: sacred to Anubis, cf. Juv. xv 8 n. Hence Socrates used to 
swear vr) rov KVVCI TOV T&V AiyuTrriW 6toi>, see Plut. Isis 44. 

lupos : an object of worship in Lycopolis, Plut. Isis 72. 

multas praeterea beluas : e.g. the lion, the ass, the ram, the ape, the 
ichneumon, the shrew-mouse, the scarabeus. 

in numerum reponemus : for constr. see n 54. 

quae si rejicimus rejiciemus : so I venture to read instead of si 
rejiciamus of MSS. The Indie, is the mood employed throughout the 
whole passage, thus we have above si facimus . . .cur repudiemus; and indeed 
the Subjunctive, which implies that the supposed case is contrary to fact 
(Roby II pp. xcix, c), would be quite out of place here : Cotta assumes 
that we do reject these bestial gods, and argues from this fact to the 
rejection of all foreign gods, including those which have been to a certain 
extent naturalized, such as Isis. It makes nonsense to say if we were to 
reject them, we shall reject the others . 

48. Ino : see above 39. 

Pasiphae : she is really a lunar goddess (as the name denotes), and was 
worshipped under the form of a white cow. Oracles were given in dreams 
at her temple in Sparta (Div. i 96). It is true the genealogy of the Spartan 
goddess differs from that of the Cretan, see above 54. 

et Aeeta e Perseide, Oceani filia, nati : so Sch. Opusc. in 347 foil, 
corrects the MS reading et eae e Perside Oceani filiae natae. When the 
name Aeeta had got corrupted, the gender of nati would naturally be 
altered. ,(Madv. however, on Fin. n 94, denies that the form Aeeta is used 
by Cic. in the Nom.) Aeetes is again referred to just below and in 54 ; 
otherwise I should have preferred to read Aeaea, as nearer to the MS, un 
derstanding by it Calypso, who is called Aeaea puella by Prop, iv 11. 31, 
and was also a sister of Circe according to Tzetzes on Lycophr. 174, 798, 
5e Atf/ rou icai AXcoecoy, tfroi HXi ou Ovyarepes KipKTj Kal HaaHfyar), 

frepovs Se /cat KaXw|/ i a>. 

Circen quoque Circeienses colunt : cf. Horn. Od. x 135 Alaiijv 5 <V 



134 BOOK III CH. XIX 48. 



vfjcrov d(pLK<j[J.6 tvQa 6 evaifv Kipicr) eiJTrAoKa/uos- d(ivr) 6fus avdrjeo-o-a, avro- 
KCHTiyviJTTj 6\oo<ppovos Atr/rao" ap,(pa) S fK.yeya.Trjv <^>aeo"i///3porou HeXioto 
prjrpos T CK Hepa-Tjs, rrjv *&Keavbs reVe TralSa. Livy (l 49 9) speaks of 
Octavius Mamilius as db Ulixe deaque Circe oriundus, and the Italian 
connexion of Circe was known to Hesiocl, Theog. 1013, she bore to 
Odysseus "AypLov tfde \arlvov... ,Trj\eyov6v re eViKre...ot 5 TJTOI p.a\a rfj\f /-tu^w 
vriatov lepacov nacriv Tvpcryvolcriv dya.K.\eiTOi<Tiv avao O OV . Strabo (v 3 6) 
mentions a temple of Circe at Circeii in which it was reported that the cup 
of Ulysses was shown as a relic. Theophrastus (//. PI. v 8) says that in 
his time the Homeric island had become a promontory, and that the people 
of Circeii still pointed out the grave of Elpenor ; cf. also Apollon. in 312, 
Virg. Aen. vn 10 foil. According to Westphal Rom. Camp. p. 60 (cited by 
Sch.) the name Circe still survives in the popular tradition. 

quoq[ue : i. e. as well as Matuta. 

Medeae : according to Athenagoras 12, she was spoken of as a goddess 
by Hesiocl and Alcman. Silius Ital. vin 498 and Serv. ad Aen. vn 750 
identify her with the goddess Anguitia worshipped by the Marsi : 
Macrobius Sat. I 12 26 says that others thought her to be the Bona Dea. 
She is originally a lunar deity, see Preller Gr. N. n 318. 

duobus avis : as this is not exceptional, Allen suggests that dis may 
have been lost before duobus. Or is it an abbreviated way of saying two 
such grandfathers as Sol and Oceanus ? 

Idyia : cf. Hes. Theog. 958 Altjrrjs 6 vios (paeo-ip-ppurov HeXioio Kovprjv 
y l,Kfavol.o Tf\r]fVTos Trora^oTo yfjp-e 6ea>v j3ov\f]O iv idvlav Ka\\irraprjov, who 
bore him Medea . The whole family were supposed to possess magical 
powers. 

Absyrto : said by Eur. Ned. 1334 to have been put to death by Medea 
before her flight, but the more common tradition was that he was cut to 
pieces on the flight in order to detain the pursuers, and that Tomi received 
its name because the severed limbs were there collected and buried. He is 
called Aegialeus by Diod. iv 45 and Justin XLII 3, as well as in the play of 
Pac. here referred to, probably the Medus (so named from the son of 
Medea). Preller Gr. J/. p. 335 suggests that Abs. was originally a personi 
fication of the morning star. 

vereor quid agat : I have my fears as to what will become of Ino 
( what she is to do ), cf. Att. ix 17 2 Tiro ita scripsit, ut verear quid 
agat. 

49. an Amphiaraus : or (if we hold to the divinity of Ino) do we 
mean to make Amph. a god ? cf. n 7 n. 

Trophonius : cf. 56. He is called Juppiter Trophonius by Liv. XLV 
27, Strabo ix p. 414. His oracle at Lebadeia in Boeotia was the most 
famous of all the shrines of heroes ; it was consulted by Croesus (Herod. 
I 46), and Mardonius (ib. vin 134), and was one of the few at which 
responses were still given in the time of Plutarch (Def. Orac. 5) and Celsus 
(Grig. c. Cds. vn p. 355) ; cf. Div. I 74 cum apud Lebadiam Trophonio res 



BOOK III CH. XIX 49. 135 

divina fieret, and Diet, of Ant. s. v. Oraculum. Dicaearchus wrote a book 
TTfpl rfjs els TpocpcoWou Kara/Sao-eoor, mentioned by Cic. Att. vi 2 3. In 
Tusc. I 114 the story is told of Trophonius and his brother Agamedes 
building the temple of Apollo at Delphi and receiving at his hands death 
as the best reward. 

lege censoria : it was a part of the duty of the censors to let out 
the various branches of the revenue to the publicani for five years on 
certain conditions (leges censoriae), which were published before the 
biddings commenced, cf. Verr. v 53, m 12, Quint. Fr. i 1 12. The 
tribute imposed on foreign countries often took the form of a land tax ; 
on the other hand the expenses of the temple services were partly defrayed 
from the sacred lands, cf. Harpocr. s.v. ano /iio-0a>ju.aro)i/ p. 24, Xen. Anab. 
v 3 13 (describing a temple he had built near his house at Scillus) 
o~Tr /\r) O~TT]K Trapa TOV vaov ypa/z/zctra e%ovo~a, lepos 6 ^copoy TTJS Apre- 
fjudos TOV de e^oira /cat Kapnov pevov TJjv p>ev dcfcartyP Karadveiv 
fKCHTTOV erovs, fK 8e TOV rrepiTTOv TOV vaov liri o-Kevd fiv eav Se 
TIS IJ-T) TToiTj TavTa, riy 6f<o /MeX^cret. Mr Swainson notes that 
lands belonging to temples in India are exempt from taxation. The 
publicani, who had purchased the revenues of the province, were 
naturally disposed to abridge any exceptions made from the tax-paying 
area. 

negabant immortales : cf. i 38 n. 

Erechtheus : see below 50. Being hard pressed by Eumolpus and 
the Eleusinians, he consulted the oracle and was assured of victory if one 
of his daughters volunteered to die. The youngest at once offered herself, 
and her two sisters would not survive her. Eumolpus being defeated and 
slain, his father Poseidon persuaded Zeus to destroy Erechtheus with 
a thunderbolt, or, according to another account, himself slew him with 
his trident. In consequence of this Er. and his daughters were honoured 
as divinities. Cic. is fond of quoting him as an example of patriotism, 
cf. Tusc. I 116 clarae mortes pro patria oppetitae non solum gloriosae 
rhetoribus sed etiam beatae videri solent. Repetunt ab Erechtheo, cujus etiam 
filiae cupide mortem expetiverunt pro vita civium ; Codrum commemorant, 
qui se in medios immisit hostes veste famulari, ne posset agnosci, si esset 
ornatu regio, quod oraculum erat datum, si rex interfectus esset, mctrices 
Athenas fore, foil. ; Sest. 48, Fin. v 62. Euripides composed a tragedy 
on the subject, from which Lycurgus c. Leocr. p. 160 gives a long 
quotation. Erechtheus is often confounded with Erichthonius, son of 
Hephaestus. 

vidimus : for other allusions of Cic. to his stay in Greece, cf. above 
46 of Hecate, 59 Venus at Elis. Part of the Erechtheum is still 
standing, see Diet, of Ocog. I p. 275. 

de Codro : Erechtheus, like Jephthah, devoted his daughter ; Codrus 
devoted himself, cf. Lycurg. I.e. p. 158. Augustine says that he received 
divine honours, C. D. xvm 19. 



13G BOOK III CH. XIX 40. 

pugnantes ceciderunt : cf. Mil. 80 Oraeci homines deorum honores 
tribuunt Us viris qui tyrannos necaverunt ; Demosth. F. Leg. 280 Ap/zo8iou 
ACOI A.pi(TToycLTovos...ovs vofJKp Sta ray evfpyf(rias...fv aTratri Tols lepoTy fir\ Tais 
dvcriais (nrovSoiv Ka\ Kparijpatv KOIVWVOVS TTfTroirjade KCU aSere Kai rt/zare e 
l(r ov rots rjpoHTi KCU Tols 6fols, Thuc. v 11 with Arnold s n., on the worship 
paid to Brasidas. 

50. augendae virtutis gratia : cf. above 15 on o-rpar^y^/xa. 
Lactantius (i 15) reads acuendae v. g. 

Leo natarum : so I read with Lamb, for the Leonaticum of MSS, 
which may perhaps have crept in here from below, see next note. The 
form Leontidum, read by Sch., is never found for the daughters of Leos. 
He was one of the eponymous heroes of Athens, who was believed to have 
sacrificed his daughter in order to avert a plague, cf. Aelian V. H. xn 28, 
pseudo-Demosth. Epitaph, p. 1398 rj^Kofaav Acovridai (the members of 
the tribe Leontis) p.u$oAoyoup.eWs ras AetoKopas 1 , cos auras edocrav a(pdyiGV 
rols TToXirais vTrep Trjs x^P as - ^ n Diod. xvii 15 Phocion calls on Demo 
sthenes to imitate ray Aea> Kopas (so Wesseling) and deliver himself up for 
the common good. 

AewKopiov, id est Leonaticum : I have added the last three words, 
thinking that this is the easiest explanation of the reading Leonaticum 
above. The Leocorion is mentioned by Thuc. I 20, vi 57, Demosth. Conon 
p. 1258, cf. Diet, of Geog. i p. 299. 

Alabandum : see 39 n. [The story which follows is told in Babrius, 
fab. 15, of a Theban and Athenian disputing about the merits of Theseus 
and Hercules. J. E. B. M.] 

Stratonicus : a famous Athenian musician of the time of Alexander. 
Among other witticisms of his recorded by Athen. vm 348352, we are 
told that being once asked how many pupils he had , he replied avv rols 
6fols ScoSfKa, i.e. two in addition to the statues of Apollo and the Muses 
which adorned the lecture-room (the natural meaning of the phrase being 
of course By the blessing of heaven, twelve ). 

Ch. xx 51. quae tu a caelo astrisctue ducefoas: your explana 
tion of the popular religion from astronomy , lit. those things which 
you derived from the heaven ; see n 68, also 54 and 59. For the con 
crete expression cf. in 18 quaeque in domo pulchra comparabas. 

quam longe serpant : cf. i 98. For the argument see Sext. ix 184 
quoted on undefluxerunt above 46. 

Solem deum esse : clause in apposition explaining ilia. 

QUOdsi ergo : the apodosis is introduced by ergo here, as by igitur 
above 30. 

numerum obtinebunt : cf. Brut. 175 aliquem numcrum obtinebat held 
a certain position ; Div. in Caec. 62 parentis numcro esse to be reckoned 
as a father ; Phil, in 16 homo nullo numero ; so often locum obtinere. 

ArCLui species : Lucretius has the same form vi 526 ; cf. arquati ib. 
iv 333, rtrgvitcncns Naev. 1. 58, Att. 1. 52, 167 Ribh. According to Nonius 



BOOK III CH. XX 51. 137 

p. 425 this form is only used of the rainbow. Sch. compares the archaic 
genitives senati, tumulti, sumpti &c. Species seems to be used, as in n 96, 
100, the beauty of the rainbow for the beautiful rainbow . 

in numero reponatur : cf. n 54. 

speciem habeat : most edd. follow Ern. in reading habet, which of 
course would be quite right here, as the speaker has already expressed his 
agreement with the sentiment here uttered ; but there seems no reason 
why he may not repeat it simply as the reason assigned by the mytholo- 
gists for their genealogy. I have therefore kept to the MS reading with 
Mu. To understand the argument we must remember that admirabilem 
= Gr. 0av/jLao~Trjv. [Virgil calls her Thaumantias, Aen. ix 5. Swainson.] 

Thaumante dicitur Iris esse nata : the insertion of Iris is necessary 
to explain the gender of nata. It would be easily lost between dicitur and 
esse. Hesiod (Theog. 265) makes Thaumas and Electra, daughter of Oceanus, 
the parents not only of Iris but of other marvels of nature, whirlwinds, 
Harpyes &c. ; cf. Plato s interpretation of the myth (Theaet. 155) p.a\a yap 
<pi\oo-6(pov TOVTO TO Trades, TO 6avp.afiv, ov yap a\\r) apx*} 
77 cum;, KOL eoiKev o TTJV Ipw Qavp-avTos tuyovov <pjo~as ov KOKCOS 
i. e. the message from heaven only comes to those who are quick to wonder 
and admire, cf. the quotation from Aristotle in II 95. 

quid facies nubibus : what are you to make of the clouds? cf. 
Draeg. 243. The Dat. is used after facio with much the same force, see 
below 62. 

arcus e nubibus efficitur : cf. Seneca JV. Q. i 3 1 1 illud dubium 
esse nulli potest quin arcus imago soils sit roscida et cava nube concepta, 
who quotes a certain Artemiclorus as saying color illi igneus a sole esf, 
caeruleus a nube, ceteri utriusque mixturae (ib. 4 4) ; again in eadem 
sententia sum qua Posidonius, ut arcum judicem fieri nube formata in 
modum concavi speculi et rotundi, cui forma sit partis e pila secta ; but 
this view of the rainbow, as caused by reflexion, was opposed by 
others who thought the cloud itself was coloured by the sun, videmus 
nubes aliquando ignei coloris: quid ergo prohibet, quo modo hunc unum 
colorem accipiunt soils occursu, sic multos ab illis trahi, quamms non 
habeant speculi potentiam? cf. Ammianus XX 11 26 foil, and Ideler s 
n. on Arist. Meteor, in 4 1. The correct explanation is given in Plac. 
Phil in 5. 

Centauros peperisse : according to the fable of Ixion. The Centaurs 
were hence called Nubigenae. The fable is referred to as showing that the 
clouds were regarded as persons, and had therefore as good a claim to be 
deified as any of the preceding ; cf. Aristoph. Nubes 263 foil., Juv. xiv 91 
nil praeter nubes et cadi nurtien odor ant with Mayor s n. In I 105, n 5 we 
have the fuller form Hippocentaurus : the shorter form occurs again below 
70. 

tempestates : cf. Aen. v 772 tempestatibus aynam caedere dein.de jubet, 
Arist. Ranae 847 apv apva p.t\ava rraiftfs f ^ei /ycarf, Tv<pws yap 



138 BOOK III CH. XX 51. 

rrapao-Kfva&Tai, Ov*. Fast, vi 193 te quoque, Tempestas, meritam delubra 
fatemur, cum paene est Corsis obruta classis aquis, i.e. in B.C. 259 by L. 
Corn. Scipio in consequence of his conquest of Corsica. The memory of 
it is preserved by the inscription on his tomb, Wilmanns Inscr. 538. 

immolare : so Scip. Africanus on embarking for Africa, after the 
offering of prayers (Liv. xxix 27), cruda exta victimae, uti mos est, in mare 
porricit, tubaque signum d edit proficiscendi ; Aen. v 382 (the vow of Aeneas) 
cxtaque salsos porriciam in fluctus; cf. Herod, vn 189 of sacrifices offered 
to Boreas, and Time, vi 32 with mi. 

52. gerendo : if you rightly derive her name from the bearing of 
fruit, she is the earth , cf. II 67 n. In the original it would be, as in Sext. 
Emp. IX 189 el 77 A^ry r^p deos eari, /cat T; yf) 6fos (TTLV ij yap Ar^TJ/p, 
(pacriv, OVK a AAo ri ecrnv rj yrj p,r]Tr)p. Sextus continues et r) yrj 6eos eort, KCU 
TO. oprj KOI al aKpcoTrjpiat KOL TTCLS Ai$or carat deos. 

TellllS : a temple was dedicated to her at Rome by P. Sempronius 
268 B.C., in performance of a vow made during an earthquake ; cf. Ov. 
Fast. I 671 placentur matrcs frugum Tellusque Ceresque,...ojjicium commune 
Ceres et Terra tuentur ; Hor. Ep. n 1. 143; Macrob. Sat. iv 9 12 (form 
of oath) Tellus mater teque Juppiter obtestor. Cum Tellurem dicit, manibus 
terrain tangit ; cum Jovem dicit, manus ad caelum tollit. 

Fontis delubrum : Fons or Fontus was a son of Janus, and had an 
altar near the tomb of Numa on the Janiculum (Cic. Leg. n 56). He was 
worshipped by the Fratres Arvales in the formula Yirginibus Divis, famu- 
lis Divis, Laribus, Natri Larum, Fonti, Florae (Wilmanns 2884, 2885). 
At the festival of the Fontanalia held in October the wells were crowned 
and garlands thrown into them (Varro L. L. vi 22). All springs were 
sacred, as Servius says (Aen. vn 84) propter attributos illis deos ; see above 
II 10 on nulla peremnia ; Hor. Od. iv 13 fons Bandusiac; Plin. Ep. vni 8 
of Clitumnus ; Juv. in 13 of the fount and grove of Egeria ; Tac. Ann. I 79. 

Maso : C. Papirius Maso defeated the Corsicans B.C. 231, and cele 
brated his triumph on the Alban Mt, as the Senate refused to grant him 
a triumph at Rome. Does ex Corsica mean in consequence of his Corsican 
victory (like Scaur. 40 damnatus est Megaboccus ex Sardinia}; or out of 
his Corsican spoils (like 83 below aureo amiculo Jovem ornarat ex 
manubiis. Suet. Oct. 52 argenteas statuas confiamt omnes, ex queis aureas 
cortinas dedicavit, Liv. XLIII 4 6 aquam ex manubiis Antium.,.duceret, 
ib. 7 tabulis pictis ex praeda fanum exornavit, ib. 5 8 munera mitti 
legatis ex binis millibus aeris censuerunt) 1 

augurum precatione : a litany contained in the Libri Augur ales 
(above n 11), described by Festus as extremely obscure and antiquated 
in language, cf. p. 351 bene sponsis beneque volis (Miiller s conj. for the 
evidently incorrect volueris of the Cod.) in precatione augurali Messala 
augur ait signijicare spoponderis, volucris"* ; ib. 161 Marspedis sive 
sine r litter a i ma$pedis in precatione solitaurilium quid signified, ne 
Messala quidem augur in explicatione auguriorum reperirc se potuisse 



BOOK III CH. XX 52. 139 

ait. The precatio here referred to is probably a part of the augurium 
salutis taken yearly by the augurs in time of peace, on which see Div. I 
105, Leg. n 21, Suet. Oct. 31, Tac. Ann. xn 23, Dio Cass. xxxvn 24, Serv. 
ad Aen. xn 176 precatio maxima est cumplures deos, quam in ceteris partibus 
auguriorum, precatur, eventusque rei bonae poscitur ; ib. in 265 invocatio 
est precatio uti avertantur mala, cujus rei causa id sacrijicium augurale 
peragitur, Marquardt Rom. St. ill 391. If in the precatio maxima all the 
gods were cited, we may suppose that even the smaller springs and rivers 
would be included. 

Tiberinum : according to Varro L. L. v 71 Tiberinus was the title of 
the deity as distinguished from the river. 

Almonem : a correction for the MS anemonem. The Almo was a small 
stream running into the Tiber just below the walls of Rome : the grotto 
which was built over its source is still in existence, containing the muti 
lated image of the deity of the stream. The Almo is chiefly known in 
connexion with the worship of Cybele, whose image brought from Pessinus 
was landed at its junction with the Tiber in B.C. 204, and was regularly 
washed there once a year, see Diet, of Geog. s. v. 

Spinonem, Nodinum : these streams are not mentioned elsewhere : 
no doubt they were in the immediate neighbourhood of the city, and were 
therefore included in the ancient litany of the augurs. The more insigni 
ficant they were in themselves, the more appropriate would they be for 
the purpose of Cotta s argument. 

in immensum serpet : see above 51 quam longe serpant, and com 
pare the Aristotelian phrase els a-ntipov Trpofia-iv or /SaStetrat Eth. I 2, Gael. 
ill 5 &c. 

B e. (4). No less absurd are the deified abstractions of the Stoics, 
and their whole system of alley or ization with its strained etymologies. 
61 64. (For the transposition of see above 42 n. on ut jam 
docebo.) 

Ch. xxiv 61. rerum vim: they are abstractions, not persons , 
cf. below 63 rerum naturas, II 147 n., n 61 ipsa res cleorum nomen obti- 
nuit ; Max Muller Lect. n p. 560 foil. ; Limburg Brouwer Civ. des Grecs 
c. xi, vol. n p. 123 foil. ( Mythologie Morale ). 

mentem : cf. above 47, and below 88. As we find in the latter 
passage a distinction made between Mens, Virtus and Fides on the one 
hand, which are said to be in nobis ipsis sita, and Spes, Solus, Ops, Victo 
ria on the other, which are bestowed by divine favour, Walker proposed 
to transpose ut spes here, placing it after nobis sunt ; but it is plain that, 
hope may be regarded either way, i.e. either subjectively as a feeling, or 
objectively as the occasion or ground of the feeling. Compare Lact. i 20 
haec separari ab homine non possunt : si enim colenda sunt, in homine ipso 
sint necesse est : si autem sunt extra hominem, quid opus est ea colcre quibus 



140 BOOK III CH. XXIV 61. 

careamus ? Virtus colenda est, nan imago virtutis, et colenda non sacrificio 
aliquo. . .sed voluntate sola. 

intellegam, cum cognovero : I shall know, when I have learnt , i.e. 
I am unable at present to see ; perhaps you may be able to enlighten my 
ignorance . Perhaps ex te has been lost before cognovero. 

fortuna : see n. on sortes above 14, and below 63 on the worship of 
Mala Fortuna, also Juv. x 365 nullum numen habes si sit prudentia ; nos 
te, nos facimus, fortuna, deam, Preller It. M. p. 552 foil., and for the Stoic 
view, Seneca Ben. iv 8 naturam voca, fatum, fortunam, omnia ejusdem dei 
nomina sunt varie utentis sua potestale ; Cic. Acad. I 29 mentem sapientiam- 
que perfectam, quern deum appellant,... non numquam eandem fortunam, 
quod efficiat midta improvisa ac necopinata nobis propter obscuritatem igno- 
rationemque causarum . 

nemo ab inconstantia sejunget : cf. n 43 fortunam, quae arnica 
varietati constantiam respuit ; n 56 nulla in caelo nee fortuna &c. 

quae digna : for the Neut. instead of Fern. cf. n 7 n. and Madv. 
315 a. 

62. enodatio : unravelling , only found elsewhere in Top. 31 
(notio = 7rp6\r]\lsis) est insita et praecepta...cognitio, enodationis indigcns; but 
the verb enodo is common both in the older writers, Attius, Pacuvius, 
Ennius, and in Cicero, as below in enodandis nominibus, and Fin. v 27 
haec nobis explicanda sunt, sed, si enodatius, vos ignoscetis ; so Cell, xm 10 
ad enodandos juris laqueos. 

sapientes videantur : i 41, n 64 physica ratio non inelegans inclusa 
est in impias fabulas. 

quod miserandum ^\\> ut id miserandum sit Ho a pitiable degree , 
so that it makes one grieve to see you ; cf. Or at. I 40 aetas nostra, quod 
interdiun pudeat, juris ignara est, Eoby 1690. 

Saturnus : sc. sic appellatur ; cf. n 64. We have here the same con 
temptuous brevity as in 11 above. For the following etymologies cf. n 
6469. 

haerebitis : as Socrates says in the Pkaedrus p. 229. 

quid Vejovi facies : what will you do for V.? 1 how will you treat 
this name? cf. Acad. n 96 quid faceret huic conclusioni with Reid s n. and 
Roby 1223. We had the Abl. quid facies nubibus above 51. Ovid 
(Fast, in 429 foil.) describes the festival of Vejovis at the temple inter 
duos lucos on the Nones of March, Juppiter estjuvenis:juvenales aspice vultus; 
aspice deinde manum; fulmina nulla tenet. ..Nunc vocor ad nomen : vegrandia 
farra coloni, quae male crcverunt, vescaque parva vocant. Vis ea si verbi est, 
cur non ego Vejovis aedem, aedem non mayni suspicer esse Jovis? Gellius 
v 12, after giving the derivation Jovis from juvo, continues eum quoque 
contra deum qui non juvandi potestatem, sed vim nocendi haberet... Vejovem 
appellaverunt dempta atque detracta juvandi facultate (ve having a privative 
force); simulacrum igitur dei Vejovis... sagittas tenet, quae sunt videlicet 
paratae ad nocendum. He was an ancient Sabine and Latin deity (Yarro 



BOOK III CU. XXIV 62. 141 

L. Z. v 74) worshipped at Alba Longa and Bovillae, and especially invoked 
as the god of expiations. His name occurs along with those of other 
deities of the under world in an old formula of imprecation (devotio) cited 
by Macrobius Sat. in 9. See Preller R. M. p. 234. The statement in 
Diet, of Biog. that he was an Etruscan god rests merely on a doubtful 
reading in Amm. Marc, xvn 10. 

Vulcano : no satisfactory etymology has yet been proposed : Varro 
derived it from ignis violentia (L. L. v TO), Isidore vni 11 39 from 
volans candor, quasi volicanus, quod per aerem volat, see Preller R. J/. 
p. 526. 

Una littera : as far as one letter is concerned , cf. Phil. II 23 non tu 
quidem tota re, sed, quod maximum est, temporibus errasti, Eoby 1210. 
[We might also take it by means of a single letter , i.e. one letter according 
to you is enough to determine the origin of a name. R.] Mr Swainsbn 
cites Voltaire L etymologie est une science ou les voyelles ne font rien et 
les consonnes fort peu de chose . 

explicare : in A cad. I 32 tVv/ioXo-yia is translated by verborum expli- 
catio. 

natare : we may keep up the metaphor, though with a slight change 
of meaning, by our phrase to be more at sea , cf. Hor. Sat. II 7. 6 pars 
hominum vitiis gaudet constanter et urget propositum ; pars multa natat, 
modo recta capessens, interdum pravis obnoxia ; Sen. Ep. 35 4 mutatio 
voluntatis indicat animum natare, aliubi atque aliubi apparere prout tulit 
ventus; St James I 6 o diaKpLi/o/j-evos eotxe K\v8a>vi da\d(r(Tr)$ ave/ztb/ieVw 
/cat piTTt^o/xe i/w, so fluctuo and fluito. [Manil. iv 254 mutataque semper 
mens natat, Optat. v 3 with inter. J. E. B. M.] 

63. magnam molestiam suscepit reddere : either the gerund in 
-di or ut with the Subj. would have been more regular, but the Inf. is 
excused by the distance from the governing phrase, which has the general 
force of conor or cupio ; cf. Ac. II 17 nee esse ullam rationem disputare, 
Verr. II 41 capit consilium non adesse ad judicium, Draeg. 416, Sail. 
Cat. 17 6 quibus vel magni/ice vel molliter vivere copia erat, Caesar B. (J. 
vn 26 consilium ceperunt profugere, Madv. 389, 417 obs. 2, Zumpt 598. 

Zeno : cf. I 36 cum Hesiodi Theogoniam interpretatur, tollit omnino 
usitatas perceptasque cognitiones deorum. 

Cleanthes : cf, Zeller iv pp. 325, 328 (where he mentions his treatise 
on the battles of the gods), 329 (his etymology of the name Apollo), 331 
(of the name Dionysus). 

Chrysippus : cf. I 40 aethera esse eum quern homines Jovem appellarent, 
II 63 hie locus a Zenone tractatus, post a Cleanthe et Chrysippo pluribus 
verbis explicatus est. 

rerum naturas non figuras deorum: properties of things, not 
divine persons , see above 61 rerum vim. 

Ch. xxv. perniciosis rebus : cf. 11 61 vocabula consecrata sunt mtio- 
sarum rerum n. 



14-2 BOOK III CIT. XXV 

Orbonae ad aedem Larum : the first two words are omitted in all 
Orelli s MSS, but they are given in Ed. Bonon. of 1494, as well as by 
Manutius and Lamb, from MSS of Maffaeus and Sigonius ; and it is evident 
that they are needed to justify the appearance of aedem Larum among the 
exx. of a worship of evil ; cf. Plin. N. II. n 7 probably copied from Cic., 
(men in their terror have made their prayers to diseases and plagues) 
ideoque etiam publiee Febris fanum in palatio dicatum est, Orbonae ad 
aedem Larium ct ara Nalae Fortunae Esquiliis. There were three chapels 
to Febris at Koine (indicating the prevalence of the Roman fever in ancient 
days), cf. Val. Max. n 5 6 Febrem ad minus nocendum templis colebant, 
quorum adliuc unum in Palatio, alter um in arcu Marianorum monumen- 
torum, tertium in summa parte Viei Longi cxstat, in caque remedia, quae 
corporibus aegrorum adnexa fuerant, deferebantur. [Minuc. 25 8 Ouzel, 
Ael. V. II. xii 11 Periz. J. E. B. M.] On the worship of these maleficent 
deities see Leg. II 28 araque vetusta in Palatio Febris et alt era Esquiliis 
Nalae Fortunae detestanda, atque omnia ejus modi repudianda sunt ; 
Lact. I 20 respondebit Graccia se olios deos colere ut prosint, alios ne 
noceant. Ilaec enim semper excusatio est corum qui mala sua pro dis 
habent, ut Romani Rubigincm ac Febrem. Orbona is said by Tertullian 
(Ad. Nat. ii 14) to have been so called as causing bereavement, quae in 
orbitatem semina (lumina Preller R. J/. p. 587) exstinguat ; but Arnobius 
(iv 7) makes her the patroness of parents who have lost their children, in 
tutela sunt Orbonae orbati liberis parentes. . 

Larum : w r e read of two temples to the Lares, one to the Lares Pcr- 
marini in the Campus Martins, dedicated by M. Aernilius B.C. 179, in 
fulfilment of a vow made in the naval battle fought against Antiochus at 
Myonnesus (Liv. XL 52) ; the other dedicated to the Lares Publici, which is 
probably referred to here, was at the top of the Via Sacra (Solinus I 23). 

Malae Fortunae : cf. Plant. Rud. n 6. 17 Malam Fortunam in aedes te 
adduxi meas. We have other distinguishing epithets in Leg. 11 28 vel 
Ilujusce Diei,vel Respiciens, velFors, vel Primigenia, also Dubia and Viscata 
in Preller R. M. p. 558 foil. 

Esq.uiliis : used as a Locative without in, as in Liv. I 28 1, Leg. 11 28 
cited above, where it is contrasted with in Palatio. 

64. a philosophia : banished from philosophy . 

indigna naturis immortalibus : I prefer this correction of Madvig s 
to Mu. s indigna Us, as being nearer the MBS, and bringing out better the 
point of the objection. 

habeo quid sentiam : I can tell what to think myself, but I cannot 
tell how to assent to your views . There is no reason for changing quid 
into quod, cf. above 6 habcs quid Cotta sentiat; Murena 26 quid respond- 
eret non habcbat ; Att. vn 19 (after nihil habeo quod ad te scribam] de 
pueris quid agam non habeo ; Of. II 7 nee habeat umquam quid sequatur, 
where Holden says habeo = scio is always followed by quid , Acad. II 11Q 
non deer it quid faciat. Heind, cites the Gr. OVK e x&> ri Ayw. 



BOOK III CH. XXV 64. 148 

animum cum intellegentia : cf. n 144 introitus cum Jlexibus, Caesar 
B. C. i 26 turres cum tabulatis with Kraner s n. 

idem de Cerere : and so for Ceres , of course mutatis mutandis, 
cf. ii 71. 

non modo sed ne quidem : cf. Koby 2240, and below in 68 ut 
scelus, sic ne ratio quidem defuit. 

aliunde possim : * I must seek elsewhere for proof both of the existence 
and the nature of the gods . 

quales tu vis : for conjectural completions of the sentence see Not. 
Crit. 

C. CRITICISM OF THE STOIC ARGUMENT IN PROOF OF THE 

PROVIDENTIAL GOVERNMENT OF THE UNIVERSE. 
(Only a few lines of this section have been preserved.) 

65. ex tua partitione : cf. above 6 and 8. 

mihi vero : cf. i 17, Div. 11 110 de quibus, si placet, disseremus. Mild 
vero, inquit, placet, Nagelsb. 197 2. 

sed sumemus fateare : the reading can hardly be right here. There 
is no opposition between nolo and sumemus to justify sed, and we ought to 
have had an object-clause with fateare. Possibly there is an intended 
break in the construction after sed, the following words being introduced 
parenthetically : possibly also the sed after fateare is a corruption of the 
first syllable of an object-clause. The hiatus which follows covers the 
whole of the third section (on Providential government generally) and part 
of the fourth (on the special care for man). 

D. CRITICISM OF THE STOIC ARGUMENT IN PROOF OF THE PROVIDENTIAL 

CARE FOR MAN. 6693. 

(The first part is lost.) 

a. The gift of reason is an injury rather than a benefit 66 
78 : (1) proved by examples from tragedy 66 68 : (2) it is only 
right reason which is a benefit, and this is so rare that we cannot 
derive it from God, who would never be guilty of partiality. 
69, 70. 

necLuaquam istuc : the lines are trochaic tetrameter catalectic, trans 
lated from Eur. Ned. 365 aXX ovn ravrrj ravra, fj.rj SoKeire TTCO tr etar 
ayaJyey rot? i/eaxrri vvp.<pLOi$, KOI rouri KT/Seuo-acriv ov cr/ziKpot TTOVOL. doKfts yap 
av /ze Tov8e $a>7rei(rai nore, fl prf TI Kfpdaivovo a.v rj re^^co/xe i/Tyi/ ; If the lines 
are literally translated, ut supplicarem must depend on something omitted ; 
otherwise we may take it in the sense egone ut supplicarem, as Plaut. Trin. 
in 3. 21 ut ego nunc adolescenti thensaurum indicem ? 

blandiloquentia : [found also in Hil. in Ps. 139 ; blandiloqens is used 
by Laberius ap. Macr. S. II 7 3, blandiloquium by Aug. J. E. B. M.]. 



144 HOOK in (ur. xxv 

Blandiloquus and blandiloquentulus are used by Plautus; and suavilo- 
quentia occurs in Brut. 58. 

ni ob rem : so I read for the ni orbem or niobem of MSS. Cf. Ter. 
Phorm. in 2. 41 non pudet vanitatis? Minume, dum ob rem. In this way 
the speech gets something of a ratiocinative character answering to the ft 
\LY] TL KepSaii ovo-av of Euripides. 

Ch. xxvi GO. parumne ratiocinari : is there any lack of reasoning 
here? This is the opposite of Medea s own feeling. She attributes the 
murder of her children to the might of passion overpowering reason, Med. 
1079 OV/JLOS Se K.peicra av TU>V e /xcof j3ov\fv/J.( iTu>v, ocnrep fJ.yiarra)V aiVio? xa/ceoj/ 
PpoTols. The Medea of Ennius is often cited by Cic. e.g. Fat. 35, Cad. 18, 
Invent. I 91, Top. 61, Tusc. I 4(5, in 63, iv 69, Off. in 62, Fin. I 4, Orat. m 
217, Rabir. 29, Fam. vii 6. It is probable that most of the following 
citations are from it, cf. below 75, and 72. 

nefariam pestem : the loss of her children. 

qui volt esse quod volt dabit : where there s a will there s a way , 
lit. he who (really) wishes what he wishes, finds things going as he would 
have them . Compare Caesar s words of Brutus (Cic. Att. xiv 1) quicquid 
vult valde milt ; and for the phrase, Att. in 23 ut se initia dederint per- 
scribas, Ter. Hec. in 3. 20 omnibus nobis ut dant se res, ita magni atque 
humiles sumus. 

ssminator : this rare word occurs also in 11 86, [and in Lact. v 2, 
Ambr. Ifrrc. in 44, Jul. in Aug. c. Jul. i. 9 : seminatrix is found in Aug. 
Hieron. &c. J. E. B. M.] As to the principle condemned, its effect is to 
make a man trust to the force of the individual will in spite of external 
difficulties. Whether it is for good or ill, depends on the motive, but 
nothing great is likely to be achieved without it. 

ille: 1st syllable short, as usually in Plautus, see Wagner Aulul. p. 4o 2 , 
who refers to Corssen 11 624 for exx. 

traversa mente : misguided , with purpose all awry , cf. Cato Orig. 
v 1 (ap. Gell. vn 3 14) secundae res laetitia transvorsum trudere solent <i 
recte consulendo atque intellegendo, Quintil. x 1 110 (of Cicero) cum trans- 
vcrsum vi suajudicem ferat, tamcn ille non rapi videatur, scd sequi. 

tradidit repagula : put the keys into my hand , lit. delivered up 
the fastenings, or bolts (pango). See Rich s. v., and Div. I 74 valvae 
clausae repagulis. [ Marquardt (Priv. Alt. p. 225) describes them as two 
hooks, which hung in a staple on each of the doorposts and were fixed in 
a firm ring on the inner side of each of the folding doors. They were used 
instead of a cross bar (sera). He also quotes Festus p. 281 repagula sunt, 
ut Verrius ait, quae patefaciundi gratia qua ita Jiguntur ut ex contrario 
quae oppanguntur, which being evidently corrupt, he proposes to read 
(after ait) ita ( as well ) quae patefaciundi gratia Jiguntur ut &c, ; under 
standing the former class of repagulum as a door handle. Accepting this 
emendation we might take repagula in the present passage as referring 
to some sort of hook, which was used (like a key) to open the door, not to 



BOOK III CH. XXVI 66. 

shut it . R.] Becker (Gallus tr. p. 282 foil.) referring to the same passage, 
concludes from it that the rep. " allowed of the door being opened with less 
trouble than by the sera, and that, as the name occurs only in the plural, 
a cross beam is not denoted by it, but two bolts meeting from opposite 
sides (usually of wood, Plin. N. H. xvi 42 82)". Rich has an engraving 
of this (Comp. p. 549). As it is plain that both explanations are merely 
guesses, it is worth while to consider whether anything may be learnt 
from an examination of the word itself. Repagulum might be used either 
of that which fixes back , or of that which unfixes , unfastens , such as 
a key. It is hardly likely that the same word would be employed in two 
such opposite senses : the passage in Festus is ambiguous, and in any case 
we cannot be sure that Verrius may not have invented a meaning to suit 
this particular line. Moreover the fact that the plural form alone is found 
in this connexion, suits better with fastenings, such as Marquardt de 
scribes, than with a handle or key. I think also that the idea of fixing 
back suits better with his stays than with Becker s bolts. If however 
they were usually of wood, they could hardly be suspended from a ring 
fixed in the door : it would seem more natural to suppose that they were 
removable bars resting on sockets and placed obliquely between the folding 
doors and the posts. The word is also used of barriers in the race-course 
(Ovid. Met. n 155, Lucan I 295) : in Amm. Marc. 16. 12. 38 it occurs in 
the sing, with a metaphorical force, cum equites nihil praeter fugae circum- 
spectantes praesidia vidisset Caesar, concito equo velut repagulum quoddam 
cohibuit. As to the phrase rep. tradere, it would be most easily explained 
if it were the custom for these bars to be handed over to the conqueror as 
a sign of surrender when a town was taken. It might then be used meta 
phorically of any surrender. The word is used figuratively Verr. v 39 omnia 
repagula juris, pudoris, officiique per f ringer e. Medea refers to the reprieve 
she had extorted by her prayers and the use she means to make of it. 

quibus recludam : by making use of which I shall unlock (let loose) 
all my fury . Medea speaks as if her wrath were locked up in a chest by 
Creon s decree that she was to leave at once. The reprieve of a day 
(Eur. Med. 355) enables her to open this chest and let loose her fury. If 
we translate trad. rep. has put at my discretion the fastenings , then 
quibus by which fastenings , is loosely used for quibus traditis through the 
surrender of which I shall be able to unlock &c. llli probably Creon, cf. 
Med. 371 o & els rocroCroi/ p-copias d<piKeTo, COOT* ebv avr<a TO./JI 
yrjs fic(3aX6vTi K.T.\., and 394 ov yap . . .^aipoiv TLS UVT&V 

TriKpovs e yco o~<piv KOI \vypovs dijcr<0 ydp.ov$, niKpbv fie 
al (pvyas e^as -^Oovos. Ennius seems not to have perceived that 
was predicate to <pvyds as well as to Krjdos. 

hanc videlicet habent : this reason forsooth is something denied 
to beasts . 

67. munere affecti : see n. on i 38 honore afficere. 

postquam pater : cf. Manil. 22 ex eodem Ponto Medea ilia quondam 
AI. C. III. 10 



146 BOOK III CH. XXVI 67. 

profugisse dicitur, quam praedicant in fuga fratris sui membra in us locis 
qua se par ens persequeretur dissipavisse, ut eorum collectio dispersa maerorque 
patrius celeritatem persequendi retardaret. This part of the story is not 
touched on by Euripides, and the lines are perhaps taken from the Medea 
of Accius, cited above n 89, cf. Kibbeck Trag. Rel. p. 318. For a similar 
mixing up of tragedies on the same subject by different authors see Tusc. 
iv 69. 

ut comprehendatur parat : makes preparations for her being seized . 
We should rather have expected the Active, cf. n 23 confirmari and n. in 
Addenda. 

articulatim : joint by joint ; rarely found in this literal sense. 

id ea gratia: ( she did this) for this reason , for the sake of this , 
cf. II 27 n. on quam similitudinem, and Mayor on Phil, n 25. 

dum captaret : whilst the father should be picking up , for other exx. 
of dum, whilst , followed by Subj. see n 2 n. and Ac. n 87 dum con- 
quisierit. 

familiari parricidio : that the epithet is not otiose appears from the 
law of Numa in Festus under Parici Quaestores (p. 221 Mull.) si quis 
hominem liberum dolo sciens morti duit, paricida esto. [A law of Pompey s 
included parents, uncles, aunts, first cousins, near relations by marriage, 
and patrons, in the list of persons whose murder was punished as a 
parricidium, see Dig. 49 tit. 9, 1. 1. R.] Quintilian evidently regards the 
word as, in its original sense, equivalent to our parricide , cf. vm 6 34, 
where he is treating of Karaxprjo-is or abusio, quae non habentibus nomen 
suum accommodat quod in proximo est, and gives as an instance parricida 
which stands also for the murderer of mother or brother . 

68. ut scelus, sic ne ratio quidem : for the subaudition of the 
negative in the former clause, see I 3 sicut reliquae virtutes, item pietas 
inesse non potest ; and cf. non modo used for non modo non before ne 
quidem ; for the weak force of the latter phrase see Index. 

epulas comparans : see 1 112. 

majus miscendumst malum : I must brew a bigger bale . These are 
the wwds of Atreus deliberating how to avenge the wrong done by his 
brother Thyestes in seducing his wife Aerope : they are taken, like the 
three following quotations, from the Atreus of Accius, which we also find 
cited in Oral, in 218, Tusc. iv 77, Off. I 97, and in 102, Phil. I 34,Sext. 102, 
Plane. 59, Pis. 19, perhaps below 90. Alliteration was a marked feature 
of the Saturnian verse and generally of the older poetry of Rome, as 
of England. 

qui comprimam : by which to quell and crush his cruel spirit . 
For the use of compr. cf. Harusp. 55 ista serpens compressa atque illisa 
monetur ; for contundam Attius 1. 174 Ribb. ferum feroci contundendum 
imperiost. 

Ch. xxvu. ille ipse : Thyestes himself is another example of the 
misuse of reason. 



BOOK III CH. XXVII 68. 147 

illexe : so Plant. Merc. I 1. 53 amorem multos illexe in dispendium ; 
Sch. compares surrexe Hor. Sat. I 9. 73, divisse ib. n 3. 169, despexe Plaut. 
Mil. II 6. 72 ; Allen cites consumpse Lucr. I 234, abstraxe ib. in 650, sub- 
duxe Varro R. E. n 1, traxe Aen. v 786 ; see Roby 663. 

recte et verissime : for the combination of positive with superlative, 
comp. Gell. xx 1 aut obscurissima aut dura, with comparative Ac. n 94 Reid. 

piaclum : the reading of the MSS (periclum) would refer to the danger 
of the throne passing into the hand of a usurper qui regnum adulterio 
quaereret ; but as this is presented to us below as a different aspect of the 
crime of Thyestes, I prefer Allen s emendation piaclum. 

coinquinari : written conquinatae Colum. vin 5 19 ; cf. probeat 
for prohibeat Lucr. I 977. 

admisceri genus : Ribbeck s emendation ac misceri, accepted by edd., 
seems to me unnecessary and rather weak. I take the words to mean 
that an alien race was introduced (mixed up with the true stock) by 
adultery. 

at id ipsum quaereret : refers back to non sat habuit : the adultery 
was committed from motives of policy. The Subj. quaereret gives the rea 
son for collide. 

adde : I agree with Mu. in adopting this conjecture of Ribbeck s. The 
addo of MSS seems to me a prosaic and unnatural way of speaking. The 
following construction is not easy, if we retain the MS reading quern clam 
in the 4th line ; but quondam read by most edd. is surely very weak. 
There would be all the less ground for the wrath of Atreus, if the act 
which provoked it took place long ago. If we had the Demonstrative hunc 
clam, the construction would be simple, add that Thyestes stole the lamb 
given as the palladium of my sovereignty : with the Relative, we must 
take agnum as dependent on adde and explaining the relative clause 
quod misit ; and then the essential fact will be introduced, as it were 
incidentally, in the 2nd relative clause quern regia. Such looseness is 
not, I think, unnatural in early writing. Translate Add to this that 
marvel, which the fathers of the gods sent to me for an omen to establish 
my kingdom, a lamb amid my flocks shining with golden fleece, and that 
Thyestes dared to steal this from the palace . For the Inf. after Rel. cf. 
Roby 1781. 

[stabilimen : oV. Ary. stabilimentum occurs in Plaut., Plin. N. H., and 
several times in Val. Max. J. E. B. M.] 

agnum : Seneca Thi/est. 225 est Pelopis altis nobile in stabulis pecus, 
arcanus aries ductor opulenti gregis, cujus per omne corpus effuso coma 
dependet auro .. .possessor hujus regnat, hunc cunctae domus fortuna sequitur. 
The story is told in a chorus of Eur. Electra 700 foil. (Pan sent from the 
Argive hills a lamb with golden fleece /zaKapiW rvpawuv 0ao-/iaTa, Sei /iara): 
in the Orestes 995 foil, it is said that the lamb was sent by Hermes, in 
punishment for the murder of his son Myrtilus by Pelops, to cause the 
ruin of Atreus (see below 90). It is alluded to by Varro R. R. n 1 6 

102 



148 BOOK III CH. XXVII 68. 

pecudes propter caritatem aureas habuisse pelles tradiderunt, ut Argis Atreus, 
quam sibi Thyesten subduxe queritur ; and by Tarquitius on Tuscan augury, 
cited by Macrob. Sat. in 7 2 purpureo aureove colore ovis ariesve si 
aspergetur, principi ordinis et generis summa cum felicitate largitatem auget. 
Pausanias (n 18) mentions a stone figure of a ram on the grave of 
Thyestes (hence called of Kpioi) near Mycenae, ori TTJV apva o Qvtvrr]s et^e 



69. videturne : cf. n 70, and below 82 videsne igitur, Orat. n 62 
videtisne quantum munus sit orator is historia? where Wilkins says l -ne 
in this phrase is virtually equivalent to nonne, as often in Plautus and 
Terence, who do not use the fuller form , and refers to Kiihner n 1002 
and Reid on Senect. 31 ; (compare however Ribbeck Frag. Com. p. 119 n. 
1 nonne qua particula Terentium certe usum constat, de Plauto dubitatur, 
and see Amphitr. I 1. 251, 253). Sch. cites Off. in 68 suntne igitur insidiae 
tendere plagas ? Tusc. v 35 miser ergo Archelaus? certe, si injustus. Vide 
turne omnem hie beatam vitam in una virtute ponere? ib. n 26 videsne 
abundare me otio? Off. in 78 videsne... neque Gygi illi posse veniam dari? 
[See also Plin. Ep. in 16 13 n. and Obbar on Hor. Ep. 1 17. 38. J.E.B.M.] 
This use is especially common with video, and gives an ironical appearance 
of impartiality to the question. So dpa is used for dp ov as in Eur. Ale. 
341 dpa p.oi areveiv napd ; and so amongst ourselves, do you see or don t 
you see , do you know or don t you know , may be often used indiffer 
ently. For exx. of -ne equal to num see.i 91 n. 

scaena : Cato 65 idque cum in vita, turn in scaena intellegi potest ex eis 
fratribus, qui in Adelphis sunt. So below 74 ex^amus e theatro. 

multo paene majoribus : edd. cite Tusc. v 104 vir sapiens multo arte 
majore praeditus, Att. vii 16 Gnaeus noster multo animi plus habet, as exx. 
of the separation of multo from the comparative ; but would Cic. have 
used multo and paene with the same comparative I I incline to think that 
either magis has been lost after midto, or that this is a careless expression 
in which one comparative does the work of two, multo paene majoribus 
standing for multo magis referta est p. m. 

sentit ut peccetur : for the Interrogative ut after sentio, Sch. com 
pares Rose. Am. 66 videtisne ut eos agitent Furiae? 

forum : the law-courts , see below 74. 

Campus : the hustings . 

socii, provinciae : it was to put a stop to injustice and fraud towards 
allies and provincials that the law De pecuniis repetundis was enacted 
149 B.C. and confirmed by many subsequent enactments ; yet still the ill- 
treatment of subject populations continued to be the great blot on the 
Roman character till ehe end of the Republic and to a certain extent 
under the Empire, cf. Off. II 75 tanta sublatis legibus et judiciis expilatio 
direptioque sociorum, ut imbecillitate aliorum, non nostra virtute valeamus ; 
Juv. i 49, vin 87 foil, (miserere inopum sociorum} with Mayor s nn. 

ratione : see Mayor on Juv. x 4. 



BOOK III CH. XXVII 60. 149 

fiat : Subj.. because the relative clause is subordinate to ut peccetur, cf. 
I 96 ut immortalitate vincamur, sic animi praestantia vinci; below 92 ut 
membra moveantur, and Roby 1778. 

ut satius fuerit : see n. on I 69, and cf. just below haud sew an melms 
fuerit perhaps it would have been better . 

cum pernicie : cf. n 8 cum magno vulnere and Index. 

vinum aegrotis : on the use of wine for the sick, see Plato Rep, in 
405 foil, Theophrast. Char. 13, and below 78. 

spe dubiae salutis : from the hope of a possible cure . Allen cites 
dubiae dum vota salutis conciperent Lucan I 506. 

motum celerem cogitationis : cf. Plato Leg. x 896 it is soul which 

moves the universe rals avrfjs Kivycreai, ais ovojJLara ecrrt /3ouAe(r$ai, &K.O- 



\vnov fj.evT]v K.r.X., below 71 sine animi motu, Off. I 132 motus animorum 
duplices sunt, alteri cogitationis, alteri appetitus. 

pestifera est : so edd. after Sch. for p. sint of MSS. The Ind. is re 
quired, as giving the view of the speaker, like quia prodest before. 

70. idcirco consuluit : abbreviated for idcirco consuluisse dicitur 
a vobis Sch. Cf. below non idcirco uterentur, and 79 cur negligant. 

bona ratione donavit : a little below it is asserted that man receives 
bare ratio from God, and achieves bona ratio by his own effort. 

si modo ulli sunt : so in 71 si modo habemus, see Draeg. 555, 
Mayor on Plin. Ep. in 15 3, and Index. 

non placet paucis consultum sit : cf. i 23, a similar argument was 
used by the English deists to disprove a divine revelation, see Butler s 
Analogy Pt. II ch. 6. 

Da (3). It cannot be alleged that reason is in itself good, and 
that any evil which may arise from it is owing to man s abuse of it. 
As a fact it is of neutral quality, and is made good or bad by man* 
70, 71. 

There are several difficulties in the sections which follow. If we take 
a general view of the whole passage from 65 to 78, we find (1) the evil 
effects of reason shown by examples from tragedy ( 65 68), from 
comedy ( 72, 73), from the law-courts ( 74, 75) ; and (2) the rejoinder 
to the Stoic objection that these are owing not to reason in itself, but to 
man s abuse of reason ( 70, 71 and 76 78). It is difficult to explain 
this breaking up of the subject ; and closer inspection shows repetition 
in 69 as compared with 74 (the transition from the stage to the forum), 
and again in 69 as compared with 78 (the danger arising from the use 
of medicinal remedies). Turning more particularly to 70 and 71, we 
find still greater difficulties. The sentence nee enim Herculi potuerant 
comes in very abruptly, and in fact is scarcely intelligible, as it stands in 



150 BOOK III CH. XXVII 70. 

the MSS. It is only by a comparison with the parallel passage in 76 
that we learn patrimonia spe bene tradendi relinquimus, qua possumus 
falli; deus falli qui potest? This of course explains why there can be no 
comparison between the divine gift and the human legacy, but the essen 
tial point, that God cannot err, is not mentioned in the earlier passage. 
If we transfer the sentences non enim ut patrimonium voluissent from 
71 and place them after similitudo, we remove them from a context in 
which they are unmeaning, and we get a natural explanation for the 
question quae est in collatione ista similitudo. Again the sentences be 
ginning quae enim libido, and injustitiae autem seem to me to have no 
connexion with those which precede them according to the MS order ; but, 
if we put injustitiae subesset after amice dedit, and then go on with quae 
enim libido a nobis, everything falls into its proper place. Lastly it 
seems to me far more natural that the general statement multi enim 
obfuerunt should precede the particular examples nee enim Herculi 
potuerunt, than the reverse. The only difficulty which will then remain 
is the omission of the statement contained in 76 that God cannot make 
mistakes as men do , which ought to have followed nocere voluissent ; but 
this omission is easily explicable, if I am right in my general view of the 
dislocation which the passage has undergone. It remains to account for 
the repetitions above noticed in the general argument ; and this seems to 
me most easily clone, if we suppose Cicero to have written, first of all, the 
shorter summary contained in 69 71, and then to have expanded it in 
chapters xxix to xxxn Medea modo nemo esse possit ( 71 79); and 
that both were inserted in the text by the mistake of the original editor. 
Or is it possible that Carneades met the Stoic proof of Divine benevolence 
shown in the gift of reason, by a twofold argument, one that which Cicero 
gives fully in the 2nd passage and briefly and confusedly in the 1st, viz. 
our experience of the mischief arising from the use of reason, which an 
infinitely wise Being must have foreseen ; and the other, that we cannot 
judge of the intention of an agent from the result of his action, because 
experience shows that well-intended actions are often harmful and ill- 
intended beneficial ? If we are to take this view, Cicero has entirely 
failed to distinguish between the two arguments, and has also destroyed 
the force of the latter by introducing his quae est similitudo, our human 
experience being the only ground on which such an argument could be 
based. 

Ch. xxvin. huic loco sic soletis occurrere : you are accustomed 
to meet (anavrav ) this line of argument as follows . Locus is not merely 
topic , but an argument capable of general application. There is no 
reference here to anything in the speech of Balbus. For the subject 
matter see below 76. 

non idcirco uterentur : man s abuse of the Divine favour is no proof 
that heaven has not made the best provision for us . The verb is attracted 
to the tense of the Infinitive ; see I 8 n. on profecisse. 



BOOK III CH. XXVIII 70. 151 

quisquam istuc negat : as I have explained in the Introduction on 
MSS, I think the archetype must have had quisquam stuc, which seems to 
me to differ from quisquamne istuc as being less ceremonious and more 
contemptuous and therefore better suited to the passage. Lachmann on 
Lucr. p. 197 gives examples of the shortened form of iste in Cicero, and we 
may probably add naturae sta in 27, where A gives ste, cf. Ac. u 109 
with Reid s n. For the interrogative use of quisquam cf. Div. Caec. 20 in 
ejus modi re quisquam tarn impudens reperietur? Acad. n 89 quisquam 
sanissimus tarn certa putat quae videt quam is putabat quae videbantur? 
Verr. I 142 quid enim? quisquam ad meam pecuniam me invito aspirat, 
quisquam accedit? Verr. n 137 hoc cum tute fateare, quisquam dubitabit 
quin..., also Piso 26, 30, Sulla 45, Phil x 14. 

quae est in collatione ista similitude : cf. above 9 quam simile 
istud sit tu videris, and below 90. 

nee enim Herculi : as pointed out above, this is an answer to the 
general argument from effect to cause, but has no reference to the par 
ticular illustration employed, the evil effects of a legacy misused, nor to 
the special point urged by the Stoics, viz. man s power to counteract the 
benevolent design of the Deity. 

VOmica : a tumour , lit. something which discharges . Pliny uses 
it of quicksilver inside the matrix (N. H. xxxm 32). Jason of Pherae, 
who at one time threatened to give to Thessaly the preponderance which 
Macedon obtained under Philip, was assassinated B.C. 370. For the story 
here told cf. Plin. N. H. vn 51 Pheraeus Jason deploratus a medicis 
vomicae morbo, cum mortem in acie quaereret, vulnerato pectore medicinam 
invenit ex hoste. From this it would seem that it was a wound inflicted by 
an enemy in battle; but Seneca Beiwf. II 18. 8 rather implies that it was 
the attempt of an assassin : venenum aliquando pro remedio fuit, non ideo 
numeratur inter salubria. Quaedam prosunt nee obligant : tuber quidam 
turanni gladio divisit, qui ad occidendum eum venerat : non ideo ille ty- 
rannus gratias egit, quod rem, quam medicorum manus reformidaverant, 
nocendo sanavit ; also Plut. Mor. p. 89 (where it is said to have happened, 
not to Jason, but to TOV Qto-o-aXov IIpo/i?7$ea), Val. Max. I 8 extr. 6. 

qui dederit : the man that gave . Qui with a general or indefinite 
force, when it is subordinate to a Subj., is usually itself followed by a Subj. 
The qui dedit below suggests a definite instance, the giver or the man 
who gave . 

71. suscipitur. . .perficitur : rightly joined with /acinus, but only 
by zeugma with avaritia. 

sine animi motu : cf. above 69 motum istum celerem cogitationis. 

omnis opinio ratio est : every belief is of the nature of thought . 
Plato and Aristotle draw a broad distinction between 86ga and vovs or 
Xoyoy, but the Academics treated it as a mere verbal difference ; the same 
kind of mental assent was knowledge in the wise and opinion in the foolish 
(Sext. vn 153). The Stoics even went so far as to say that every feeling 



152 BOOK III CH. XXVIII 71. 

was a judgment and involved a rational element, cf. Plut. MOT. p. 441 TO 
Trades flvai \6yov irovrjpov KCU aKoXacrrov CK <pav\r)s /fptcrecoy pco/z^f 7rpoo~\a- 
/36Wa, so Galen (Hipp. Plat. p. 476) Chrysippus identifies the rational 
and the emotional faculties . See below. 

bonam rationem a nobis : see below on 86 mrtutem nemo umquam 
acceptam deo rettulit. 

timiditatis semina : compare the definition metus est opinio impen- 
dentis mali Tusc. iv 15. The exact reverse of the statement in the text 
would be nearer the truth. The seed of every virtue or vice is the natural 
impulse, which is elevated into a virtue by the process of rationalization : 
to paraphrase the words of Aristotle, moral virtue is a particular state 
of the irrational part of the soul, under the limitations of right reason . 
Timidity is a quality common to man with the irrational animals ; his 
superior intelligence gives it a wider scope, but is in no wise the cause 
of it. 

Ch. xxix. inita subductaque ratione meditantes : planning their 
atrocious crimes with a cool calculation of the profits . Literally inire 
rationem is to go into a calculation , as in Cato R. R. 2 rationem mire 
oportet operarum, dierum ; subd. rat. is to balance accounts , i.e. to sub 
tract one side from the other, cf. Hortens. fr. 89 Orelli (Non. p. 399) non et 
sine ea cogitatione incundis subducendisque rationibus; Fin. II 60 quid? 
fortes viri voluptatumne calculis subductis praelium ineunt ? ib. 78, Plaut. 
Copt. I 2 89 subducam rationem quantillum argentum mi siet ; Curcul. in 1. 
1 subduxi ratiunculam quantum aeris miKi sit, quantumque alieni siet. 

Da (4). The mischievous effects of reason shown by examples front 
Comedy. 72, 73. 

72. levitates comicae : the trifles of comedy , cf. Fin. i 62 ama- 
toriis levitatibus dediti. These are properly included in scaena above 69 ; 
the adjoining words sent it forum are also repeated below 79 in the form 
veniamus in forum. 

parumne semper : * do they not show abundance of reasoning on all 
occasions ? cf. above 66 parumne ratiocinari. Sch. in his appendix 
points out that parum is to be taken with in ratione versantur, not with 
semper, so that there is no reason for changing semper to saepe (as Madv.). 

Eunucho : the lines are taken from the 1st scene of Terence s play. 
They are quoted also by Horace (Sat. II 3. 262 foil.) and Persius (Sat. 
v 161). 

Synephebis : cf. above i 13. 

Academicorum more: cf. i 11 quibus proposition est contra omnes 
dicere, and i 13 procax Academia. 

in amore : Ribbeck restores the metre as follows, in amore suave est 
summo summaque inopia. 

studeat tui : the object exciting emotion is found in the Gen., not only 
with Impersonate, such as poenitet pudct, but also with Personal verbs in 



BOOK III CH. XXIX 72. 153 

the older writers, e.g. Plaut. Mil. Ol. 794 ille ejus domi cupiet, ib. 956 quae 
cupiunt tui, where Lorenz cites Aul. 243 fastidit mei, Stick. 334, Ter. 
Phorm. 971 vereri feminae ; so revereor in Varro ap. Non. 497, and cupiens 
ordinarily, see Roby 1328. 

73. suggerit : subjoins , cf. Liv. n 8 Bruto statim Lucretium sug- 
gerunt. 

fructu fallas nomen : [ one may cheat him of the profits or pocket 
a debt by a (stolen or forged) letter . Plaut. Curcul. 360460 and Moliere s 
Les fourberies de Scapin would illustrate this. R.]. Averto is strictly to 
turn aside from its proper end to one s own use, cf. Verr. in 170 ut praetor 
...pecunias, quas cimtatibus distribuere debeat, eas omnes avertat atque 
auferat ; Philipp. v 11 sestertium septiens millies falsis perscriptionibus 
avertit ( by means of false pay warrants ). Nomen is properly the debtor s 
name in the ledger, hence a debt ; cf. Verr. v 17 pecuniam sibi esse in 
nominibus, numeratam in praesenti non habere, see Holden on Of. m 59. 

percutias pavidum : frighten him out of his wits by a piece of bad 
news . 

neque ut : I prefer this reading to the nee quid of Ribbeck and Mu. 
It is not the w T hat , but the how, which puzzles the son, how can I rob 
one who treats me so liberally ? 

inde ab eo, so hinc (Ter. Ad. in 3. 7 Syrum video, hinc scibo] ; unde 
(Orat. i 67 ille ipse unde cognovit), and frequently, see Roby 1263, 
Reid on Cato 12, Dietsch on Sail. Cat. i 3. 

praestrigias praestrinxit : my father s generosity has trumped all 
my tricks , * defeated my stratagems , lit. * taken the edge off (i.e. * spoilt ) 
my juggling . As to the spelling, the oldest codex preserves the r just 
below, and this is the form in the best MSS of Plautus, see Georges s. v. 
The later form praestigiae is due to that tendency to lighten the 
pronunciation of compounds, which shows itself also in such changes 
as that of a into i ; for other exx. of the omission of r see Roby 185. 2. 
The word is often used metaphorically as in Acad. u 45 (there is need 
of attention) ne ab Us, quae clara sunt ipsa per sese, quasi praestigiis quir 
busdam et captionibus depellamur; Fin. iv 74 ex isdem verborum praestigiis 
(the Stoic paradoxes have arisen). 

Phormio : Act n So. 2 of Terence s play. 

Da (5). The mischievous effects of reason shown by examples from 
the law-courts. 74, 75. 

Ch. xxx 74. in forum : see above 69. 

[sessum it : sedere, like Kadrjo-Qai, of the judge on the bench. For the 
phrase cf. Sen. Contr. 180 9 jussit ire sessum in equestria. J. E. B. M.], 
also Cic. Fam. x 32 2 Herennium in XIIII sessum deduxit. 

quid ut judicetur : on the position of ut Sch. refers to Madv. Fin. 
n 61. 



154 BOOK III CH. XXX 74. 

qui incenderit : on the use of qui as an interrogative substantive 
see Madv. 88. It is rarely found except in dependent questions, cf. 
Verr. v 166 qui csset ignorabas, speculatorem esse suspicabare ; Div. in 
Caec. 53 non id solum spectari debet, qui debeat, sed etiam illud, qui possit 
ulcisci. 

tabularium : the record office. Cicero refers elsewhere to the destruc 
tion of tabularia by fire, e.g. Arch. 8 hie tu tabulas desideras Heradiensium 
publicas, quas Italico bello incenso tabulario interisse scimus omnes. Sch. 
identifies this with the burning mentioned in the text, but as it is related 
as an incident of the war, it seems forced to connect it with the case of 
private arson here referred to. Another instance occurs in Ilabir. 8, an de 
peculatu facto, an de tabulario incenso longa oratio est e.vprimenda, a 
charge which was once brought against a relative of Rabirius, but never 
against himself. Turnebus in his note on the last passage suggests that 
there is an allusion to Sosius ; but, in that case, we should have expected 
to find there some allusion to the confession here spoken of ; as the date 
of the Pro Rabirio is B.C. 63, and our dialogue is supposed to have taken 
place in 76. A third instance is that of Clodius (Milo 73) aedem Nym- 
pharum incendit ut memoriam publicam recensionis tabulis publicis im- 
pressam exstingueret. [On the record office cf. Annali d. inst. 1881 pp. 
6073. J. E. B. M.J 

quod facinus occultius: what crime could be better hidden , and 
therefore show more calculation, than to destroy the building in order that 
the record of a particular account might be wanting ? 

Sosius : not mentioned elsewhere. Brieger (p. 19 foil.) thinks he is the 
same as the person alluded to below under the probably corrupt name 
Lalenus, because of the id quoque and also of the use of the Sing, hoc 
homine. 

splendidus : cf. Fin. n 58 C. Plotio, equite Romano splendido ; Verr. 
in 60 equitibus Romania non obscuris neque ignotis, sed honestis et illustribus. 
The terms splendidus and illustris, here used vaguely of high birth or 
other distinction, acquired a more definite connotation under Augustus, 
who constituted a separate class of knights possessing a senatorial income : 
to these were opposed the poorer knights, known as modici, see Tac. Ann. 
I 73, ii 59, xi 4. Hence splendidus is used by itself to connote equestrian , 
see Baumgarten Crusius Index to Suetonius p. 618. 

transcripserit : altered , lit. copied , cf. Cluent. 41 (Oppianicus 
having got hold of the will) digito legata delevit, et cum id midtis locis 
fecisset, ne lituris coargui posset, testamentum in alias tabulas transcriptum 
signis adulterinis obsignavit ; used of transfers in book-keeping, e.g. Liv. 
xxxv 7 via fraudis inita est, ut in socios, qui non tenerentur Us legibus (the 
Roman laws against usury) nomina transcriberent ; ita libero foenore 
obruebantur debitores; [see Gaius in 128 foil. R.]. 

L. Alenus : the readings differ. If Brieger is right in supposing that 
we have here the cognomen of the above-named Sosius, perhaps L may be 



BOOK III CH. XXX 74. 155 

a corruption of ille. The reference to the same person at one time by the 
nomen, at another by the cognomen is very common, cf. the use of Lucilius 
and Balbus in this dialogue. 

sex primorum : the first six scribes of the treasury (scribae quaestorii\ 
cf. Mommsen Rom. St. I 273, Wilmanns Inscr. 1297, 1298, 1809. 

cognosce : take note of other judicial inquiries . 

auri Tolossani : Q. Servilius Caepio, consul in B.C. 106 received the 
province of Gallia Narbonensis during the Cimbrian war. The people of 
Tolosa (Toulouse) having joined the Cimbri, Caepio sacked their town and 
temples, in which were great quantities of gold, the produce of the auri 
ferous region near the Pyrenees The treasure was kept in chambers in 

the temples and also in sacred tanks (Posid. ap. Strab. iv p. 188 cited in 
Diet, of Geog.}. Strabo 1. c. says, that according to another less credible 
account, these treasures were brought home by the Tectosages from the 
sack of Delphi. Justin adds (xxxn 3) that in consequence they were 
visited by a pestilence, from which they were not freed until aurum ar- 
gentumque bellis sacrilegiisque quaesitum in Tolosensem lacum mergerent. 
Caepio was severely punished for this act of sacrilege. In B.C. 105 he 
was totally defeated by the Cimbri at Arausio, and on his return to 
Eome he was deprived of the proconsulship by a vote of the people 
and his property confiscated. The next year he was expelled from the 
senate by a 2nd decree of the people ; and in B.C. 103 some of the tri 
bunes headed by Saturninus and Norbanus proposed a special commis 
sion to inquire into the embezzlement and treason committed in Gaul. 
Caepio was arrested and condemned, and the intervention of one of the 
tribunes only succeeded in commuting the sentence of death to one of 
exile Wilkins Orat. I p. 9. His place of exile was Smyrna : one tradition 
however says that he was executed at Rome (Val. Max. vi 9 13). Strabo 
1. C. says of him, eV Sucm^^jLiacri Karacrrpe\//at TOV (Biov, as ifp6(rv\ov e /c- 
vno rrjs rrarpi Sos , SiaSo^ovs & a.TTO\nrovTa TraTSay, ay (rvveftr) Kara- 
&>$ e iprjKe Tt/iayei/T/y, aia^pa)? aTroAecr&u. In the De Oratore 
Antonius briefly sketches the line of his defence for Norbanus, the opponent 
of Caepio, who was tried on a charge of majestas in B.C. 95 for his conduct 
in the prosecution of C. but no allusion is there made to the plunder of 
Tolosa ; it is only to the defeat at Arausio (Orat. n 199). Elsewhere 
Cicero takes the aristocratic view, and speaks of Caepio as an example 
of a good man suffering adversity (Tusc. v 14). But the prevailing view 
was the opposite : the aurum Tolossanum became proverbial of the ill- 
gotten wealth which brings no good, see Gell. in 9 quisquis ex ea direptione 
aurum attigit misero cruciabilique exitu periit. 

conjurationis Jugurthinae : cf. Sail. Jug. 40 C. Manilius Limetanus 
trib. pi. rogationem ad populum promulgat, uti quaereretur in eos quorum 
consilio Jugurtha senati decreta neglexisset, quique ab eo in legationibus 
aut imperils pecunias accepissent ; Brut. 127 (Galba} rogatione Manilla 
Jugurthinae conjurationis invidia...opprcssm est. 



156 BOOK III CH. XXX 74. 

repete superiora : go back to a more remote period ; see Fat. 35 
cited below on 75. For Tubulus see I 64. He was praetor B.C. 142. 

posteri ora : we find the opposition of sup. and post, in regard to a not 
much longer interval in Brut. 226 228, and to a much shorter inDom. 99. 

Peducaea : three of the Vestal Virgins were accused incesti before the 
pontiffs in B.C. 114, but only one was condemned. In the next year Sex. 
Peducaeus trib. pi. brought the matter before the people, by whom L. 
Cassius Longinus, known for his severity as censor, was appointed to 
examine further into the case. The mischief was discovered to be even 
wider spread than was supposed, and all who were guilty were punished. 
The Sibylline books were consulted and two Greeks and two Gauls were 
buried alive in the forum to avert the anger of the gods (Pint. Qu. Rom. 
p. 284). A temple was also dedicated to Venus Verticordia (Preller R. M. 
p. 392, Val. Max. vm 15 12), cf. Ascon. in Milon. p. 46, Brut. 160, Dio 
Cass. fr. 92. Rogatione is Abl. of Manner after quaestiones understood 
from above. 

turn haec cotidiana : Forchhammer p. 24 puts a full stop after 
Peducaea, and retaining the old reading vcnena (as Allen also does) he 
supplies sunt with cotidiana, just as with inde ilia actio below. He 
justly asks quis unquam dixit quacstionem sicae sive de sica esse halitam ? 
Quaestio est inter sicarios sive de sicariis, ut de veneficiis ; and compares 
Off. in 36 hinc sicae, liinc venena, hinc falsa testimonies nascuntur, hinc 
furta, peculatus. We have the same list of crimes in Off. in 73 neque 
enim de sicariis, veneficis, testamentariis, furibus, peculatoribus, hoc loco 
disserendum est. If any emendation is required, I should prefer to read 
sicas. 

peculatus : the embezzlement of public money . [The quaestio pecu 
latus is referred to by Cicero in Clu. 53 147, Mur. 20 42; but the 
precise definition of the crime is only known to us at a later period. The 
Digest (XLVIII 13) treats of it in connexion with a law of Augustus (lex 
Julia], which however Zumpt (CriminalrecJit iv p. 78 seq.) reasonably 
argues was probably not very different from Sulla s legislation. R.] 

testamentorum quaestiones : by the Lex Cornelia testamentaria or 
de falsis, forgery was made the subject of one of the nine perpetuae quaes 
tiones (permanent courts), peculatus and de sicariis being also included in 
the number. It is therefore curious that lege nova quaestiones should be 
limited to testamentorum, because all these Cornelian Laws were passed 
about the year 78 B.C., i. e. about two years before the date of the dialogue, 
which, as we have seen, is supposed to have occurred between B.C. 77 and 
75 (Vol. i p. XLI). Probably C. meant to continue his list, but testamenta 
could not stand like sicae for the crime, and therefore he altered the phrase, 
intending quaestiones to refer to all, though grammatically it can only refer 
to the last named. It is in reference to this law that Cicero says ( Verr. 
I 108) sancitur ut, quod semper malum f acinus fuerit, ejus quaestio ad 
populum pertincat. Perhaps however it may be better to take quaestiones 



BOOK III CH. XXX 74. 157 

iii its more general sense, as above alias quaestiones ; and then etiam lege 
nova will give point to the preceding cotidiana t they are of such daily 
occurrence that we have been obliged to make a new law about them . 

ilia actio : so. furti, of which Gaius gives the formulae iv 37, cf. also ill 
202 interdum furti tenetur qui ipsefurtum non fecerit ; qualis est cujus ope 
consilio furtum factum est. Cic. cites this because of the word consilium, 
which evidently proceeds inde, from reason . [An action for theft (furti) 
lay against one who had aided and counselled, though he had not actually 
committed, the theft, e.g. (to take instances given by Gaius in 202) against 
one who knocked money out of a man s hand that another might take it, 
or frightened sheep that another might intercept them ; or who knowingly 
placed a ladder to enable a thief to get access or lent him tools to break 
open a door or box (Dig. XLVII 2. 1 55 4; hist, iv 1 11). Either aid or 
counsel would found the charge, but the aid must be purposed, and the 
counsel must result in action. Post veterum auctoritatem eo perventum est 
ut nemo ope videatur fecisse nisi et consilium malignum habuerit ; nee con- 
silium habuisse noceat nisi et factum secutum fuerit (Paul. ap. Dig. L 16. 
1 53 2). By veteres were meant the republican jurists. E.] See Mayor 
on Juv. x 222. 

de fide mala : " this is the class of which the following are examples ; 
cf. Off. m 70, where we have the same extension of the formula ex fide 
bona. (Scaevola] fidei bonae nomen existimabat manare latissime, idque 
versari in tutelis, societatibus, fiduciis, mandatis, rebus emptis venditis, con- 
ductis locatis " Sch. [All C. s examples are expressly named among bonae 
fidei judicia in Gai. iv 62. R.] 

tutelae : [a ward had a right of action against his guardian to obtain 
compensation for any failure in his duty as trustee. This is called in the 
Digest actio tutelae. But there was another action, of a penal character, 
to make the guardian refund twice the value of anything which he had 
abstracted from the property of the ward. This action was given by the 
xil tables (ib. xxvi 7. 1 55 1) and was specially called rationibus distra- 
hendis actio (Dig. xxvn 3. 1 2). Whether the two were clearly distin 
guished in Cicero s time may be doubtful. Both then and afterwards any 
guardian condemned in an actio tutelae was disgraced and therefore 
deprived of civic rights. Cf. Cic. Or. I 36 166 turpi tutelae judicio ; Gai. 
iv 182; Lex Jul. Municip. 25, 110; Dig. in 2. 1 1. It is noticeable 
that in the order of matters in Julian s edict theft immediately followed 
guardianship. R.] 

mandati : [by mandatum was understood an unpaid commission. A 
man undertaking such a commission for another was in the position of a 
trustee : he could recover his expenses but had no right to make any 
profit or benefit for himself by the execution of the commission. Good 
faith was of the essence of the engagement. Cf. Gai. in 155 Invicem alteri 
tenebimur in id quod vel me tibi vel te mihi bona fide praestare oportet; Dig, 
xvii 1. E.] 



158 BOOK III CH. XXX 74. 

pro SOCio : [Partnership again is a confidential relation. Whether it 
exist in relation to some one matter or business or be extended over all the 
concerns of the partners, it rests on a community of profit and loss; 
and any partner has an action in that character (pro socio) to compel his 
partners to account for their profits or share his losses. Cicero s words in 
Rose. Com. 6 6 are very apt, si qua sunt privata judicia summae existi- 
mationis et paene dicam capitis, tria haec sunt, fiduciae, tutelae, societatis. 
Aeque enim perfidiosum et nefarium est fidem frangere, quae continet vitam, 
et pupillum fraudare qui in tutelam pervenit et socium fallere qui se in 
negotio conjunxit. E.] 

fiduciae: \Fiducia trust was a general term but specially applied to 
cases where a person was given for a special purpose legal rights over 
persons or things, which in form were permanent but were intended to be 
only temporary. Thus things deposited with a friend for safe keeping 
were sometimes legally conveyed to him. Land or other things given to a 
person as security for a debt were formally conveyed to him in full property 
(as in our mortgage deeds) with the understanding embodied in a pactum 
fiduciae, that on the payment of the debt the land &c. should be restored. 
So Cic. Flac. 21 51 pecuniam adulescentulo grandi fenore fiducia tamen 
accepta occupavisti. Hanc fiduciam commissam tibi dicis ; terns hodie ac 
possides. You lent money to the youth at a high rate of interest but took 
a mortgage (i. e. some property in mortgage) for it. This mortgaged pro 
perty you say is forfeited to you . Cf. Paul. Sent. 13; Gai. n 60. A third 
use of fiducia was in the old forms for enabling a woman to change her 
guardian or make a will. She passed into the absolute control of some one, 
who however was under a trust to emancipate her (Gai. I 115). A fourth 
case was that of trusts by will where the trustee was called fiduciarius 
keres &c. (Dig. xxxvi 1. 1 48) though in Justinian s books the term is 
rare. E,] 

reliqua : so alia, at the end of a list without connecting particle, 
above 52. 

judicium publicum : a case in which an injury was considered to be 
done to the public, and in which therefore any one might proceed against 
the offender, cf. Inst. I 26 3. 

Plaetoria : the name in the MSS is Laetoria, which Heind. corrected 
in accordance with the Tabula Ileracliensis, (Lex Julia Municipals 25 
110). [Comparing Off. in 61 iste dolus mains et legibus erat vindicatus, ut 
in tutela duodecim tabulis, circumscriptio adulescentium lege Plaetoria, et 
sine lege judiciis, in quibus additur ex fide bona ; Sueton. ap. Prise, vili 
21; Capitol. M. Anton. 10 12; Cod. Theodos. vm 12. 1 2, we may 
conclude that the law was directed against money-lenders taking advantage 
of young men; that it allowed or required curatores to be assigned to 
youths after the age of puberty and consequently when they ceased to have 
legal guardians ; that the offence of cheating young men was regarded as 
criminal and not merely as matter for private compensation ; and that 



BOOK III CH. XXX 74. 159 

consequently convicted offenders were ineligible for public office. Further 
there seems little doubt that this law is referred to in Plaut. Pseudol. 201 
where a young man in want of money says Perii: annorum lex me perdit 
quinavicenaria ; metuont credere omnes; and Rud. 1380. If this be so, it 
was the lex Plaetoria that established the distinction between those under 
25 years of age (minores) and those over that age, the former having 
curator es. The Pseudolus is shown by Eitschl (Par erg. PL p. 295) to have 
been exhibited in 192 or 191 B.C. And hence the lex Plaetoria was pro 
bably cir. 200 years B.C. This is the sum of our knowledge. Savigny 
Verm. Schr. n p. 321 foil, has an interesting essay on the subject. R.] 
See Mayor on Juv. x 223, xv 135, and Orelli Ind. Leg. p. 231. [Cohen 
Me d. Consul, p. 250 contains exx. of coins of the Plaetorian family. 
Swainson.] 

everriculum : C. Aquillius Gallus sweeps off every kind of fraud 
into his net . The word is used metaphorically of the avarice of Verres 
(2 Verr. iv 53). On Aquil. see Roby Jntrod. to Digest p. cix. He was a 
colleague of Cic. in the praetorship B.C. 66, and is much praised in the 
orations pro Quintio, and Caecina 77. On the edict here referred to see 
Off. in 60 nondum C. Aquillius collega et familiaris meus protulerat de dolo 
malo formulas: in quibus ipsis, cum ex eo quaereretur quid esset dolus 
malus, respondebat, cum esset aliud simulatum aliud actum. [Probably 
Aquillius, as praetor, first granted a right of action or a defensive plea on 
the ground of fraud, though not coming under any formula previously 
recognized. In the later consolidated edict, as quoted in the Digest iv 3, 
an action de dolo malo was granted when fraud was alleged and no other 
action was available (quae dolo malo facta esse dicentur, si de his alia actio 
non erit etjusta causa esse videbitur,judicium dabo}. R.] 

familiaris noster : he was a pupil of Q. Mucius along with Balbus, as 
well as a friend of Cicero s. 

protulit : published as an edict in the Album Praetor is, stating the 
grounds of actions and the mode of procedure. 

teneri : * to be proved (clenched) ; used here of the charge, as in 
Cluent. 125 nee ullo argumento Cluentianae pecuniae crimen tenebitur, 
2 Verr. v 101 certis testibus istius audacia tenebatur (this use is not noticed 
in Lexx.); but more frequently of the person convicted of a crime ; e.g. 
tenetur furti. 

75. sementim : cf. Att. ix 8 sem. proscriptions, and the proverb 
Orat. II 261 ut sementem feceris ita metes. [Amm. xxxi 2. 1 sem. exitii. 
J. E. B. M.] 

malitia : cf. Off. II 10 versutos homines et callidos admirantes malitiam 
sapientiamjudicant; in 71 quocirca astutiae tollendae sunt eaque malitia, 
quae vult ilia quidem videri se esse prudentiam, sed abest ab ea distatque 
plurimum ; Tusc. iv 34 virtutis contraria est vitiositas sic enim malo quam 
malitiam appellare earn quam Graeci KaKiav appellant, nam malitia certi 
cujusdam vitii nomen est, vitiositas omnium, also Fin. Ill 39, 40, Leg. I 49. 



160 BOOK III CH. XXX 75. 

utinam trabes I the opening lines of Ennius Medea, cited also in 
Ilerenn. n 22 34, Gael. 18 (referring to the evil arising from the passion 
of Clodia for his client), Invent. I 91, Top. 61, Fin. I 5, Fat. 35 (where he 
continues licuit vel alt ins Utinam ne in Pelio nata ulla umquam csset 
arbor , etiam supra Utinam ne esset mons ullus Pelius , similiterque 
superiora repetentem regredi infinite licet]. 

caesa accedisset trabes : the MSS have the PL but most editors 
follow the reading given in Yarro L. L. vn 33 (who adds sic dictum est a 
quibusdam, ut una canes, una trabes}, and Priscian vn 8. For the use of 
accid. cf. Varr. ap. Non. p. 494 trabs in humum accidens frangit ramos 
cadens. 

bonitatem : given for purposes of deception not of upright dealing . 
The word has two shades of meaning, like our goodness , (1) amiability, 
(2) honesty ; of which latter we have an example in Off. in 77 cum /idem 
alicujus bonitatemque laudant, dignum esse aiunt quicum in tenebris 
mices . Cicero speaking in his own person takes the opposite and truer 
view of the relation between virtue and reason ; Off. I 50 (in the case of 
beasts) justitiam, aequitatem, bonitatem non dicimus ; sunt enim rationis et 
orationis expertes. 

Da (6). You say ( it is all man s fault for misusing his reason , 
but what are we to think of a Being ivho deliberately endowed him with 
a faculty, which he knew ivould be productive of more harm than good? 

7678. 

Ch. xxxi 76. sed urgetis : cf. above ch. xxvin. 

homimim CUlpam : cf. Odyss. I 32 J TTOTTOI, olov 77 vv 6eovs ftporol alrio- 
yap $a<ri KOK /jifj.vai ol 8e KOI avrol cr<pf)(riv a.TacrQa\ir)(riv 



coi/rat 



p,opov aXye e^ovtrn j Plato Rep. X 617 atria eXo/xeVov, 6eos avainos, 
Chrysipp. ap. Gell. VII 2 12 Sto na\ VTTO rcoi/ HvOayopeiw fip-qrai yvwati 6 
avQpwTTovs avdaipera irrj^ar e^oi/ray, u>s ra>v fiXaftw fKaa-rois Trap avrois (should 
this be avrovs, i all along of themselves ?) yivo^v(>v K.a\ Ka6 op^v avrwv 
aiiapTavovTtov re KU\ /3Xa7rro/iei/a)v KCH Kara TTJV avrwv dtavotav Kal Becriv, Senec. 
N. Q. v 18 5 non ideo non sunt ista natura bona, si vitio male uten- 
tium nocent, ib. 13 non queri possumus de auctore nostri deo, si benejicia 
ejus corrupimus et, ut essent contraria, effecimus, ib. 15 nihil invenies tarn 
manifestae utilitatis, quod non in contrarium transeat culpa, Aug. C. D. 
xxn 1, Zeller iv p. 175. 

ut si : therein behaving as if . This is part of Cotta s reply ; you 
say it is all the fault, not of the Divine operator, but of the human material 
operated upon ; which is just as if the physician or pilot were to plead the 
severity of the disease or the storm as an excuse for their inefficiency . 

medicus : cf. above 15 and II 12, where the same illustration is used 
in reference to the science of divination. 



BOOK III CH. XXXI 7G. 161 

etsi liberius : though such a comparison is absurd , lit. though 
these are mere men still even as such they act absurdly ; for who would 
have employed them, if it were not for the difficulties to be overcome 1 
and we may speak more freely (we have no similar weaknesses to allow 
for) in pleading against God , since he cannot shelter himself under the 
excuse of ignorance or inability. The form of the sentence is altered 
owing to the parenthesis ; we should have expected deus falli non potest or 
something of the sort. For the argument see below 90. 

homunculi: cf. A cad. n 134 deus ille, qui nihil censuit deesse virtuti, 
homuncio hie, N. D. I 123 ut homunculi similem deumfingeret. 

ais : addressing the Deity, cf. Acad. n 80. 

dedisses : you ought to have given it . This is an instance of what 
is known as the Jussive use of the Subjunctive, thus denned by Madv. 
351 a 4, in the imperfect and pluperfect the subjunctive is used to ex 
press advice or command, imperatively, of a thing which ought to have 
been done, in opposition to a previous intimation of what actually was 
done ; see also his n. on Fin. n 35, Zumpt 529 n., Kennedy p. 340, Roby 
1604, Draeg. 148, 149, Nagelsb. p. 267, Allen, Wyttenbach and Lesca- 
loperius on this passage ; and compare Q. Frat. in 4 aiunt nonnulli...me 
oportuisse accusare. Us ergo judicibus committerem ? . . .non existimo te putare 
id mihi suscipi endum fuisse. Alterutrum, inquit idem Sallustius, defendisses 
(which Manutius calls elegans et antiqua locutio pro eo quod vulgo dicunt, 
defendere debebas] ; Off. m 88 male Curio, cum causam aequam esse dicebat, 
semper addebat vincat utilitas . Potius doceret non esse aequam quia non 
esset utilis rei publicae, quam, cum utilem non esse diceret, esse aequam 
fateretur, where Holden calls doceret a past imperative ; Orat. I 167 quod 
cum impetrasset, causa caderet, of which Wilkins says "a kind of past 
imperative he ought to have lost his case " (the jussive force is not 
however absolutely required here) ; Philipp. n 86 misericordiam captabas 
...quid petens? ut servires? tibi uni peteres, qui ita a puero vixeras....ut 
facile servires (where Mayor refers to Halm on Sulla 25, Wagner on 
Virg. Aen. iv 679, Naeke on Valer. Cato p. 161); Philipp. II 75 quern erat 
aequissimum contra Cn. Pompeii liberos pugnare? quern? an cum tu... 
convomeres, Dolabella pro te dimicaret? was he to be fighting for you? Sest. 
45 restitisses, oppugnasses, mortem pugnans oppetisses, where Halm s note is 
dictum pro resistere debuisti ; ib. 54 si meis incommodis laetabantur, urbis 
tamen periculo commoverentur ; Fin. iv 57 saltern aliquid de pondere 
detraxisset et paulo minoris aestumavisset ea ; Rose. Am. 72 diligentius 
venisses, which Halrn renders hattest kommen sollen ; Verr. in 19 Voconia 
lex te videlicet delectabat ; imitatus esses ilium ipsum C. Voconium ; ib. v 
59 quo tempore...etiam si precario essent rogandi, tamen ab Us impetraretur 
( = impetrari debebat Halm, who is however mistaken, as Draeger has 
pointed out, in comparing 150 permoverem, 171 commoverentur, where 
the ordinary force of the Subj. gives a satisfactory meaning) ; Rabir. Post. 
29 moreretur, inquies ; Liv. XLV 37 3 non triumphum impedire debuit...sed 

M. C. III. 11 



1G2 BOOK III CH. XXXI 7(5. 

postero die nomen deferret. Other exx. may be found in the books referred 
to ; I will here only add for the negative sentence, Verr. in 195 quid 
facere debw sti ? . . .si, ut ambitiosi homines, ...ex senatus aestimatione solmsses : 
sin, ut plerique faciunt...ne emisses ; Att. n 1 3 aut ne poposcisses, Plant. 
Poen. i 5. 22 vel tu ne facer cs tale in adulescentia ; Trinumm. 134 non ego 
illi argentum redderem? non redderes, where Brix says i non statt ne, so 
dass die Antwort, dor Frage eng angepasst, wie ein Echo zuriicktont . 
[So we find both non and ne after utinam, cf. Att. ix 9 3 utinam sus- 
ceptus non essem aut ne quid ex eadem mat re postea natum csset. ] A 
comparison of these passages shows plainly that the Subjunctive may 
have the force of debabat. This use has been generally connected with 
the Imperative force of the Subj., thus accounting for the employment 
of ne for non, but such an explanation has been challenged of late 
by two distinguished Cambridge scholars on the ground that a past 
imperative is an inconceivable thing . I presume that those who used 
the phrase past imperative , simply meant that the Subjunctive in this 
use stands to the Imperative, as the phrase you should not have 
done that stands to the phrase you should not do that . Whether we 
choose to speak of these as different tenses of the Imperative, is a verbal 
question of no great importance : if we confine the Imperative to 
commands which are capable of fulfilment, of coin-so we must select 
another name. The alternative explanation offered by Mr Reid (Sulla 
25 p. 90) is as follows : " so-called jussive subjunctives are merely parts 
of elliptic conditional propositions" ; "the fact that ne occurs with some 
of these subjunctives has led some scholars to regard them as conveying 
commands or prohibitions put in past tenses, because the circumstances 
to which they might have applied are past... but ne is merely equivalent to 
non, as ne often was in early Latin ". Mr Reid is commenting here on the 
words ac si, judices, ceteris patriciis me et vos peregrinos videri oporteret, a 
Torquato tamen hoc vitium sileretur... est enim municipalis, which I under 
stand to mean whatever right other patricians might have to dub us 
foreigners, Torquatus at least ought to have kept silence on this defect in 
our citizenship, being, as he is, himself connected with a municipium only . 
Mr Reid s note is " editors explain sileretur as equivalent to sileri debebat, 
but the subjunctive in Latin has no such force "..."sileretur is not the true 
apodosis to the protasis si oporteret, but is rather the apodosis to a 
suppressed protasis such as si caperet. So with Virgil s famous words at tu 
dicta s, Albane, mancres . I confess I cannot quite make out what is meant 
by this ; but we may compare another note by the same scholar on Acad. 
ii 53 p. 169 ed. 1 illud attendimus in hoc omni genere quam inconstanter 
loquamur? non enim proferremus vino aut somno oppressos, rendered in his 
translation p. 52 are we aware how inconsistent is our talk concerning 
this entire class of arguments ? If we were, w r e should not quote men 
overpowered by wine or sleep &c. That is to say, it is an instance of an 
ordinary hypothetical. sentence, si attend cremus being naturally understood 



BOOK III CH. XXXI 7C. 1 03 

from what precedes. But in his note Mr Reid says " this must apparently 
be added to the exx. of the subj. used to denote non id quod fieret factumve 
esset, sed quod fieri debuerit. As such passages are often misunderstood, 
I note that they can be most rationally explained as elliptic constructions 
in which a condition is expressed without its consequence. We have an 
exact parallel in English ; e.g. tu dictis, Albane, maneres may fairly be 
translated hadst thou but kept to thy word . Here the condition if 
thou hadst kept stands without the consequence thou wouldest not have 
died ". It is to be noted that in his comments on these two passages 
Mr Reid gives inconsistent explanations of the quotation from Virgil : in 
the one place speaking of the protasis being understood (I suppose, if you 
had known it beforehand, you would have kept to your word ), in the 
other, of the apodosis. Probably we are to understand that he would 
make two classes of jussive subjunctives, those in which the apodosis, and 
those in which the protasis is to be supplied, and that he would distribute 
the cases under either head as he found it easiest to supply one or the 
other. Mr Nixon (J. of Phil. vol. vu p. 57) says " it is not denied that 
there is an important class of so-called jussive subjunctives, but of these 
those with ne are intelligible imperatives (ne poposcisses] [on a subsequent 
page this concession is withdrawn], those with non can always be ex 
plained as hypothetical with or without protasis suppressed ". It appears 
then that there are three points for consideration : (1) is ne to be regarded 
merely as equivalent to non ? (2) is it the fact that the Latin Subjunctive 
cannot mean ought ? (3) is it possible to explain all jussives as parts of 
elliptic conditional propositions ? As to (1), no doubt there are compounds 
and phrases such as nefas, nequaquam, in which ne retains its old simple 
force, but I think we may safely assume that if ne continued to be used with 
some one particular construction, however much the words were varied, it 
must have been because it was felt that there was something in that construc 
tion which suited the later specialized use of ne. And whether, or not, we 
employ the phrase past imperative it cannot be denied that the use of 
ne in such a phrase as ne poposcisses approaches more or less nearly to the 
use of ne to express a wish (as in di ne dedissent above 75), or a command. 
(2) It appears to me that the feeling of the Latin writers as to the meaning 
of the Jussive Subj. is sufficiently shown, by its being frequently opposed 
to debeo and similar words, cf. the instances cited above from Q. Fr. in 4, 
Phttipp. ii 75, Liv. XLV 37, Verr. ill 195, Sulla 25, Fin. 11 35 si earn quam 
Aristippus (voluptatem dixisset], idem tenere debuit ultimum bonorum ; sin 
earn quam Hieronymus,fecisset, &c., where Madvig says id est,facere debuit ; 
also that we find the same meaning in other uses of the Subj. esp. in what 
is known as the Deliberative use, with which the Jussive is coupled in 
Trin. 134, cf. Merc. 633, quid egofacerem? CH. quid tufaceres, men rogas? 
requaereres, rogitares quis esset, Ter. Hec. 341 non visam uxorem Pamphili? 
...ne mittas quidem visendi causa quemquam. Again does not the fact 
that, in conditional sentences (in the secondary as well as in the primary 

112 



164 BOOK in CH. xxxi 76. 

tenses), verbs such as possum, debeo, oportet are used in the Indicative 
in the apodosis, where the Subj. is used in the protasis, does not this indi 
cate that these quasi-auxiliary verbs were felt to take the place of the 
Subjunctive mood ; in other words that the force of the Subj. was felt 
to be expressed by these auxiliaries ? see Boetticher\s Lex. Tac. p. 10(5 
(on the pregnant force of the Conjunctive) and Nagelsb. p. 267. Lastly, 
is it true that this Jussive force is confined to conditional or quasi-con 
ditional sentences, as asserted by Mr Reid and Mr Nixon and apparently 
by Madv. Fin. n 35 (where he speaks of it as a particular use of the 
conjunctive quod post condicionem, sive ca verbis expressa est sive intellegi- 
tur, ponitur ad signijicandum id quod fieri debuerif]\ If we are right in 
connecting this use with the Deliberative and Optative uses, there seems 
no a priori reason for limiting it to the conditional sentence, and certainly 
there is nothing to suggest it a posteriori. It would at any rate require 
a remarkable power of special pleading to explain as conditional sentences 
all the exx. cited above. Even, if we should allow that the Jussive origi 
nated in an ejaculatory hypothesis, yet such an ejacuhitory use is itself 
closely connected with the other recognized uses of the Subj., all springing 
from the root conception of the mood as expressive of thought in contrast to 
fact ; and in any case this particular use has outgrown its origin and estab 
lished its right to be treated as an independent off-shoot of the root, just 
as much as the Imperative, Deliberative and Optative uses. I will only 
add that two other exx. of this use are g enerally cited from the N. D., sump- 
sisses tuo jure i 89, and quid enim dedissent in 71. I have not treated 
them as such myself, because I thought them capable of another explana 
tion, but I am far from denying that Cicero and his readers may very 
probably have understood them with what we know as a jussive force. 
[I think those who object to the so-called jussive use of the subjunctive 
have failed to see that the ground of objection is applicable to a number of 
other uses which no one could think of disputing. Faciat, ne faciat, 
ne feceris in the usual imperative meaning : faciat, fecerit, fecisset in the 
concessive uses ; moriar, morerer in optative uses ; quid again ? quid 
agerem? in so-called dubitative uses; the whole class of subjunctives of 
purpose (as distinguished from subjunctives of result) including such uses 
as mitto ut (or qui) faeiat, postido faciat, censeo facias, &c., all exhibit 
a jussive meaning (see my Grammar ch. xxi), and I can see no reason in 
objecting to treat as such the verbs in At tic dietis, Albane, maneres ! or in 
Quid tibi cum pelago ? terra contents fuisses (Ov. Am. in 8. 49). But 
neither could I assert that here, as elsewhere, there are not more ways 
than one of taking particular expressions. The original subjective force of 
the subjunctive mood was gradually specialised in various directions, one 
phrase or class of phrases being developed by analogy to some other. 
Whether this jussive use was developed from the protasis of a conditional 
sentence by suppressing the apodosis, or from the apodosis by suppressing 
the protasis, is impossible to say. It may well have been a collateral to, 



BOOK III CH. XXXI 76. 165 

not a descendant of, either. Grammatical as well as lexicographical deve 
lopments are often curiously restricted to particular phrases or classes of 
expression. And what would be unintelligible or unbearable in ordinary 
writing or speaking may be boldly and judiciously ventured on when the 
emotions or imagination are excited ; just as on the other hand the 
familiarities of conversation assisted by looks and gestures render possible 
many turns of language which would fail in different circumstances. A 
writer in quiet, unimpassioned prose would scarcely use maneres for 
manere debebas, if he wished to be quickly and certainly apprehended ; 
but that is no objection to such a use by Yergil, who was continually 
making experiments. R.] 

ubi igitur locus : the igitur refers to the general argument, not to the 
immediately preceding clause : you say, the fact that men misuse their 
reason, is not inconsistent with benevolent intention on the part of the 
Gods who bestowed reason on man, any more than an heir s misuse of a 
legacy is inconsistent with benevolence on the part of the testator : where 
then is there room for mistake on the part of the Gods ? the testator may 
be deceived in his expectations, but God cannot be deceived . On patri- 
monia see above 70. 

an ut Sol : abbreviated for an falli potuit, ut Sol fallebatur? 

Phaethontem : see the story in Ovid Met. bk. n, and compare Off. in 
94 Sol Phaethonti filio...facturum se esse dixit quioquid optasset. Optavit 
ut in currum patris tolleretur : sublatus est ; atque is, antequam constitit, 
ictufulminis deflagravit. Quanto melius fuerat in hoc promissum patris non 
esse servatum. Quid? quod Theseus exegit promissum a Neptuno? Cui 
cum tres optationes Neptunus dedisset, optavit interitum Ilippolyti filii, cum 
is patri suspectus esset de noverca ; qu ooptato impetrato Theseus in maximis 
fuit luctibus ; ib. I 32, N. D. in 45, and the Hippolytus of Euripides. 

cum perdidit, cum habuisset : combination of Temporal and 
Causal uses, at the time when Th. caused his son s death, owing to the 
power received from Neptune . 

77. dipoetici: see above on i 61, and compare Aug. C. D. iv 27, 
vi 5 foil. 

scissent : Quintilian (i 6 17) speaks of the form scivisse as unusual ; 
and so Cic. Orat. 157 (in regard to nosse and novisse] quasi vero nesciamus 
in hoc genere et plenum verbum recte dici et imminutum usitate. 

si verum est : Ba. after Madv. reads esset on account of the following 
praestaret, but the anacoluthon is easily explained by the length of the 
sentence and by the change of tense in the repeated form of the protasis 
(si essent discessuri). Moreover it is paralleled by the following sentence, 
si convertunt, non dari melius fuit. 

Aristo : cf. i 37. 

[audientibus : used substantively like discens, Plin. Ep. in 18 8 n. 
The technical term in the schools for a disciple was auditor a/coucrrT/y, see 
Juv. I 1 n. J. E. B. M.] 



166 BOOK III CH. XXXI 77. 

asotos ex Aristippi : this saying is attributed to Zeno by Antigonus 
Carystius ap. A then, xui 19 p. 365. \_Asotus is also cited from Fin., asotia 
from Gell. ; add for latter Macrob. Sat. vi 4 22. J. E. B. M.] 

si qui audierunt interpretarentur : bracketed by Ba. after Madv. 
(1) on account of the tautology, (2) because of the distance separating 
prorsus from praestaret. But as regards (2) we have an example of prorsus 
heading the clause, at some distance from its verb, in Rose. Am. 59 prorsus 
ut vestro consessu et hoc convcntu pro summa solitudine abuteretur ; and for 
the repetition of the protasis Sch. refers to Madv. himself on Fin. I 7. 

philosophos : this emendation by Lambinus is evidently right. It 
is not the interest of philosophers, but the abstract better, which is in 
question. The Dat. of MSS would be suggested by the other meaning of 
praestaret and the following iis. 

qui se audissent : for the use of the Reflexive in reference to a 
remoter subject, see Index. 

78. si convertunt, melius fuit : if as a fact they do now abuse 
it, it would have been originally better not to give it . The mood and 
tense here are in favour of the reading si cst verum above. 

ut si medicus : see above 69. 

meracius : used metaphorically by Cic. R. P. i 66 nimis meracam 
libertatem hauserit. [The comparative is also found in Aug. C. D. I 30. 
J. E. B. M.] 

vestra : of you Stoics , cf. I 50 Bqlbe soletis. 

utinam quidem : cf. Sulla 54 utinam quidem satisfacere posset ; Nepos 
Eum. 11 5 utinam quidem istud evenisset; and for the elliptical use Att. 
xm 48 quod utinam, iterum utinam ! tuo tamen commodo ; Orat. n 361 
habetis sermonem hominis, utinam non impudentis. [Plin. Ep. v 8 7 potes 
...utinam. J. E. B. M.] 

quanti ejus nomen : how highly you esteem her name (providentia , 
which excludes the possibility of ignorance). 

Db. If lack of wisdom is the greatest of evils and all men lack 
wisdom, how can it be said that man is specially favoured by Heaven? 

79. 

Ch. xxxn 79. stultitia malum : see I 23 n. So even Epicurus 
nemo stultus non miser Fin. I 59, and more strongly Tusc. n 17. 

et fortunae et corporis : on this classification see Fin. in 43 cum tria 
genera bonorum sint, quae scntentia est Peripateticorum ; Tusc. v 85 tria 
genera bonorum, maxima animi, secunda corporis, externa tertia, ut Peripa- 
tetici, nee multo veteres Academici secus ; Tusc. v 22 mihi quidem non vide- 
batur quisquam esse beatus posse, cum in malis esset ; in malis autem 
sapientem esse posse, si essent ulla corporis aut fortunae mala; ib. 23 cum 
vero tria genera malorum esse dicant, qui duorum generum malis omnibus 
urgeatur, ut omnia adversa sint in fortuna, omnibus oppressum corpus et 



BOOK III CH. XXXII 79. 167 

confectum doloribus, huic paulumne ad beatam vitam deesse dicemus ? and 
25. Aristotle gives the same classification and speaks of it as ancient 
and accepted by philosophers, Eth. I 8 veve^^vwv TWV dynBwv rpi^ KQL 
TWV nev KTOS \yofj.6f(i)v Twv fie TTfpt ^rvx^ v Ka ^ 1 o"co/za, ra vrepi ^u^ 7 /" tvpicorara 
\fyofj-fv KOI /m^Xtora ayadd, cf. Reid Acad. I 19. 

sapientiam nemo asseoLuitur : Tusc. n 51 in quo vc^o erit perfecta 
sapientia, quern ad /me nos quidem vidimus neminem, sed philosophorum 
sententiis, qualis hie futurus sit, si modo aliquando fuerit, exponitur ; Off. 
in 16 nee vero cum duo Decii aut duo Scipiones, fortes viri, commemorantur, 
aut cum Fabricius Justus nominatur, aut ah illis fortitudinis aut ab hoc 
justitiae, tamquam a sapiente, petitur exemplum: nemo enim horum sic 
sapiens, ut sapientem volumus intellegi, nee ii qui sapientes habiti et nominati, 
M. Cato et C. Laelius, sapientes fuerunt ; ne illi quidem septem, sed ex 
mediorum officiorum frequentia similitudinem quandam gerebant speciemque 
sapient ium ; Div. u 61 si quod raro Jit id portentum putandum est, sapien 
tem esse portentum est : saepius enim mulam peperisse arbitror quam sa- 
pientem fuisse, Hirzel Unters. z. Cic. n pt. 1 pp. 279 foil. The inconsistency 
between the Stoic view of human life and the belief in providence is 
noticed by Plutarch St. Rep. c. 31 (Chrysippus affirms) ^aivcada 
eV a<pov rjKctv dvcrrvxias, KOKodai/jLOvias aTracrrjs, ftra Trpovoia 6fo)v 
ra Kaff ^as otJrcos dd\io)s irpaTTovras. What worse could happen to us if 
it were the aim of the Gods to do us all possible evil ? 

in summis mails . such was the original teaching of the Stoics, but 
the later development of Stoicism took a less pessimistic view of humanity, 
recognizing an intermediate state, npoKorrr^ progress , between folly and 
wisdom, and intermediate duties, /neVa Kadr/Kovra media officia . We read 
that Chrysippus distinguished three degrees of Progress (Zeller in 1, 
p. 270 n.) and that Posidonius spoke of Socrates, Diogenes and Antisthenes 
as being only / npoKonf) (Diog. L. vn 91). 

quibus consultum dicitis : for omission of esse cf. 26 aedificatum n. 

DC. If God really cared for men, he ought, to have made all men 
good, or at least to have rewarded the good and punished the bad. 

7985. 

Telamo : the reference is to the so-named tragedy of Ennius, cited in 
Div. II 104 Ennius, qui magno plausu loquitur assentiente populo l Egodeum 
genus esse semper dixi et dicam caelitum, sed eos non curare opinor, quid 
agat humanum genus . Et quidem, cur sic opinetur, rationem subjicit ; sed 
nihil est necesse dicere quae sequuntur. The line alluded to is that here 
quoted, which is also referred to in Div. i 132. Telarnon is bewailing the 
death of Ajax, caused, as he believes, by the malice of his enemies and the 
treachery of Teucer. Cf. Attius 1. 142 Rlbb. jam jam neque regunt di 
neque profecto deum summus rex omnibus curat. 

cur neglegant : brachylogy for cur neglegcre putandi sint, sec n. on 
ill 70 idcirco consul uit and Index. 



168 BOOK III CH. XXXII 79. 

nam si abest : trochaic tetrameter catalectic. For the thought 
compare the epigram marmoreo Licinus tumulo jacet, at Cato parvo. Pom- 
peius nullo, quis putct esse deos? and the famous lines of Claudian (Ruf. I 
12) sed cum res hominum tanta caligine volvi aspicerem laetosque diu florere 
nocentcs, vexariqu" pios, rursus labefacta cadebat religio foil., also Ps. 73, 
Job 21, Nagelsb. N. Theol. ch. I pp. 4059, Aristo ap. Theophilus Autol. 
in p. 121 C., Seneca Provid. in 4 Fortuna rectissimum quemque aggreditur 
adversus quern mm suam intendat ; il). 3 nihil mihi videtur infelicius eo 
cui nihil mail accidit ; Sext. Einp. P. II. in 9 12. 

omnes bonos efficere : the difficulty here stated is thus met by Theodore 
of Mopsuestia (Labbe Condi, v p. 449) " Because God knew it to be iiseful 
for us or rather for all rational creatures that first there should be an 
entrance of evils and of what is worse ; but that afterwards these should 
be destroyed and better things be introduced ; therefore God divided the 
creation into two states, the present and the future, in the latter indeed 
intending to lead all to immortality and immutability, but in the present 
letting us fall into death and mutability... For otherwise, not knowing the 
experience of evils, we could not have gained the knowledge of those good 
things" cited by Owen Introd. to Dogm. Theol. p. 214. Similar answers 
were made by the Stoics, see my Anc. Phil. p. 163, Zeller in 1 p. 175, Pint. 
Nor. p. 1067. 

DC. (1). On the contrary we see virtue constantly followed by 
adversity. 80. 

80. Scipiones : the brothers P. and Cn. defeated and slain in Spain 
in the year B.C. 212. P. was consul in 218 and, after missing Hannibal in 
Gaul, had sent on his army to Spain under the command of his brother. 
Arnold says of this resolution that it appears to shew that he possessed 
the highest qualities of a general, which involve the wisdom of a statesman 
no less than of a soldier... If the Carthaginians were suffered to consolidate 
their dominion in Spain, and were to avail themselves of its immense 
resources, not in money only, but in men, the hardiest and steadiest of 
barbarians and, under the training of such generals as Hannibal and his 
brother, equal to the best soldiers in the world, the Romans would hardly 
have been able to maintain the contest. Had not P. Scipio despatched his 
army to Spain at this critical moment, instead of carrying it home to Italy, 
his son in all probability would never have won the battle of Zama . Cicero 
often mentions the two brothers as patterns of patriotic devotion, e.g. Cato 
75 duos Scipiones qui iter Poenis vel corporibus suis obstruere voluerunt ; 
Off. in 16 cited above on sapientiam nemo assequitur ; called duo fulmina 
nostri imperil (Balb. 34), duo pj opugnacula belli Punici (Par ad. I 12) ; cf. 
Tusc. i 89, R. P.il. 

Maximus : Q. Fabius surnamed Cunctator (above n 61). The death 
of his son is mentioned Cato 12 multa in eo viro praeclara cognovi sed nihil 
admirabilius quam quo modo ille mortem filii txlit, clari riri et consularis. 



BOOK III CH. XXXII 80. 169 

Est in manibus laudatio, quam cum legimus, quern philosophum non con- 
temnimus? also Tusc. in 70. 

Marcellum : he fell at Venusia B.C. 208, see on n 61 Virtutis. 

Paulum : his death is mentioned along with that of Marcellus Cato 75, 
with that of the Scipios ib. 82, and Tusc. I 89, see Div. n 71. 

Reguli : M. Atilius Reg. is the stock example of a good man struggling 
with adversity, Tusc. v 14 prudentia ipsa hoc videt non omnes bonos esse 
etiam beatos, multaque de M. Atilio . . .recordatur ; on the other hand Fin. n 
65 virtue declares that Regulus cum sua voluntate, nulla m coactus practer 
Jidem quam dederat hosti, ex patria Karthaginem revertisset, turn ipsum, 
cum vigiliis et fame cruciaretur, was more blest than the happy man of the 
Epicureans . 

domestic! parietes : B.C. 129 he was found dead in his bed aged 56, 
see above n 14, Milo 16 quantum luctum in hac urbefuisse apatribus nostris 
accepimus, cum P. Africano domi suae quiescenti ilia nocturna vis esset 
illata ! where the Scholiast says hie cum Latinorum causam societatis jure 
contra C. Grace/mm triumvirum ejusque collegas perseveranter defensurus 
esset, ne ager ipsorum divideretur, repentina morte domi suae interceptus est, 
non sine infamia et ipsius C. Gracchi et uxoris suae Semproniae ; R. P. vi 
12 si impias propinquorum manus effugeris. Carbo is named as the 
murderer in Q. Fr. n 3 3 Pompeius dixit aperte se munitiorem ad custodien- 
dam vitam suam fore, quam Africanus fuisset, quern C. Carbo interemisset, 
Fam. ix 21 3, Or. n 170 ; but nothing was ever proved. 

Rutilius Rufus, a friend of Panaetius and Posidonius, served under 
Scipio in the Numantine war and was legatus in Asia under Mucius 
Scaevola the pontifex, about B.C. 98. By his honesty in repressing ex 
tortion he incurred the ill will of the publicani, and was condemned on 
his return to Rome on a false charge de repetundis. He is always spoken 
of as a noble representative of the Roman Stoics, cf. Scaur. I 2 P. Rutilio 
damnato nemo tarn innocens videbatur ut non timeret judicia, quae tune 
penes equestrem ordinem erant ; Or. I 229 cum esset ille vir exemplum inno- 
centiae, cumque illo nemo neque integrior esset in civitate neque sanctior, non 
modo supplex judicibus esse noluit, sed ne ornatius quidem aut liberius 
causam dici suam, quam simplex ratio veritatis ferebat ( like Socrates , as 
he goes on to say 231) ; Cotta, who was his sister s son (Att. xn 20, Sen. 
Cons, ad Helv. 16), spoke in his defence ; see also Piso 95 major mihi judi- 
cum et rei publicae poena ilia visa est quam Rutilii, Seneca Provid. 3, Consol. 
ad Marc. 22, Minuc. F. 5. Seneca joins him with Socrates and Cato as 
one of those who levi temporis impensa invenerunt quo modo aeterni fierent 
et ad immortalitatem moriendo venerunt. Cicero tells us that his dialogue 
de R. P. is a report of what he had himself heard from Rut. when he was 
in exile at Smyrna, cf. Roby Introd. to Digest p. ci. 

sodalis meus : Cotta is said to be Drusi maxime famiharis Or. I 25. 
They were both pontifices, though not at the same time, Drusus having 
been murdered in 91 B.C., and Cotta being made pontife.r in 82. 



170 BOOK III CH. XXXII 80. 

Drusus : cf. Milo 16 domi suae nobilissimus vir, senatus propugnator 
atque illis quid em temporibus paene patronus, trib. pi. M. Drusus occisus est ; 
Herenn. iv 22 31 tuus, Druse, sanguis domesticos parietes et vultum 
parentis adspersit ; Vol. I p. xl, Wilkins Orat. I Introd. p. 5. No attempt 
was made to discover who had committed the murder : Cicero (below 81) 
charges Varius with it. The reforms proposed by Drusus were (1) the 
transference of judicial functions from the equites to the Senate enlarged by 
the addition of 300 equites ; (2) a special commission for the purpose of trying 
any juryman who should be guilty of receiving bribes ; (3) distribution of 
grain to the citizens on a larger scale ; (4) colonization of the state domain ; 
(5) extension of the franchise to the Italians. See below on Yarius. 

simulacrum Vestae : compare, what is to my mind the most beautiful 
and touching passage in all the works of Cicero, if not in the whole of 
Latin literature, when we remember the fate of the writer himself, Orat. 
in 1 14. Cicero is there speaking of Crassus as saved by his early 
death from beholding the evils impending on his friends and on his 
country : among other things he did not see the image of Vesta sprinkled 
with the blood of his colleague, the pontifex Mucius Scaevola . This 
Scaevola is son of P. Mucius Sc. mentioned above I 115, in 5. lie is 
always spoken of with the utmost reverence and affection by Cic., who 
studied law under him, after the death of his earlier tutor, Q. Mucius Sc. 
the Augur. Thus in Lad. 1 he calls him umun nostrae civitatis et ingenio 
et just it ia praestantissimum. The thought of Scaevola s end was often 
before the mind of Cic. in the later Civil war, see Att. ix 12 torqueor 
infelix, ut jam ilium Mucianum cxoptem ; ib. 15 nil til expedio, nisi aut 
ab hoc (by a new Marius) tamquam Q. Jfucius, aut ab illo (by a 
new Sulla) tamquam L. Scipio. "At the funeral of C. Marius, B.C. 80, 
0. Flavins Fimbria, one of his violent adherents, endeavoured to have 
Scaevola assassinated. He was wounded, but not fatally ; whereupon 
Fimbria gave him notice of trial, and the charge being asked declared that 
it was for having only half received the thrust of the dagger (Rose. Am. 33). 
Four years later the Marians effected their object. In B.C. 82 Damasippus, 
on instructions from the younger Marius, then shut up in Praeneste by 
Sulla, attacked and killed Scaevola before the statue of Vesta" (which 
stood in the vestibule of the famous circular temple of Vesta, see Burn 
Home p. 102 foil.), "or as some say in or near the Curia Hostilia" (Iloby 
Digest p. cv foil.). 

a Cinna : the orator Antonius and Catulus were among the victims in 
the massacre which followed the return of the elder Marius to Kome, 
B.C. 87, after Sulla s departure for Greece, see Tusc. v 55 Cinna collegae sui, 
consulis Cn. Octavii, praecidi caput jussit, P. Crassi, L. Caesaris, nobilissi- 
morum hominum, quorum virtus fuer at domi militiaeque cognita, M. Antonii, 
omnium eloquentissimi, quos ego audierim, C. Caesaris, in quo mild videtur 
specimen fuiss? kumanitatis, salis, suaritatis, Icporis foil., Cat. in 24, Veil. 
Pat. ii 22, Aug. C. D. in 27. 



BOOK III CH. XXXII 80. 171 

Marius . Cic. was proud of him as an Arpinate and novus homo, and 
often praises him in the highest terms, see Rabir. 27, Balb. 46, Verr. v 25, 
Sest. 37, Par ad. 16 : he even wrote a poem on his achievements Leg. I 2 ; 
in Tusc. v 56 however he speaks of his cruelty to Catulus as blotting out 
all his former glories. See on the latter I 79 11. 

DC. (2). Vice is in like manner rewarded by prosperity, as in the 
case of tyrants, like Dionysius. If some come to a bad end at last, 
this is no equivalent for all the suffering they have caused. 81 84. 

81. dies deficiat : so Tusc. v 102 dies deficiat, si velim paupertatis 
causam defenders, Gael. 29 dies jam me deficiat si coner expromere, Verr. II 
52 nam me dies vox later a deficiant, si hoc nunc vociferari velim, Rose. Am. 
89 tempus te citius quam oratio deficeret. 

crudelissimus Cinna regnavit : he was consul for four years together 
from B.C. 87 to 84 ; cf. Philipp. xi 1 Cinna, Sidla, Caesar, hi tres post 
civitatem a L. Bruto liberatam plus potuerunt quam universa res publica ; 
and, for the phrase, Lael. 41 (of Tib. Gracchus) regnum occupare conatus 
est, vel potius regnavit is quidem paucos menses ; so Clodius of Cic. himself 
(Att. xvi 10) quousque hunc regem feremus? cf. Sail. fr. inc. 52 Kritz, 
tyrannumque et Cinnam maxima voce appellans. In Phil, xi 1 Cicero, 
comparing Marius, Sulla and Cinna, makes cruelty the distinguishing 
characteristic of the last. 

dedit poenas : he was killed in a mutiny at Brundisium, whilst 
endeavouring to induce his soldiers to cross over to Greece against Sulla 
(Appian B. C. i 78, Liv. Epit. 83). 

Ch. xxxiii. Varius : son of a Spanish woman, and hence called 
Hybrida, offered himself as a tool to the equites in their struggle against 
Drusus, and proposed a law de majestate in his tribuneship (B.C. 91) to punish 
all who had in any way encouraged the Socii to take up arms against 
Rome ; see above Vol. i p. xl, n 61. Cotta was among those who had to go 
into exile in consequence. Within two years from his tribuneship Varius 
was condemned on his own law and sent into exile (Brut. 306). We are 
not informed as to the particulars of his death, nor are we elsewhere told 
of his poisoning Metellus, i.e. probably Numidicus, the conqueror of 
Jugurtha, who was recalled from exile in B. c. 99. 

importunissimus : the word is properly used, like importuosus, of a 
coast which offers no harbour, as in Ov.Met. xiv 481 quos communis hiemps 
importunusque Caphareus mersit aquis, cf. Plant. Trin. n 3. 7 suae senectuti 
acriorem hiemem par at, quom illam importunam tempestatem conciet : from 
this first sense flow three secondary senses (1) unfavorable , unseason 
able , unsuitable , opposed to opportunus ; (2) storm-tost , restless , 
troublesome (hence our importunate ) as in Hor. Epist. I 18. 23 argenti 
sitis importuna ; Plaut. Asin. I 1. 47 (uxorem] importunam atque incom- 
modam; and (3) as here, threatening , dangerous , pitiless , savage . 



172 BOOK III CH. XXXIII 81. 

melius fuit : cf. bellum erat I 84 and Index under Indicative . 

Dionysius : the Elder, tyrant of Syracuse between B.C. 405 and 368, see 
Grote s Greece Ch. Ixxxi to Ixxxiii. 

82. in ipso flore : here apparently used of place, answering to opulen- 
tissimae civitatis before, rather than of time : the prime of Greece would 
have been a century later. So Ligar. 32 possum totum...agrum Sabinum, 
florem Italiae, proponere and Phil, in 13 nee vcro de virtute . . .provinciae 
Gallieae taceri potest ; est enim ille flos Italiae. Pisistratus ruled Athens 
from B.C. 560 to 527. 

Phalaris : tyrant of Agrigentum from about B.C. 560 to 540. The 
story of the hollow bull of brass in which he burnt his victims is 
noticed by Pindar Pyth. I fin. The bull was afterwards taken to Carthage 
and then restored to Agrigentum by Scipio ( Verr. iv 73). According to 
Aristotle (Rhet. n 20) Stesichorus endeavoured to warn the people of 
Himera against allowing Phalaris a body guard, by relating the fable of 
the horse and the stag. Heraclides Ponticus, the pupil of Aristotle, 
after mentioning the brazen bull and other instruments of torture used 
by Phalaris, adds ovrrep 6 dij/j-os eVt/zcop^craro evfTrpr/crc Se KOI TTJV /i^re pa KOI 
TOVS (piXovs (Frag. Hist. II p. 233), cf. Ovid Ib. 439 utque ferox Phalaris, 
lingua prius ense reseda, more bovis Paphio clausus in aere gemas. 
Cicero calls him crudelissimus omnium tyrannus (Verr. I.e.); cf. Off. n 
26 Phalaris cujus est praeter ceteros nobilitata crudelitas, and Att. vn 
20 incertum est Phalarimne an Pisistratum sit imitaturus Caesar (i.e. 
whether he will be mild or cruel). 

Apollodoms : tyrant of Cassandria, the ancient Potidaea, about B.C. 
280. "After gaining over his fellow-citizens by his profession of an ardent 
zeal for liberty, he seized the government with the help of a band of con 
spirators, whom he is said to have pledged in a draught of human blood. 
It appears that his tyranny was at first exercised only at the expense of 
the rich and for the benefit of the poor. But it w r as maintained by a body 
guard of Celts, who were the ready instruments of every cruelty ; and the 
possession of absolute power seems to have tempted him to the worst abuse 
of it" (Thirlwall). He was finally overthrown by Antigonus Gonatas. 
Plutarch mentions Ap. as an example of punishment inflicted by mental 
terrors and horrible dreams (pao-\v A?r. Kara rovs VTTVOVS opav 
eavrov VTTO 2<vd(ov ) et ra Kadf^ofjievov, TTJV &6 Kap8iav CK rov \fjBrjros 
yo/j,vr]v Kctl \eyovorav, Eyco crot TOVTMV alria KOI iraXiv ras dvydrepas Sicnrvpovs 
KCU (pXeyop-evas rols o-oi/jiacn KVK\(O Trepi avrov TrepiTpexoiHras. Polyaenus IV 
6 18 calls him cpoviKtoTciTos nai co^ioraros 1 rvpdwutv, and his name is 
coupled with Phalaris by Polybius VTI 7, Ov. Pont, n 9. 43, Sen. Benef. vn 
19 5 qitid, si non tantum mains factus est, sed ferns, sed immanis, qualis 
Apollodorus aut Phalaris? [cf. ibid. 7, Ira n 5 1. J. E. B. M.] 

sustulit : from suffero, cf. Madv. Opusc. n 16, Attius Myrm. 17 poenas 
snfferam, Cic. Cat if. n 28 poenam sui seeleris suferat, Foiit. 39 rietoriae 
poenas suffer re. I do not know however of any example of the Perf. in this 



BOOK III CH. XXXIII 82. 173 

sense. [Auson. Sept. Sap. Sent. (sept, vers.} Tholes 3, quod facturus eris, 
dicere sustuleris. J. E. B. M.] Cobet ( Var. Lect. p. 463) says quis sic 
loquitur? videtur fuisse poenas luit" 1 ; and no doubt it is possible that 
sustulit might have arisen from this through a dittographia of the last 
syllable of poenas. L. and S. give the passage both under suffero arid 
tollo, comparing for the latter 2 Verr. in 1 providere quid oneris tollant ; 
but tollant there means take up not endure . 

multis quidem necatis : cf. n. on et quidem i 79, and Madv. Fin. i 
35, where exx. are given of quidem by itself having the same force : so Kai-ye 
and ye with Part, to which this is an exact parallel. 

et praedones : Ba. s correction etiam is unnecessary. Et here has the 
ironical force of et quidem, as in I 79, cf. in 27 et ego quaero. 

multi saepe : a colloquial pleonasm, for we often see pirates punished 
or we see many pirates punished . It does not mean that many repeat 
edly suffer . Compare Plant. Capt. 44 saepe jam in multis locis (where see 
Brix), ib. 325 multa multis saepe suasit, ib. 994 vidi multa saepe picta, 
Mil. Olor. in 3. 12 multos saepe nidi, Cic. Off. I 74 multi bella saepe quae- 
siverunt (where see Gernhard and Allen), ib. in 40 incidunt multae saepe 
causae, R. P. in 42 multas tu quidem Laeli saepe causas ita defendisti, Red. 
in Sen. 15 non eloqucntia, quod in multis saepe accidit, vos decepit, liar. 
Resp. 56 multis saepe optimis civibus accidit, Verr. in 188 multos saepe viros 
bonos, ib. iv 107 multa saepe prodigia mm ejus declarant, Cluent. 195 multi 
saepe in judicando peccata concesserunt, ib. 183 saepe midtorum veritas 
emergit, also Piso 75, Flacc. 86, Plane. 50, Verr. v 147, Sest. 109, Cluent. 
171, Catil. m 23, Hor. Sat. I 6. 10, Epist. 11 1. 219. 

Anaxarchus : a philosopher of Abdera, who accompanied Alexander 
into Asia, and after his death fell into the hands of Nicocreon king of 
Salamis in Cyprus, whose hatred he had incurred by his free-speaking. 
Laertius tells us (ix 59) that he was pounded to death in a mortar, and 
that in his tortures he uttered the words often quoted by the Christian 
Fathers TrrtVcre TOV Ai/a^ap^ou $JXa/oz>, Aiaap^oi> 6e ov nrifro eis (see 
Menage in loc.}. He adds that when the tyrant, in order to silence him, 
ordered his tongue to be cut off, he bit it off and spat it in his face ; see 
Cic. Tusc. ii 52 Zeno proponatur Eleates, qui perpessus est omnia potius 
quam conscios delendae tyrannidis indicaret : de Anaxarcho Democriteo 
cogitetur, qui cum Cypri in manus Timocreontis (sic) regis incidisset nullum 
genus supplicii deprecatus est neque recusavit ; Val. Max. in 3 4 extr. 

excarnificatum : butchered , only found here in Cic. [in Seneca 
three times, twice in metaphorical sense, Clem, i 16 3, Ira in 4 3. 
Add to lexx. Lact. M. P. i, Oros. vii 8, Cyprian (eel. Hartel) p. 552. 9, 
559. 5 and 18. J. E. B. M.] Livy uses the simple verb. 

Zeno : the disciple of Parmenides, b. B.C. 490, see vol. i p. xiv. The 
circumstances of his death are variously reported. It is agreed that he 
underwent torture, but the torturer is sometimes called Nearchus, sometimes 
Diomedes or Demylus or even, by a palpable blunder, Phalaris or Dionysius ; 



174 BOOK III CH. XXXIII 82. 

again the place is sometimes Elea, sometimes Agrigentum ; some say that 
he bit off his tongue to avoid confession, others that he named confidential 
friends of the tyrant as conspirators, others that he bit off the tyrant s 
ear under pretence of whispering a secret to him : some (e.g. Hermippus 
B.C. 250) repeat of him the story told of Anaxarchus, see Diog. L. ix 26 mi., 
Zeller I p. 536. Three of the instances here cited by Cic. (Dionysius, 
Anaxarchus and Zeno) are also referred to by Philo Prov. I 6 11, 26. 

Platonem legens : the J /taedo is also alluded to in Tusc. I 24, 84, 102, 
cf. the well-known story of Cato. 

discrimen : sc. inter bonos et improbos. 

Ch. xxxiv 83. Harpalum : edd. generally assume that the reference 
is to a pirate, elsewhere named Scirpalus (Diog. L. vi 74), who captured 
Diogenes and sold him for a slave ; but why may we not understand it of 
the well-known Harpalus, Alexander s dishonest treasurer, who, fearing to 
be punished for his reckless and profligate expenditure at Babylon, fled for 
refuge to Athens in the year B.C. 324, bringing with him enormous sums of 
money, with which to bribe the leading men and so obtain the protection 
of the city ? Diogenes did not die till 323, so that he may well have 
expressed his disgust at seeing the wealth and luxury of the unprincipled 
adventurer ; see Grote s Greece vol. xn ch. 95. Harpalus left Athens on 
the demand of Antipater and was not long afterwards treacherously slain 
in Crete by one of his companions. The following phrase in ilia fortuna 
seems more suited to one who had risen. to high position, like Harpalus, 
than to a pirate, whose name is unknown except from the fact that he 
happened to capture Diogenes. [But tarn diu viveret does not seem very 
appropriate. R.] See Introduction on MSS. 

qiii temporibus illis praedo felix habebatur : a freebooter of the 
day who passed for fortunate ; cf. I 63 sophistes temporibus illis rel 
ma.vimus. The same term is frequently used of Verres and other 
extortionate governors by Cic. e.g. 2 Vcrr. I 152 quod ornamentum pueritiae 
pater dederat^.Jwc ab isto praedone ereptum; ib. II 184 cujusmodi praedo 
iste in ilia provincia fuerit ; Prov. Cons. 11 quos non virtus... non splendor 
tueri potuit contra illius helluonis et praedonis audaciam (of Gabinius). 
The reading is very doubtful, and there is certainly something peculiar in 
the expression. Perhaps Cicero s authority may have spoken of Harp, 
much as Plato does of Archelaus (Gory. 472) a-v r/yet olov re tlvai ^aKaptov 
cii>dpa ddiKovvrd re Koi (iSiKov uvra, e lTrep Ap^fAaoy aSiKov /Lte^ J/yei et cat, 
(vdaijjiova 8e , whereas it is only the just and temperate man who is really 
happy, not one who allows eTndvpias aKoAnorov? flvai KOI ravras eVi^etpoui/ra 
TrXrjpovv, dvrivvTov fca/co; , Xyarov /3toi/ coi>ra (ib. 507 D). 

contra deos testimonium dicere : cf. below 88, Sext. Emp. ix 53 

of Diagoras, ddiKrjdels VTTO TIVOS eVtopKr/Vazro? /cat /z7?SeV eWxa TOVTOV naOovTos 
fjLfdrjppoo-aTo els TO Xf yeti/ ^.?) dvai 6eov. Menage on Diog. L. 1. c. quotes 
Martial iv 21 nullos esse deos, inane caelum affirmat Selius probatque, quod 
*i" fftctunij dum ncqnt hor, ridct bentinn. Seneca Cons, ad 3fare. 12 6 



BOOK III CH. XXXIV 83. 175 

deorum crimen erat Sulla tarn felLv, and a line from Greek comedy 6f ov 
6 oveiftos TOVS KctKovs v8aifjt,ovf iv. [Sen. Ned. 1027 per alta vade spatia 
subllmi aetheris, testare nullos esse, qua veheris, deos; Ovid Amor, ill 3 1 
esse deos credamne? /idem jurata fefellit: et fades illi, quae fuit ante, 
manet. J. E. B. M.] 

fanum Proserpinae : this, the most famous temple of the Epizephy- 
rian Locri, was plundered by Pyrrhus, who was visited with a storm in 
consequence and compelled to restore the stolen treasure ; cf. Liv. xxix 
18, where the Locrian speaker, complaining of the plunder of the temple 
in the Hannihalian war by Pleminius, the legate, refers to the sacrilege 
of Pyrrhus, and says that he was the first who had ever ventured to lay 
hands on the treasures (intactos ad earn diem}. The senate condemned 
Pleminius and ordered restitution to be made. Diodorus (xxvn 4) tells 
the same story, adding enKpaveararov TOCIV Kara rr/v iraAiav lepwv TOVT eivai 
Aeyerai KOI 8ia rravros ayvov VTTO TU>V ey^topt oov T(Tr)pfj(rdai, cf. Yal. Max. I 20 
ext. 1. It would seem therefore that neither Livy nor Diodorus accepted 
the story here told by Cic., which in fact is hardly credible on other 
grounds, as Locri was the native place of Doris, the wife of Dionysius, and 
was also of great use to him in his wars against Rhegium and other states 
of Magna Graecia, services which he repaid by repeatedly enlarging its 
territory at the expense of his enemies. As we are told of the detestation 
in which the younger Dionysius was held at Locri, during his residence 
there after his first expulsion from Syracuse in 356 B.C., it might be 
supposed that he is the person here referred to, but the other anecdotes 
seern to be all spoken of the elder Dionysius. Is it possible that Cic., or 
his authority, has written Locri for Crotona and Proserpina for Juno 1 because 
we read that the elder Dionysius plundered the temple of Here Lacynia at 
Crotona, and sold to the Carthaginians for 120 talents the costly robe of 
the goddess, which had been presented as a votive offering by the Sybarite 
Alcimenes, see the references in Grote vol. xi p. 31. He also pillaged the 
temple of Leucothea at Agylla, from which he is said to have taken 
1000 talents, cf. Pseudo-Arist. Oecon. n 21 (where many similar anecdotes 
are related of him) and Diod. xv 14. For the following anecdotes cf. 
Lactant. n 4, Arnob. vi 21, Clem. Protr. p. 46 P., Ael. V. H. I 20, Val. 
Max. i ext. 3. [Philo Prov. n 6. On sacrilege see Juv. index. J. E. B. M.J 

isque : see Index under pleonastic demonstrative . 

bene planeqtue : Orelli proposed to omit que, as in Tune, n 44 bene 
plane, mag mis videtur. 

ad Peloponnesum classem appulisset : we are nowhere told that 
Dionysius visited Greece in person, and Victorius ( Var. Lect. xxi 10) 
followed by Grote (vol. xi p. 35) is probably right in supposing that Cic. 
here confounds the temple of Zeus at Olympia with a temple of the 
Olympian Zeus at Syracuse. Two such are mentioned, the OAi^Tnt Ioi> by 
the river Anapus, spoken of by Thuc. vi 64 and Liv. xxiv 33, and that 
situated in Achradina, which Cic. calls tcvnphnn egrerjunn Jon s Ob/mpii, 



176 BOOK III CH. XXXIV 83. 

( Verr. iv 119), cf. Liv. xxiv 21 inermes ex Olympii Jovis templo spolia 
Oallorum lllyriorumque dono data Ilieroni a populo Romano dctrahunt. 
Aelian (i 20) distinctly says that D. plundered all the temples in Syracuse, 
and that he stripped the statue of Jupiter of gold to the amount of 85 
talents, himself being the first to lay hands upon it, when the workmen 
shrunk back; see also Clem. Al. Protr. p. 15 who tells the tale of the 
younger D. in reference to a Sicilian temple. In like manner he cut off 
the golden curls from the image of Apollo, cf. Plut. Isis p. 379. 

aureum detraxit amiculum : so Lachares B.C. 295 stripped the 
image of Athene in the Parthenon (Pans. I 25); Torres the image of Diana 
at Perga (2 Verr. I 54) and the golden ornaments from the Gorgon s head 
in the temple of Minerva at Syracuse (ib. iv GO foil., cf. iv 124) ; in the 
sack of Carthage an image of Apollo met with the same treatment (Val. 
Max. 1 1 18). Even Pericles reckoned the gold attire of the goddess among 
the resources of Athens, which might be used in case of emergency, though, 
if so used, it must be afterwards restored (Thuc. u 13). In like manner 
the kings of Judah used the gold of the Temple to buy off their enemies. 
Cf. Liv. v 50 6 jam ante in eo religio civitatis apparuerat, quod, cum in 
publico deesset aurum, ex quo summa pactae mercedis Gallis confieret, a 
matronis collatum acceperant ut sacro auro abstineretur ; Val. Max. vn (5 
4 (in the consulship of Marius and Carbo) senatus consulto aurea atque 
argentea templorum ornamenta, ne militibus stipend ia deessent, conjlata 
sunt ; Tac. Ann. xv 45 2. For the laneum pallium cf. what we are told 
of Caligula, who consecrated his own image (simulacrum aureum iconicum^ 
and had it dressed every day in robes such as he wore himself (Suet. Cal. 
22). Such robes were often presented to deities, e.g. the peplum of 
Athene. 

Gelo : tyrant of Syracuse at the time of the Persian war. He was 
renowned for his pious munificence both at home and at Delphi (Athen. 
vi p. 231) and Olympia (Pausan. vi 19 4). The spoils here mentioned 
were gained in the great victory at Himera B.C. 480. Hiero is named 
instead of his predecessor Gelo in the best MS of Val. Max. (i 1 ext. 3). 
He also was famed for his liberality to the temples at Delphi and Olympia. 
One of his offerings at Olympia, a golden helmet, is now in the British 
Museum. 

in eo cavillatus est : made it the subject of a jesting remark . 
For the use of in cf. below 87 in virtute gloriamur, i 71 in ceris diceretur, 
75 in Venere Coa, and Roby 1978. For the object clause after cay. cf. Plin. 
jV. If. xi 11% pisces non in totum sine ullo sono sunt : stridorem eumdentibus 
Jieri cavillantur. For similar jesting compare the language put into the 
mouth of Brennus by Justin xxiv 6 animum ad deorum immortalium 
templa convertit, scurriliter jocatus locupletes deos largiri hominibus 
oportere \ 

cum diceret : saying . On the postponement of the cwm-clause, see 
i 58, and Roby 1722. 



BOOK III CH. XXXIV 83. 177 

esse ad omne anni tempus : the edd. add aptum, which is omitted in 
the best MSS. Forchhammer p. 28 cites Caes. B. C. in 101 res quae sunt 
ad incendia (where also the inferior MSS add aptae}, Cato R. R. 125 vinum 
murteum est ad lateris dolorem ; cf. Cic. Att. in 7 2 reliqua tempora sunt 
non tarn ad medicinam quam ad finem doloris. [Plane. 59 ad praecepta 
aetas non est, where some add grams. J. E. B. M.] 

Epidauri : Forchhammer follows Lamb, in reading Epidaurii, as we 
have no reason to suppose that D. was ever at Epidaurus or w r oiild have 
dared to offer such an insult to the religious and patriotic feeling of 
the Greeks. However we have seen that C. was capable of a similar 
blunder in reference to the still more sacred temple at Olympia, so he 
may easily have mistaken the Epidaurian god for the god at Epidaurus ; 
and the reading of the MSS is supported by Val. Max. I extr. 3 idem 
Epidauri Aesculapio barbam demi jussit. The epithet might refer to 
the particular attributes of the Epidaurian image, bearded and enfolded 
with the snake, as distinguished from the Gortynian or Aulonian or 
the beardless Asclepius (Pans, n 11 p. 137, ib. iv 36 p. 373). His 
worship was introduced into Home from Epidaurus by order of the 
Sibylline books B.C. 293. For an account of the arrival of the sacred 
snake see Val. Max. I 8 2. Athenaeus (xv p. 695) tells the story in 
reference to a Sicilian Asclepius, cf. Cic. Verr. iv 128 signum Paeanis ex 
aede Aesculapii...sustulisti^ and iv 93 (of Agrigentum) signum Apollinis 
pidcherrimum...ex Aesculapii religiosissimo fano sustidisti. 

barbam auream : cf. Pers. n 56 sitque illis (i.e. the gods who send 
prophetic dreams) aurea barba, Petron. 58, Suet. Calig. 52. We are told 
of the indignation excited amongst the Christians at Carthage about 
400 A.D. by the gilding of the beard of Hercules, Neander in 105 (in Clark s 
series) ; he refers to Aug. Scrm. 24. 

imberbis: see above I 83. Miiller Anc. Art. tr. 394 2 gives exx. of 
an imberbis Aesculapius. 

84. mensas argenteas dicebat : a comparison of Athen. xv 
p. 693 and of the pseudo-Aristotelian Oecon. 11 42 seems to show that Cic. 
has misunderstood his authority. In the former we read on Se dodeicr^s 
TTJS TOV Aya$oC AaifJLovos Kpacrecos 1 tdos fji> /3acrraViz/ ray rpcnrt^as, e Set^e 8id 
rfjs avTov do-efleias o StKeXicor^y Aiovvcrios. Ta3 yap Ao-/cX^7ri&) fv TCUS 2vpa- 
Kovcrais dvaKei/jifvrjs rpaTre^rjs ^pvafji TrpOTTtooi/ aura) aKparov ayaOov Sai/zoi/o? 
TTJV rpayre^ai/ : in the latter Aiovvcrios TCI ifpcnrepnropfvo- 
t Sot 7rapa<fip.evr]v XP V(T ^I V *] dpyvpav, dyadov dai^ovos 
K(\evcras eyx^ai eKeXevvev dcpaipfw. (What follows illustrates other anec 
dotes in our text, 6Va Se TWV dyaX/Ltczrcoi/ (friaXrjv ti^e TrporfraKora, f mas av on 
e^aipelv cKfXetiev rd ff i^dna rd re ^pvaa KOI TOVS (TTffpdvovs 
rcoi/ ayaX/zaVcoi/, (pacrKcot/ avros Kal Kovfporepa KOI fJcoSeVrfpa Sovi/at, 
etra ifjidria fjiev Xeu/ca, o-Tf(f)dvovs Se \CVKLVOVS (of poplar) jrcptert&t.) There 
was no class of boni dei or dyadol dai/jioves, and we nowhere read of tables 
inscribed with their name. The real account of the matter is this : 
M. C!. TIT. 12 



178 BOOK in en. xxxi v 84. 

Dionysius makes a scoffing allusion to the Greek custom of taking a sip of 
unmixed wine and pouring a libation in honour of the giver of the grape 
(ayados ai/u,eoi>) at the end of the first course, before the tables were removed 
to make room for the symposium ; cf. Aristoph. Eq. 85 aKparov olvov ayadov 
Scu /ioi oy, Vesp. 525, Nicostratus (son of Aristophanes) in his comedy 
Pandrosus cited by Athen. XV 093 a XX ey^eacra QCLTTOV dyaOov dainovos 
drreveyKarut JJ.OL rrjv Tpdrre^av en nobdiv, iKavats Kf^opraa-fjiai yap- ayadov 
8ai/jiovos df^ojj.ai Aa/Soua* ayreWy/ce ravrrfv < nodcov, ib. II p. 38, Diod. IV 3. 
Instead of the formula dyadov dalp,ovos it was also customary to say 
vyieias (Becker Char. tr. p. 329). As the worship of Yyieia was combined 
with that of her father Asclepius, we may suppose that Dionysius on 
entering their common temple would pour a libation to her, as a signal to 
his servants to remove her table, which would probably be a votive offering 
and might even have her name inscribed upon it. 

mensas argenteas : cf. Macrob. Sat. in 1 1 in Papiriano jure relatum 
est arae vicem pracstare mensam dicatam, ut in templo inquit Junonis 
Populoniae augusta mensa est. Namque in fanis alia vasorum sunt et 
sacrae supellectilis, alia ornamentorum. Quae vasorum sunt, instruments 
instar habent, quibus semper sacrificia conficiuntur, quarum rerum principem 
locum obtinet mensa, in qua epulae libationesque et stipes reponuntur ; Festus 
s. v. mensae p. 157 M., ib. curialcs mensae p. 64, Virg. Aen. n 764. For 
arg. cf. Petron. 73 mensas totas arg"enteas cited by Mayor on Juv. xi 128. 
Verres took marble tables from the temples (Cic. Verr. iv 110). 

Victoriolas : these were most commonly found with statues (hence 
called vLKrjfpupoi) of Zeus and Athene, see Miiller Anc. Art pp. 422, 465, 
and the account of Phidias statue of Athene in Epict. n 8. Verres proved 
himself a worthy successor of Dionysius in this as in other modes of 
extortion, cf. Verr. iv 110 insistebat in manu Cercris dextra grande simula 
crum pulch err ime factum Victor iae ; hoc iste avellendum curavit,ib. 112. 

porrectis manibus : cf. Arist. Eccl. 778 \anfiaveiv ij/j-as ^ovov del vrj A/. 

KOI yap ol Beor yvaxTti airo TWV ^eipwv ye T(JJV dya\p,aTa>v, OTO.V yap fv%<o- 
fj.eo da StSovat rdyadd, ecrrrjKev fXTfivovra rrjv X^P* iTrr/ai , ov% u>s TI ftwaovT* 
o XX OTTCOS- ri \ij\l/Tai, Justin xxxix 2 of a king of Syria at Antioch, cum 
stipendia militibus deessent, templo Jovis solidum ex auro Victoriac signum 
tolli jubet, facetis jocis sacrilegium circumscribens, nam Victoriam commo- 
datam sibi ab Jove esse dicebat. 

esse enim stultitiam nolle sumere : Draeger 431 compares Plant. 
Stick. 139 stultitiast venatum ducere invitas canes, and Cic. Brut. I 17 4 
magnam stidtitiam timoris, id ipsum quod verearis ita timere ut &c. 

a sacris : if this is correct it must mean obtained from sanctuaries , 
but it is more natural to read sacri with Ba. 

impietatem in deos: for exx. of the preposition joining substantives 
see Index. 

Ch. xxxv. nee Olympius percussit : a different view is given 
Tnsr. v 57 foil., where it is said that no right-judging man can doubt that 



BOOK III CH. XXXV 84. 179 

Dionysius was most miserable : propter injustam dominatus cupiditatem in 
carcerem quodam modo ipse se induserat : lie could not trust even his wives 
or daughters or most intimate friends : then, after telling the story of 
Damocles, Cic. concludes hujus vita taetrius, miserius,- detestabilius excogi- 
tare nihil possum; see further on 85. Valerius (i 1 extr. 3) finds his 
punishment in the misfortunes of his son, lento enim gradu ad vindictam 
sui divina procedit ira ; Justin (xx 5) says assiduis belli certaminibus victus 
fractusque insidiis postremum suorum i?iter/icitur, herein differing from the 
account below, where see n. But Grote no doubt expresses the ordinary 
feeling of the contemporaries of Dionysius, when he says, in reference to 
the denunciations of impending wrath uttered by Phyton, the brave com 
mander of the Rhegians, the prophetic persuasion under which this 
unhappy man perished, that divine vengeance would soon overtake his 
destroyer, was no way borne out by the subsequent reality . 

atque : on its use after a negative sentence see Roby 2200. 

in Typanidis rogum : as regards the cause of his death, the account 
of Justin I.e. is confirmed by the statement in Nepos (Dion 2) that poison 
was given to him in his last illness by his physicians at the instance of 
his son, in order to prevent Dion s speaking to him about the division of 
the kingdom ; and by Plutarch (Dion 6), who cites Timaeus as his autho 
rity, and only differs from Nepos in imputing the action entirely to the 
physicians, who thought thus to secure the favour of the younger D. 
This is not inconsistent with the report of Diodorus (xv 4) that the illness 
of the elder Dionysius was itself caused by excessive feasting in his delight 
at the success of his tragedy (Avrpa "E/cropof) at Athens ; cf. Plin. vn 53, 
who makes him die simply of excitement on hearing the good news. The 
funeral of Dionysius was celebrated for its magnificence : thus Diodorus 
I.e. says of the younger D. TOV irarepa /zeyaXoTrpeTrcos 1 6a^as Kara TTJV A/cpo- 
TrdXiv Trpos TCUS /3acriA(Vi KaAou/ieVat? Tru Aau, ^(rc^aAicraro ra Kara rr\v 
apxqv. (As we know from Plut. Dion 29 that the citadel constructed by 
the elder D. stood within the island Ortygia, immediately fronting the 
mainland, this disposes of all emendations referring to Temenitis, which 
was at some distance from Ortygia.) Theo (Proyymn. 8 in Walz Rhet. Gr. I 
p. 164) cites as a pattern of good description the llth book of Philistus 
concerning the funeral of D. KOI rfjs irvpas TTJV TroiKiXiav : there are allusions 
to this pyre in Plut. Pelop. 34 fKeivuv 8e TWV TCKJHMV ov doKovaiv erepat 
Aa/ZTrpoTfpai yevecrQai rot? TO Aa/iTrpof OVK ev e\e(pavTi KOI \pv(TU> KOI TropCpvpats 
elvai vofj,iovcnv, cafTTrep <J?i AiaTos v/xi/coi/ Kai 6av^.a.^(>v TTJV Aiovvaiov racprjv, olov 
rpaytuS/as 1 fj.-ya\r]s rijs rvpavvibos e^oSiof 6earpiKov yei/o/zeVqi/, and in Moschion 
ap. Athen. V 206 Tip-aios davp-a^frai CTTI rfj Trvpa rfj KaTao-Ktvacrdeia-r) Aiovvo-icp 
ro) 2iKeAtay rvpdvvw. This occurs in a list of the chief works of famous 
engineers, as the engine (eAeVoAi?) used by Demetrius against Ehodes, the 
bier on which Alexander s body was carried &c., so that we should 
naturally translate Timaeus is admired for the pyre he constructed , 
understanding him to have been the engineer employed to construct the 

122 



180 BOOK ITT OIL XXXV 84. 

pyre (so Grote Pt. n ch. 84, vol. xi p. 91), but the name mentioned in con 
nexion with the engine of Demetrius is not Epimachius, its actual con 
structor (as we learn from Vitr. x 22 4), but a certain Diocleides of 
Abdera ; hence it has been supposed that Diocleides was a writer, admired 
for his description of the Helepolis, or even (taking davfj-d^rai as middle, 
so Schweig. in loc. !) that he was one who expressed his admiration for it. 
(In Didot s Script. Alex. Magn. p. 133 it is quoted Oavpa^TM.} On the 
same principle we should understand Timaeus here to be the historian, 
though it would seem from previous quotations that his description could 
not have been so celebrated as that by Philistus. We may form some 
idea of the magnificence of the pyre from the account given of another 
pyre by Herodian iv 2 (quoted in Diet, of Ant. under apotheosis). We 
come now to the word typanidis, various emendations of which will be 
found in Not. Crit., some turning on the disease, others on the place of 
burial. As we have seen that the pyre itself was so celebrated, it seems 
not improbable that the name of the constructor may have been added. 
Professor Jebb however prefers the reading of B (tyrannidis) and refers in 
support of it to Isocr. Archid. 49, where it is said that D. was once shamed 
out of a flight from Syracuse by the words of one of his friends, reminding 
him coy KaXov vra<j)Lov TJ rvpawLs the purple is a noble winding-sheet 
[cf. the words of Theodora in the sedition A. D. 532, as cited by Gibbon 
ch. xl, For my own part I adhere to the maxim of antiquity, that the 
throne is a glorious sepulchre . Swainson], and so rvpawwv TOV ftiov 
diereXfo-ev (Cambr. Philol. Trans. I p. 21, where there is a wrong reference 
to J. of Phil, v 266). There is a remarkable resemblance between these 
words and those quoted above from Philistus (a writer cited in the De 
Divinationc, which was written just after the N. D. and taken probably 
from the same authorities), but 1 do not think tyrannidis rogum is an 
expression which Cic. could have used. If it meant anything, it must 
mean, as Lambinus observes, the extinction of the tyranny , like bustum 
rei publicae in Piso 9. I should myself suggest that the original reading 
may have been something as follows, in suo lectulo mortuus, ut tyrannidis 
fabula magnificum haberet exitum, in Typanidis (?) rogum Hiatus est. If 
Typanidis is right (any name with the same termination would account 
for the omission of the words following tyrannidis}, it would probably be 
after the form Alcibiades, Carneades. According to Plutarch S. JV. V. p. 
559 the body of D. was afterwards taken up and cast beyond the bound 
aries by the Syracusans. See on the whole passage Fortsch Qu. Tull. 
pp. 1 5 Naumburg 1837, Schomann Opusc. in p. 353. 

DC. (3). Such a state of things is inconsistent with any moral 
government. 85. 

85. invita versatur oratio : for the personification cf. i 102 haec 
oratio deos spoliat motu, Ac. II 101 condusio ipsa loquitur. 
recte videretur : we should be justified in so thinking . 



BOOK III CH. XXXV 85. 181 

virtutis et vitiorum... grave ipsius conscientiae pondus : the 
weight of the consciousness of virtue or vice , i.e. the weight of a 
good or bad conscience . So far all schools were agreed, cf. Milo 61 magnet 
vis est conscientiae, judices, et magna in utramque partem, ut neque timeant 
qui nihil commiserint, et poenam semper ante oculos versari putent qui 
peccarint ; Parad. 18 te conscientiae stimulant maleficiorum tuorum ; tc 
metus exanimant judiciorum atque legum : quocumque adspexisti, ut furiac, 
sic tuae tibi occu-rrunt injuriae, quae te suspirare libere non sinunt ; Leg. I 40 
poenas luunt non tarn judiciis...sed cos agitant insectanturque furiae... 
angora conscientiae fraudisque cruciatu ; Lucr. in 9781023, Juv. xiir 
192 foil, with Mayor s nn. 

sine ulla divina ratione : without any divine arrangement ; it was 
this negation which separated the Epicurean and sceptical schools from 
the others. The true view is given Cluent. 159 maximi aestimare conscien- 
tiam mentis suae, quam ab dis immortalibus accepimus, quae a nobis divelli 
non potest ; Har. Resp. 39 a dis quidem immortalibus quae potest homini 
major esse poena furore atquc dementia ?.. .tu cum domos civium evertis... 
cum servos concitas, turn das eas poenas quae solae sunt hominum sceleri a 
dis immortalibus constitutac...deorum tela in impiorum mentibus figuntur ; 
Leg. ii 43 meritas dis gratias ago (for punishing the guilty), sed nimis 
saepe secus aliquanto videmus evadere. Non enim, Quinte, recte existimamus 
quae poena divina sit, sed opinionibus vulgi rapimur in error em... morte aut 
dolore corporis aut luctu animi aut offensione judicii hominum miserias pon 
der amus, quae fateor multis bonis viris accidisse. Sceleris est poena tristis 
et praeter cos eventus, qui sequuntur, per se ipsa maxima est...Ponam brevi 
duplicem poenam esse divinam, quod constat et ex vexandis vivorum animis et 
ea fama mortuorum, ut eorum exitium et judicio mvorum et gaudio compro- 
betur ; Pers. in 35 magne pater divum saevos punire tyrannos haud alia 
ratione velis, cum dira libido moverit ingenium...mrtutem videant intabes- 
cantque relicta. The question of the apparent delay and uncertainty of 
punishment is discussed in Plutarch S. N. V. especially pp. 554 and 564 
foil., and Plato Gorg. 525. Hebrew and Greek philosophy both reached 
their highest point in treating of this great argument, the former in the 
Book of Job, the latter in Plato s Republic. 

jacent omnia : all is prostrate, ruined , cf. I 4. 

dissignata: cf. Nettleship in J. of Phil, x 206 foil., who distinguishes 
between this form, as meaning to mark out or arrange in different direc 
tions and so to order or dispose, and the form designo, which means to 
mark out in one direction and so plan or design ; see above I 26. 

nee recte factis praemia: epist. ad Brut, i 15 Solon... rem publicam 
duabus rebus contineri dixit, praemio et poena. 

mundi divina moderatio nulla est : there is no such thing as a 
divine government of the world . The words in homines are no doubt a 
gloss added by a reader, who held that there might be a divine govern 
ment of unconscious matter, independently of rewards and punishments. 



182 BOOK III OH. XXXV 85. 

I think however Madvig is unnecessarily fastidious in objecting to the 
phrase mod. in homines, cf. Invent, n 163 temperantia est rationis in I ibid i- 
nem moderata dominatio, and so with imperium, regnum and similar words. 

DC. (4). It is no answer to say that l de minimis non curat lex\ 
Life and civil status cannot be considered minima . 8G. 

86. at enim minora : see n 167 n., Die. n 105, Philo p. 644 M. TO 

TTpofjirjdes eVi ra TU>V Iv KOCT/ZCO crweKriKoorarfl e(popav d-yaTra, Kaddrrcp ev rats 
fiacriXciais /cat crrpaTap^iais eVi ras rroXas K.a\ ra <jrparo7rea, OVK CTTL riva reoz> 
rjfj.\rjfjLV(i}v Koi d(pavwi> eva rov Trpooru^oVra. 

[agellos- viticulas : cf. Plin. Ep. i 24 1 and 4. J. E. B. M.] 

persequuntur : l examine minutely , follow out into minute detail , 
cf. ii 159 persequi utilitates, 152 sollertiam persequi, I 111 volvptates perse- 
quitur nominatim, Pis. 53 omnes solitudines persequi. 

uredo : blasting . Columella (in 20 1) and Pliny (X. II. xxvin 
68) agree that this is caused by cold. The latter identifies it with carbun- 
cidus. So uro is used of nipping cold. 

omnia minima: see n 141 n., Orat. n 162 omnes tenuissimas particular 
atque omnia minima mansa in os inserant, and Part. Orat. 60; so we find 
omnia summa, omnia ultima &c. 

sic enim dicitis : i.e. you Stoics (as in the passage just quoted from 
Philo). This particular illustration is not given in Bk. n. See below 
90. 

Formiano : Formiae, the modern Mola di Ga icta, was a favorite site 
for villas. The ruins of what is supposed to be Cicero s villa are still 
pointed out. On Ilutilius see above 80. 

amissa salute : refers to his exile, the interdict from fire and water, 
just as restitutor salutis meae (Mil. 39) is used of Lentulus, who proposed 
the law recalling Cic. from exile, cf. Pis. 34 nemini sit triumplius honorifi- 
centius quam mild sahts restitutioque pcrscripta. Like caput, salus implies 
the full enjoyment of the rights of a citizen. 

DC. (o). [If it be alleycd that all external goods are trifles in 
comparison of virtue], it is just these external goods which are at the 
disposal of Heaven. Virtue is our own, and is therefore never made 
the subject of prayer. Men have deified virtue in the abstract, but in 
reality it is only a quality of their own nature. 86 88. 

(As the arguments which follow all relate to the general question of 
rewards and punishments, it seems better to suppose this to be connected 
with it in the manner suggested above, rather than to treat it as an 
independent argument, denying the doctrine maintained in the previous 
book, 165, 167, that human virtue is derived from God.) Cf. Plut. St. 
Hep. C. 31 etTrep ovv 6 6tos aperrjv p.V nv didcocnv dv6pa>7rois, a\\a TO KO.\OV 
avdaiperov eVrti>, TrAorroy de /coi vyifiav ^copls 1 dpfrfjs fitficocrtv, OVK tv xprjcro- 

s v.r.X. 



BOOK III C1I. XXXVI 80. 183 

Ch. xxxvi. [vineta: add to lexx. Stat. Silvae in 5. 100, Panegyr. 11 
22, Aur. Viet. Caes. 37 3. 

oliveta : also in Varro, Columella, Plin. //. N. xvn 245 and Sen. Ep. 
86 14, 17, 18. From the vtilgata the word has passed into the English 
bible. J. E. B. M.] 

virtutem nemo umquam acceptam deo rettulit : none ever im 
puted his virtue to God , lit. * credited God with it . The metaphor is 
taken from a ledger, on one side of which we put the outgoings (expensa), 
on the other side the receipts (accepta), cf. Verr. i 39 minus Dolabella 
Verri acceptum rettulit quam Verres illi expensum tulit. The statement 
is very far from the truth : Homer (II. xni 730) gives the old Greek 
doctrine in the words aAAco p.ev yap efico/ce Beos TroAe^ta epya, aAA&> fi eV 
o-r/7$ecro-t ri$ei voov evpvorra Zevs eV$A6V, and throughout his poems any 
unusual display of courage or wisdom or self-restraint is attributed to the 
influence of a deity, cf. Find. Isthm. Ill 4 Zeu, /zeyaAai aperat Ovarois 
errovTai f< (redev, ib. frag. 85 Bergk 0eov fie v fieiai/ros apx^v exacrroi/ ev 
(Boeot. for e s) Trpayos evdela fir) <\fvdos aperay e Aeti/, reAeurai re KaAAioyey, 
Aesch. Ag. 901 TO JUT) KOKCO? (ppovelv Bfov fieyurrov ficopoz/, Eur. Med. 635 
orco^poo-vi/a 8(oprjij.a KaAAtorov <9ecoi/, and nn. above on n 165 and 167. In 
the time of Socrates the question how virtue is acquired was a favorite 
subject for discussion : Protagoras professed to teach it, i.e. to make men 
good citizens, and in the dialogue called after him, Socrates is represented 
as saying eyw yap ev jj.ev raj e/jLTrpo(rdfV xpovco ^yovfjirjv OVK elvai dv Q parr ivrjv 
f7ri/j,\fiav T/ ayadol ol ayadol yiyvovrcu, vvv 8f 7re7ret(7/zai (Prot. 328) ; which, 
though expressed ironically in the particular passage, seems to have been 
his genuine belief. Yet this does not prevent him from praying to Pan and 
the other gods at the end of the Phaedrus Sotr/re /zot /caAco yevevQai ravdodev 
eo)dfv 8e ocra e^co, rots evros civai fjioi (ptAta* TrAoucrtoi fie vojj.ioifjLi TOV cro(f)6v. 
The question is expressly discussed in the Meno, concluding in the words 
$ei a /jLoipa TJ^LV (paiverai 7rapaytyiop.vrj ij aper^ ols Trapayiyt/erai (p. 100). In 
the Republic Plato recognized all the different factors which had been op 
posed by earlier disputants : the lower practical virtues of the Auxiliaries 
are mainly the result of discipline and habituation, the higher philosophic 
virtue of the Guardians is due in great part to learning and instruction, 
but Beia /iolpa still plays its part in the original distinction between the 
gold and silver natures. Aristotle deals with the same question Eth. x 9 
6 yivevdai ayadovs o lovrai ol jueV (piWi, 01 fi e"$e(, ol fie fitSa^. To /xeV 
out/ rfjs <pucrea>s S/yAoj/ cos OVK e <p r^jLiv vTrap^ei, aAAa fita rivas dfias alrias rols 
CD? a\T/^cos tvrvxea-iv vnapx^i K.T.\. and so in Bk. I 9 (of happiness which he 
makes to consist SO largely in virtue) arropelrat TrorepoV eVrt fj-afyrov rj 
edio~rov rj a AAcoj TTCOS- ao KrjTov, rj Kara Tiva Bfiav p.olpav rj KOL fiia TV^^V Tvapa- 
yiverat fl /Jiev ouv KOI aXAo n eVri Qewv ficop^/za ai ^pcoTrotf, evXoyov KO\ rr\v 
fvo~aip.oviav 6e6o~ftoTov eiVat...(paiVerat fie KO.V ei JJ-TJ dforre/jLTTTos O~TIV ) aAAa fit 
oper?)i/ Kai nva fiad^o-LV ry ao-Krjo-LV Trapayiyverai, ra>v dfiordrtov flvaL. Hippo- 
damus, the Neo-Pythagorean, says that, of the two components of happi- 



BOOK III CM. XXXVI 8(3. 

ness, we obtain virtue 8m rav Qeiav fj.o1pav, rav Se cvrvxi-av Sia rav Qvarav 
(Orell. Op. Nor. n p. 284). Horace (Ep. i 18. Ill) agrees with Cotta here, 
sed satis est orare Jo can quae donut ct aufert, det vitam, dct opes, aequum 
mi animum ipse parabo ; and so Seneca (Ep. 41 1) bonam mentcm quam 
stultum est optare, cum possis a te impetrare. Such a view seems to follow 
naturally from the Stoic doctrine of avrap<fia and their distinction between 
things in our power and things not in our power; but there is the same in 
consistency in their language, as there is in that of Christian writers, where 
they treat of Faith and Works, Free-Will and Grace. Thus Balbus above 
(n 79) mans fides virtus concordia unde nisi ab superis defluere potuerunt ? 
Seneca (Provid. 6) quare bonis viris patitur aliquid mail deus fieri? Hie 
vero non patitur. Omnia mala ab us removit, scelcra ct Jlagitia ct cogita- 
tioncs improbas ct avida consilia ct libidinem caccam : ipsos tuetur ct vin- 
dicat ; numquid hoc quoque a deo cxigis, ut bonorum virorum etiam sarcinas 
servet? also Ep. 73 15 non sunt di fastidiosi, non invidi : admittunt 
(ad astra homines} ct ascendentlbus manum porrigunt. Niraris hominem ad 
deos ire? deus ad hominem venit, immo, quod est propius, in homines renit : 
nulla sine deo mens bona cst, and Juvenal x 346 nil ergo optabunt homines? 

si consilium vis, pcrmittes ipsis cxpcndcrc numinibus quid conveniat 

Ut tamen et poscas aliquid... orandum cst ut sit mens sana in corpora 
sano ; fortem posce animum mortis terrore vacantem...qui ferre queat quos- 
cumque labores, ncsciat irasci, cupiat nihil &c. ; and then shortly afterwards 
the other side, monstro quod ipse tlbi possis dare, see Mayor on x 363. 
But by far the most interesting statements of the Stoic faith on this 
subject are to be found in M. Aurelius, as in the passage where he thanks 
the Gods for keeping him pure from the vices of youth (i 17); and in ix 40 
"either the Gods have power or they have not. If they have not, why 
do you pray ? If they have, why do you not rather pray that they would 
grant you freedom from fear and grief and desire, instead of praying for 
the presence or absence of the outward things which excite these feelings ? 
...But perhaps you will say eY e /uoi avra of 6eo\ eVo irj era v... But who told 
you that the Gods cannot help us even as regards the things in our own 
power (ra e0 -qjj.lv} ? Begin at any rate to pray about these things, and you 
will see for yourself. This one prays grant me such and such an evil desire 
or avert from me tins danger . Do you on the contrary pray take from 
me this desire and this fear /cat $e<w;jei TL -ytVrai" (shortened). St Paul 
gives both sides, the human and the divine, in Phil. II 12 ^era (pufiov *ni 
rpopov TTJV eaurooz/ crcoT?7pi ai> Karepyci^fcrde. deos yap CCTTIV 6 evepycov eV vfjuv Kat 
TO 6i\eiv /cot TO eWpyeii>. [Add Sen. Ep. 90 1, Max. Tyr. 11 8, Sil. xvi 
8386. J. E. B. M.] 

87. nimirum recte : doubtless with good reason . 

propter virtutem laudamur: so Arist. Eth. i 12 rbv St /catov *a< rov 

di/Sptiov /cat oXcoy TOV ayaOov /cat TTJV apfTTjv eTraivov^v dia ras Trpd^eis . virtues 
belong to the class eVaii/eTa as distinguished from ri^ia, ib. Ill 5 2, Rhet. 
I 9, Etlt. Eud. II 6 eVei S rj re aper?) /cat TJ KtiKta /cat Ta OTT CIVTCOV tpyn T(i p.ev 



BOOK III CH. XXXVI 87. 185 



a, ra Se \l/Kra (^eyerai yap Kal (7raivf iTai...O(Ta>v avrol oirtot 
yap aXXoy a trio y, eVea/os 1 Kal TOV "\lsoyov Kai TOV eTraivov e ^ei), 8ijAov ort Kal 
77 aperrj KOI 77 KaKia Trepl raCr early wv avros airios, Cic. Or. II 343 virtus, 
quae est per se ipsa laudabilis et sine qua nihil laudari potest, Acad. n 39 
ubi igitur virtus, si nihil situm est in ipsis nobis ? 

recte gloriamur : see n. on nulla re nisi immortalitate cedens n 1 53 
and examples of the opposite side of Stoic teaching cited in my Anc. Phil. 
p. 169. For the Christian view cf. 1 Cor. IV 7 ri e e^eis o OVK e Xa/3ej ; et Se 
Kal eXa/Sey, rt Kau^acrai u>s fJ-rj Xa/3coi> ; 

nostrae laudi assumptum : nothing has been gained for our glory . 
The verb occurs with the same construction but a somewhat different 
sense in Sull. 85 dico illud quod...non auctoritati assumam sed pudori meo, 
Plane. 56 ut eorum reprehensione/n vos vestrae prudentiae assumere, meae 
modestiae r emitter e debeatis. 

qms quod bonus vir esset gratias dis egit : we have seen that 
M. Aurelius did this some two hundred years after Cicero wrote, but so 
did Cic. himself, (Sulla 40) di immortales ! vobis enim tribuo quae vestra 
sunt...vos profecto animum mcum turn conservandae patriae cupiditate 
incendistis ; vos me ab omnibus ceteris cogitationibus ad unam salutem rei 
publicae convertistis foil.; cf. also the saying attributed to Bias (Stob. Flor. 
Ill 6, Diog. L. I 88) orav ayaOov TTpao O J/ff, deovs, fir) creavroi , aZric5. 

optimus maximus : see on n 64. 

salvos incolumes : safe and unharmed . The word inc. means more 
than mere escape from destruction : we find it joined \vith salv. in Fin. IV 
19, Vcrr. I 72. 

opulentos copiosos : the latter is rather the stronger word, bearing to 
the former the same relation as copia (co-opia) to ops. Compare Div. in 
Caec. 55 midier copiosa et locuples. 

88. Herculi decumam : vowed to him as god of treasures. See 
Macrob. Sat. in 12 2 testatur Terentius Varro in ea satira quae inscribitur 
Trepl Kepavvov majores solitos decimam Herculi vovere, nee decem dies inter- 
mittere quin polluccrent (i.e. give a public banquet in his honour); Pint. 
Sull. 35 aTToducov rfjs ovtrt as aTrao-T/f o SvXXay rw Hpa/cXei 8cKarr]i> eVnao-etf 
eVoietro ra> 8rjp.co TroXvreXfTy, Macr. Sat. Ill 6 11 (quoting from the 
Memorabilia of Masurius Sabinus) M. Octavius Herrenus...bene re gesta 
decimam Ilerculi profanavit; Varro L. L. vi 54 hinc l profanatum > in 
sacrificio, atque inde Herculi decuma appellata ab eo est, quod sacriftcio 
quodam fanatur, id est ut fani lege sit: id dicitur polluctum &c.; Plant. 
True. II 7. 11 de mina una deminui modo quinque nummos ; mihi detraxi 
partem Herculaneam ; Bacch. iv 3. 29 Ilerculem fecit ex patre : decumam 
partem ci dedit, sibi novem abstulit ; Stick, n 1. 80 ut decumam partem 
Ilerculi polluceam ; Pers. n 10 si sub rastro crepet argenti mihi seria 
dextro Hercule: Hor. Sat. n 6. 10 foil., Plant. Rud. 425, 1419, Cure. 
193, Most. 24, 972, Festus p. 237 M., Diod. iv 22, xx 14, Pint. Qu, Rom. c. 
18, Crassus pp. 543 and 550. Dion. Hal. in 45, Erasm. Aday. s. v. Hcrcide 



186 BOOK III CH. XXXVI 88. 

dextro , Beier on Off. n 58. [See the inscriptions on the temple at Reate 
erected by Mummius from the tithe of the spoils of Corinth, Corp. Inscr. 
Lat. i no. 542, and compare 541 with Mommsen s comments (Wilmanns 
27 a, b) : also Corp. I. L. I 1175 (Wilmanns 142), and 1113 (Wilmanns 43); 
ib. 1290, x 3956. R,] 

si sapiens factus esset : the apodosis se daturum is understood, as in 
Liv. xxxi 21 praetor aedem Diovi vo-vit, si eo die hostes fud inset. See Roby 
1750. 

Pythagoras : on his discovery of the proof of Euclid I 47 (that the 
square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares on the lines 
containing the right angle), cf. Vitr. ix praef. 7 id Pythagoras cum invenisset, 
non dubitans se a Musis in ca inventione monitum, maximas gratias agens 
hostias dicitnr Us immolavisse. Diog. L. (vin 12) cites Apollodorus as an 
authority for the statement and quotes an epigram on the subject ; so 
also Athen. x p. 418. Plutarch (Mor. p. 1094, and p. 720 A) questions 
whether the offering \vas not made for a different theorem. Proclus in 
his Comm. on Euclid 1. c. cites Eudemus as his authority. See for other 
reff. Zeller I p. 294 n. 

ne Apollini quidem Delio : Cic. forgets that the Delian Apollo was 
himself a vegetarian, so that Pythagoras had no choice in the matter ; 
cf. Diog. L. VIII 13 flcdfJiov TTpocTKvvrjcrat. (TivOayopav) povov tv A^Xco TOV ATroX- 
\covos TOV revcTOpos...$ta TO rrvpovs Kal Kpidas Kal noTrava jj.6va TL0(o-0ai eV 
auTou avev Trvpos, lepe iov de p.rj$i>, coy (pijcnv Apicrrore X^s 1 eV A/jXi cov 
Theophr. ap. Porphyr. Abstin. II 28 6ecopf]crai de eo-riv e< TOV nepl 
TI v\)V (Ta>^ofj.evov (Bco/jiov, TTpos ov ovdfvos 7rpoo~ayo/j.evov Trap* avTols OVTC 
Qvo/jitvov In CIVTOV (MOV, evQ-ffiav KK\rjrai /3co/zo?, Censorin. 2 Deli ad 
Apollinis genitoris aram, ut Timaeus auctor cst, nemo kostiam caedit ; 
Clem. Al. Strom, vn 32, Jambl. V. P. 25, Macrob. Sat. ill 6 (citing Varro 
and Cloatius). The best authorities do not impute total abstinence from 
meat to Pyth., even Porph. V. P. 34 only says that he rarely partook of 
the sacrificial flesh, and (3G) that he usually propitiated the gods with 
vegetable offerings, e/z\|/u^ot? oe r)<ia-Ta TT\rjv el p.rj TTOTC d\eKTopio-i Kal TU>V 
Xoiptov rot? oTraXcoraroi?. He then continues, in reference to the offering 
here mentioned, f(3ovdvTr)o~e Se TTOTC arainvov a>s (facial (Bovv ol a/cpt/^eorepoi 
(i.e. an ox of dough); so also Greg. Naz. Ep. 185. 

quamvis licet... consecr emus : l we may dedicate temples as we will , 
cf. Tusc. iv 53 quamvis licet insectemur istos, Leg. ill 24 quamvis enumeres 
multos licet, liar. Resp. c. 9 quam volumus licet nos amemus, Lucr. vi 
GOO, 620. 

haec in nobis sita : the same division of these abstract divinities is 
found above 61, also 11 61, 79. 

ut Diogenes : see above 83. 

DC. (G). The truth is piety and impiety have no effect on our 
happiness. Witty answers of Diagoras on this point. 89. 



BOOK III CH. XXXVII 89. 187 

Ch. xxxvn 89. exitus : ends , cf. Div. n 24 non iyitur fatales 
exitus habuerunt (Pompeius, Crassus, Caesar). 

DiagOraS : cf. I 63 n., Athenag. Leg. 5 Aiayopa p.ev yap etKorcos- adeurrjra 
fTT6Ka\ovv Adrjvaioi fj-rj /j,6vov TOV OpfpiKov els p.eo~ov KaraTidevTi \6yov Kal ra 
fv EXftKTifi Kal TO. TWV Ka/3eipa>i> 8r]fj,evovTt ^ucrrr/pta /cat TO TOV c Hpa<Xeovf ... 
KaraKonrovTi oavov, avTiKpvs 8t arrofpaivopevco p.r/8e oXco? flvat deov (this is 
explained by Epiphan. Ancorat. p. 106 OVK d<oi;ovo-i Atayopou rov TOV ioiov 
Hpa/cXea v\ivov ovra 81 dnopiav gvXav vnoKaiiO-avros Kal e7 
aura) \eyovrof, "Aye 8e HpaxXfS TOV rpicrKcuSeKaroz d6\ov 
TOV o\lsov jfjuv \lsrjo-<0v) ; also Lys. Andoc. 17 (Andocides is more impious 
than Diagoras) eKflvns p.tv yap Xoyo> Trept ra aXXo rpta itpa Kal eopray ^(7e /3e(, 
OVTOS Se epyco Trept ra eV TTJ avTov TroXet. The following anecdote is told of 
Diogenes the Cynic by Diog. L. vi 59. 

Samothracam : the seat of the Cabeiric mysteries, see I 119 n., Cont. 
Rev. for May 1882, and Conze Arch. Unters. auf Samothrake, Vienna 1875. 
The Cabeiri were much invoked in dangers at sea, cf. Orphic Hymn 37. 4 
oire ^apodpaKrjv ieprjv %06va vaLfTaovTfs Kivdvvovs dvrjTcZv aTrepvKfTf TTOVTO- 
TT\avriTU)v. This custom was supposed to be handed down from the time 
of the Argonauts, see Diod. ix 43 and 49, also Aristoph. Pax 278, Clem. 
Horn, ix 17, Lobeck Agl. pp. 1218, 1219. 

atque ei quidam : for the omission of the verb dixisset cf. Draeger 
116, Roby 1441. 

tabulis pictis : cf. Hor. Od. I 5. 13 me tabula sacer votiva paries indicat 
uvida suspendisse potenti vestimenta marls deo ; Tib. I 3. 28 nunc dea (i.e. 
Isis much invoked in storms at sea) nunc succurre milii, nam posse mederi 
picta docet templis multa tabella tuis ; Juv. xn 27 (naufragium] votiva 
testantur fana tabella plurima: pictores quis nescit ab Isidepasci? ib. xiv 301 
with Mayor s nn. 

ita fit : so it happens , I 88, 121. 

qui ilium recepissent : for having taken him on board , cf. Hor. Od. 
in 2. 26 vetabo qui Cereris sacrum vulgarit arcanae sub isdem sit trabibus 
fragilemve mecum solvat phaselon: Diog. L. I 86 (Bias) 
a(Tf/3eVi xei/AabjneV?7$ rfjs v(w$ KaKfivcav TOVS deovs eViAcaXou/xe 
/ZT) alaOavtovrai V/JLCLS fvBafte TrXe oj/ras; Antiphon V 82 rroXXol rjdrj a 
/J.T) Kadapol ^etpay 77 aXXo TL futUFft/Ot e^oi/rey, <rvvfl<T$avTts fls TO 7i\olov avva- 
rro!>\eo~av /nera TTJS avTatv v/^w^^s TOVS ocricoy Siafceip-tVous ra Trpbs TOVS 6(ovs, 
Eurip. EL 1353, Callim. Cer. 117, Xen. Cyr. vni 1 25, also the story of 
Jonah. [Add Lys. 6 19, Aesch. Theb. 593 seq., Theophr. Char. 25, Apul. 
Apol. p. 418 Oud., and the curse in C.I. G. in n. 5773 (Rhein. Mus. 1869, 
pp. 474 6). J. E. B. M.] According to Athen. xm p. 611 Diagoras was 
shipwrecked as he was going into exile from Athens. 

ad fortunam nihil intersit : cf. n 43 interesse ad mentis aciem. Job, 
in his protest against the orthodox view of his time, utters much the same 
sentiment (ix 22), but in him it is the step, not to Academic agnosticism, 
but to a higher faith, the belief in immortality. 



188 BOOK in CH. xxxvn 90. 

DC. (7). Intentional neglect is a great fault in a ruler, and in a 
Divine Ruler all neglect must be intentional. 90. 

90. intuit : cf. I 109 n., also I 87, Reid on Ac. n 79 dicit. Forcli- 
hammer, who denies this use of the 3rd person (p. 43 foil.), would read 
inquitis. It appears to me here a natural politeness to avoid the ap 
pearance of directly controverting the person addressed ; and in this 
particular case (as we saw above 8G) the argument was not really 
employed by Balbus. 

quid est simile : where is the parallel] see above 9, 15, 70, Div. 
II 108. 

scientes: the argument is kings knowingly overlooking a fault are 
greatly to blame ; (if they do so in ignorance it is a different thing;) but the 
very plea of ignorance is denied to the gods , i.e. it is an a priori absurdity 
which needs no discussion. 

DC. (8). It is argued that vice is punished in the descendants of 
the guilty person : what should we sat/ of such justice in a human 
ruler ? 90. 

Ch. xxxvin. praeclare : ironical, like praeclara in 40, 73. 

istius modi : cpialifying legis. 

ut condemnaretur films : see above 15 nn. and compare the 
Second Commandment unto the 3rd and 4th generation and the execu 
tion of the innocent descendants of Saul at the request of the Gibeonites, 
with the later teaching of Ezekiel xvm 20 the soul that sinneth it shall 
die : the son shall not bear the iniquity of the father, neither shall the 
father bear the iniquity of the son , Jerem. xxxi 29, Job xxi 19 : also 
Homer II. IV 160 eiVep yap re KOI avriK OXi^Trioy OVK e re Xeo-crei , C K 5e 
Kol o-v//-e reXei, avv re /zeyaXw aTTTiarav crvv afpf/cnv Ke<paX?yo-i yvvaify re Ka\ 
TeKtfcrariv, Solon XIII 25 Bergk roiavrr] ZTJVOS Tre Xerai rions, ou e e/cacrrw, 
to<T7rep dvrjrbs civr/p, yiyverai ou^oXof aiel S ov e \f\rjde Sta/zTrepey, OCTTIS 
aXtrpoi/ 6vp,ov e ;^, Trai/rcof S e y re Xo? e ^ecpai^ aXX o /zeV avriK erio"ez>, o S 
vcrrepov el Se (f^vyaxTLV avToi, fj^rjde 6eu>v /iolp emovaa KL^TJ^ rfXvde Travrcas 
avdis avairioi epya rivovaiv TJ naldes TOVTCOV rj yeVo? wv oTrtVca, Pint. S. N. V. 
p. 557 with Wyttenbach s n., Hor. Od. in 6 ddicta majorum immeritus hies 
Romane, Mayor on Juv. xm 206. Dionysius Hal. vm 20 says it was 
a principle of Roman, as distinguished from Greek law T , not to punish the 
children for the crimes of their parents, but that this had been forgotten 
in the Civil Wars, vf^a-rjrov deols epyov. [Add Plato Leg. 949 B, Isocr. 
Paneg. 157, Sen. Ben. in 27 2, Pint. Solon 24, Plin. Paneg. 64 3, Dio 
LXXIV 2 1, Schom. Gr. Alterth. n 254, Preller-Jordan R. Myth. I 3 256. 
J. E. B. M.] 

quinam paretur : what measure can be found V = rls uv yivoiro ; im 
plying a wish. Charisius I p. 70 cites the lines as by Attius : they are 
probably from the Tl/i/cste*. 



7300K III OH. XXXVIII 90. 189 

internecioni : occurs in Attius (1. 451 Ribbeck), common in Caesar 
and Cic. 

poenis luendis : when will vengeance grow weary of exacting penal 
ties for the death of Myrtilus T when will the blood-feud come to an end ? 
lit. when will weariness of vengeance be given to (i.e. dawn upon) the 
paying of penalties for the death of Myrtilus V Cf. the expressions dat 
finem miseriis Att. 293 Ribb.,y?ii s curai datur ib. 577; or should we rather 
takepoen. lu. as the Abl. of Manner, by the exaction of penalties ? For 
the subject matter cf. Aesch. Agam. 1545 (Clytemnestra s words of the 
daifJKdv HXticrQevidav, the 7rd\aios dpip-vs aXaorcop Arpecoy). 

Myrtili : Oenomaus having promised to give his daughter Hippodamia 
to the suitor who should conquer him in the chariot race, Pelops bribed his 
charioteer Myrtilus the son of Hermes to loosen the pin in the wheel of 
his master s chariot. This being done the chariot was upset and Oeno 
maus killed. Pelops journeying home with Hippodamia and Myrtilus 
threw the latter into the sea in order to avoid paying what he had 
promised. The subsequent calamities of the house of Pelops were attri 
buted to the dying curse of Myrtilus, Eurip. Orest. 982 1010, Soph. EL 
504 cu TIfXoTros a Trpocrdev TroXi/novos nnreia cos e/xoXes 1 alavrj rade ya. evrf 
yap 6 TTovTHrdels MuprtXos fKOifAa@r)...ov T L TTCO eXi7rei> K ro95 O LKOV TFO\VTTOVOS 
aiKia (see above 68 agnum n.). 

91. utrum poetae dixerim : I should find it hard to determine 
whether the poets led the Stoics astray, or the Stoics added their sanction 
to the poets . The Stoic arguments on this subject were probably such as 
we read in Pint. 1. c. pp. 557 560. Many exx. of the descendants suffering 
for the sins of their ancestors are given ib. pp. 556, 557, among them the 
mocking justification made by Agathocles for ravaging Corey ra, because 
the Phaeacians had shown hospitality to Ulysses, the enemy of Sicily . 

portenta : see 1 18. flagitia : i 66. 

D c. (9). We need not have recourse to the Deity to explain such 
moral government as actually exists in the world. It is simply a 
result of the laws of human nature. 91. 

(Cicero has cut down his original so much as to obscure the force of his 
illustrations. Apparently the deaths of the offenders against Archilochus 
and Hipponax must have been attributed by some Stoic to the vengeance 
of the gods. Cotta argues that no external cause is needed; they are 
sufficiently explained by wounded feeling.) 

Hipponax: of Ephesus, the inventor of the limping iambic (Iambus 
scazon or Choliambus] in which the last foot of the senarius was changed 
to a trochee or spondee, the fifth foot being always an iambus, flourished 
in the latter half of the 6th century B.C. He was notorious fur the bitter 
satires with which he revenged himself on the sculptors Bupalus and 
Athenis, who had caricatured his natural ugliness , see Hor. Epod. cited 



11)0 BOOK III OH. XXXVIII 01. 

below. Cicero calls a biting satire Ilipponacteum praeconium (Fain, vn 
24), and says that in ordinary prose it is scarcely possible to avoid sen-arias 
et Hipponacteos i.e. the scazon (Orator 189). 

Archilochus : of Paros, fi. 700 B.C., inventor of the proper iambic metre, 
famed for his satirical power. It is said that this was so deeply felt by 
the daughters of Lycambes, who had promised one of them in marriage 
to Arch, and afterwards failed to keep his word, that they hanged them 
selves through shame, cf. Hor. Epod. vi 13 quails Lycambae spretus infido 
gener, aut accr hostis Kupalo, A. /\ 79 Archilochum proprio rabies armavit 
iambo, Ejrist. i 19. 31. 

conceptum : derived from , contracted from , so we have conn. 
morl)um Colum. vn 5 14, cone, dedecus Cic. Off. i 123, cone, ignem, Or. TI 
190 ex quo si qua macula concepta cst, Pose. Am. 66. 

continebat : nursed ; , cf. Post red. ad Qu. 1 quod odium scclcrati 
homines... in omnes bonos conceptum jam diu confine rent ; Clucnt. 34 sjws 
ilia quam viulier commendatam a viro in alvo continebat. 

a deo causam : for the murder of Agamemnon or the overthrow of 
Troy. They are not examples of long delayed punishment for ancestral 
crime, but the effects of much simpler causes. 

culpae paene vocem: guilt cries aloud . [Cf. Solin. 21 (of the son 
of Croesus) vox timoris, Cic. Phil. 2 17 (with Koch s n.) voce paenc 
litterarum, and vociferor in Lucr. J. E. B. M.] 

Hippocrate : * I ascribe those cures, we hear of rather to Hipp, the 
father of medicine (fl. 400 B.C.) than to Aesculapius ; cf. above 57. 

Lacedaemoniorum : I will never allow that Sparta received her 
rule of life from Apollo rather than Lycurgus , see 57 on No/zioy. 

Critolaus : one is tempted to follow Allen in repeating the name 
( yes, Critolaus, I say ) which would explain the use of inquam ; see the 
long list of similar repetitions in Merguet s Lex. Cic. vol. n p. 713. But 
perhaps we may understand it simply as enforcing the general principle, 
that good and evil come not from God, but from man : it was Critolaus, I 
repeat, that ruined Corinth . He was general of the Achaean League in 147 
B.C., succeeded in inflaming his countrymen against Rome, was defeated 
by Metellus, praetor of Macedonia, near Thermopylae and never heard of 
more. His successor Diaeus refused all terms and was utterly defeated 
by Mummius, who sacked and destroyed Corinth in 146 B.C. ; cf. Cic. Off. 
I 36, Fain, iv 5, Flor. n 16. 

Hasdrubal : the general of Carthage in the 3rd Punic War. By 
entering into the conflict with Massinissa and by his cruelty towards the 
Roman captives he may be said to have brought about the ruin of his 
country in the same year in which Corinth fell. The two events are 
brought together in R. P. n 7 nee vero ulla res mag is labefactatam diu et 
Carthagincm et Corinthum pervertit aliquando quam hie error ac dissipatio 
civium, quod mercandi cupiditate et navigandi et agroruin ct armorum 
cultum reUquerant. 



BOOK III Oil. XXXVIII 91. 191 

OCUlos effoderunt : cf. Paterc. n 52 (of Pharsalia) collisa inter se 
duo rei publicae capita, effossumque alterum Romani imperil lumen ; Cic. 
Manil. 11 Corinthum patres restri, totius Graeciae lumen, exstinctum esse 
voluerunt. The metaphor was used by Leptines in his address to the 
Athenians in behalf of Sparta after the defeat at Leuctra, OVK eav ircpu&c iv 
rr]v EXXaSa crcp6(p0a\fiov ycvopevrjv (Arist. Rhet. in 10), and, according to 
the Schol. August, ad Dem. F. L. p. 361, had been previously used of 
Athens by the Phocian deputies against the Thebans at the end of the 
Peloponnesian war, fj.r) erp6<pda\p.ov rrjv EXAaSa noirjo ai, aiPtrro/ucpot 8vo 
6(p6a\fj,ov$ fivaiTrjs EAXaSoy, TTJV re A&rjvaiatV TTO\IV Kal rfjv AaKedmp.ovi.oiv, cf. 
Justin v 8, Aristid. Leuctr. p. 639 Dind. Hegesias employed the same 
metaphor about Athens and Thebes in the time of Alexander, see 
Spengel on Arist. 1. c. and cf. Milton P. R. iv 240 Athens, the eye of 
Greece . [Julian Epist. 24 calls Damascus rov r??y ea>as cnrdo-rjs ofpOdXpov. 
Add Oros. n 17 (of Athens and Sparta), Liban. I 531 Reiske (of Athens), 
Yal. Max. iv. 33 (of Augustus and Tiberius). For eVfpo$0aX/zos see Diod. 
Sic. xii 17 4, Tzetz. Chil. ix 97, Dorville on Chariton p. 580. J. E. B. M.] 
Hirzel (p. 243) remarks that the compassionate tone in which Cic. 
speaks of the fall of Carthage, as contrasted with the language used in 
Off. I 35 (majores nostri Karthaginem et Numantiam funditus sustiderunt : 
nollem Corinthum, sed credo aliquid secutos, opportunitatem loci maxime 
&c.), is an evidence that he is here copying from Clitomachus the Cartha 
ginian, who, as we learn from Tusc. v 54, e versa Carthagine librum misit 
consolandi causa ad captivos cives suos. 

aliquii deus : the adjectival pronoun, as in Acad. n 19 si deus aliqui 
requirat, Tusc. I 23 deus aliqui viderit ; but in Lael. 87 (aliquis deus), 
Fam. xiv 7 1, Acad. n 61, we have the substantival pronoun in apposi 
tion. MSS have deum, defended by Wopkens and Allen as an attraction 
similar to that in Leg. in 12 haec est quam Scipio laudat temperationem 
rei publicae (on which see Kruger s Unters. 79) ; but there it is the 
bare predicative noun which is attracted ; I doubt whether an instance 
could be found in Cic. of the attraction of the subject, leaving its epithets 
unchanged in their original case. 

DC. (10). According to the Stoics, God, being incapable of anger, 
cannot inflict punishment. But why does he not interfere to protect 
the good ? You have proved his omnipotence : it must be either the 
will or the knowledge, which is wanting. 92. 

irasci negatis : cf. Off. in 102 hoc quidem commune est omnium philo- 
sophorum numquam nee irasci deum nee nocere ; Sen. Ira II 27 1 quae- 
dam sunt quae nocere non possunt, nullamque vim nisi bene/icam et saluta- 
rem habent, ut di immortales, qui nee volunt obesse nee possunt. Natura 
enim illis mitis et placida est, tarn longe remota ab aliena injuria quam 
a sua; Lactant. Ira v 1 existimantur Stoici aliquanto melius de divinitate 



192 BOOK in cir. XXXVTTI 91. 

scnsissc, qui aiunt gratiam in Deo cssc, iram non csse; of which lie says 
speciose ista populariterque dicuntur, but qui bonos diligit^ ct malos odit ; 
1 therefore the Epicureans, who deny both gratia and ira on the part of 
God (see above I 45 n.), are more logical than the Stoics . But the Stoics, 
and still more Plato, in his noble assertion of the Divine beneficence, 
even in punishment (Rep. n 379, 380), approach more nearly to the 
teaching of the Bible, as expressed in the words of the Collect for Good 
Friday ( merciful God, who hast made all men and Latest nothing that 
thou hast made ), than Lactantius does. 

CL. xxxix 92. subvenire certe potuit: (if he is incapable of 
anger) still he might at least have preserved such cities . 

sine labore ullo : cf. n 59 molientium cum labore, and I 22 n. 

lit moveantur : Subj. because subordinate in oblique narration, cf. 
above 69 quern ad modum fiat. 

ut enim hominum membra : Sch. compares Div. i 120 si animal 
omne, ut vult, ita utitur motu sui corporis prono, obliquo, supino, membraque 
quocumque milt flectit, contorquet, porrigit, contrahit, eaque ante effic.it paene 
quam cogitat, quanta id deo est facilius cujus numini parent omnia ! Lucr. 
in 144 corpus paret et ad numen mentis momenque movctur ; Lact. Opif. 7 
nerviquibus mens minima nutu totius corporis molem temperat acflectit. 

neque id dicitis superstitiose...sed physica constantique ratione : 
for phys. rat. cf. n 23 and 63, in which latter it is contrasted with super - 
stitio, as also in Div. I 126, II 48. For. const. ( consistent, well-reasoned 
theory ) cf. Sest. 87 simplex causa, constans ratio and Of. I 144 oratione 
constanti ( a coherent speech Holden). [Aniliter marked by Lewis and 
Short as arra^ \ey. Add Lact. II 4 4, Ambros. Fid. lies. 106. J. E. B. M.] 

materiam commutabilem : cf. Sext. Emp. x. 312 e dnolov ^v olv 

Kal i>os crco/^aroj TIJV TMV oAcoi/ VTrecrTrjcravTO yevecrw ol 2r&)tKor npxn yP T( ^ v 
KOT O.VTOVS e&Tiv rj IITTOLOS v\rj Kal 8t oXcov Tperrr/j- fj,Taf3a\\ova-r}s T 
ytVerai ra recrcrapa crroi^eTa, nvp KOI dr/p, vdcop KOI yrj. Sch. cites Ac. 
I 27 subjectam putant (veteres Academici] omnibus sine ulla specie atque 
carentem omni qualitate materiam quandam, ex qua omnia expressa atque 
ejficta si nt : quae tola omnia accipere possit, omnibusque modis mutari atque 
ex omni parte &c., see Reid in loc. A similar argument was used in support 
of divination, cf. Dii\ I 118 foil., n 35 foil. 

fictricem : the only other ex. cited is from Tert. Res. Cam. 16. 

[moderatricem : used by Plautus and several times by Cic. also by 
Statins, Augustine, Eufin., Clem. Recog. vm 22. J. E. B. M.] 

ant nescit quid possit aut : the argument appears to be the Deity 
is proved to have po\ver and assumed to have goodness, yet it fails to use 
that power so as to prevent these calamities ; therefore it must either be 
ignorant of its power, or indifferent to human affairs, or incapable of 
judging what is best . Apparently the 1st and 3rd alternatives are tacitly 
negatived, the 2nd only being discussed. We may compare the alternatives 
in n 77 and in /)//-. n 101. Lactantius (Ira 13 20) puts the alterna- 



BOOK III CH. XXXIX 92. 193 

tives more clearly, Deus aut milt tollere mala et non potest, aut potest et 
non vult, aut neque milt neque potest, aut et milt et potest. 

DC. (11). You allow that God does not care for individuals. 
What ground is there for believing that he cares for communities, or 
even for mankind as a whole ? 93. 

93. non curat singulos homines : you say, God does not trouble 
himself about individuals ; but in n 165 it is distinctly asserted separatim 
ab universis singulos diligit ; compare the descending sorites there with 
the ascending sorites here. Other Stoics however held that individual 
good was not in itself the object of the deity but that it was necessarily 
involved in his true object, the general good, cf. M. Ant. cited on n 64 
and Seneca N. Q. n 46 singulis non adest Juppiter, Zeller in 1 p. 163. The 
saying in n 167 magna di curant, parva neglegunt (on which see in 85) 
comes to much the same thing. 

non mirum : the Academic comment, I am not surprised at it ; he 
does not even care for cities (such as Corinth and Carthage) ; and if he does 
not care for them, why should he care for nations and races (such as the 
Greeks or Phoenicians)? 

contemnet : logical future, if it shall prove that he despises them , 
cf. Koby 1465. 

DC. (12). Yet you are inconsistent enough to believe in divination 
and to encourage the practice of vows. 93. 

idem dicitis, idem : how is it consistent in you to say that the 
Gods do not attend to details, and yet to hold that they distribute dreams 
to men ? cf. n 162, 163, 166, Div. I 39 foil. For persequi see above 86. 

haec tecum : Cic. would seem to have forgotten that Balbus himself 
had touched on divination by dreams (n 163) ; otherwise it would have 
been unnecessary to state that it was generally credited by the Stoics 
(vestrci). 

vota suscipi : * that men should take vows on themselves : cf. Seneca 
N. Q. n 37 nos quoque existimamus vota prqficere, salva vi ae potestate 
fatorum : quaedam enim a dis immortalibus ita suspensa sunt, ut in bonum 
vertant, si admotae dis preces fuerint, si vota suscepta. 

nempe : * of course it is by individuals that vows are made . Nempe 
here introduces the minor premiss. 

audit de singulis : abbreviated for de rebus singulorum. 

DC. (13). If all your unemployed deities were turned to proper 
account, there need have been no neglect in the government of the 
universe. 93. 

fac esse distentam : as the Epicureans affirmed of the Stoic deity, 
i 24 and 51. [See on distineri Staveren on Nepos xxv 9 4. J. E. B. M.] 

M. C. III. 13 



1 04 BOOK III CH. XXXIX 93. 

terrain tuentem, maria moderantem : notice alliteration. 

nihil agere et cessare : see i 102 of the Epicurean gods. 

qui innumerabiles explicati sunt : whom your theory admits in 
such numbers ; cf. above 23 stellae quas tu innumerabiles reponebas. As 
explained in n 59 71, the various gods of the Stoics are all manifestations 
of the one supreme Deity. Chrysippus in his 3rd book dc Substantia, 
cited by Pint. Sto. Rep. p. 1051, suggested that some of the evils of life 
might be accounted for by the mistakes of subordinate spirits 
cf. Plato Synip. p. 202 E nav TO 8aifj,oviov /uerau e ort 6eov re KOL 
TiVa, f\v & f y^J dvvafjiiv e^oz ra ; Epfjirjveiov KCU cjiaTropdp-evov deois TO. Trap 
V$pco7ra>z> Kal avdpccnrois TCI rrapa $ec5j;, TWV /ueV Tas fie^crets 1 KCU Ovcrias, 

TCOl> 8e TCtS 7riT(i^fiS T KOL dfJ-OL^ClS TWV 6v(TL(C>l>, K.T.A., Cels. ap. Orig. VII 

p. 377 on Trep av ev rots o Aois- eiVe 6eov Zpyov elV dyye\a>i> fi re a\\cov 8aLp.6i>()v 
fi re ^pcocov, Travra TCIVTCI ex L V ^I JLOV * K T v fieyio TOV Oeov, reraKrat 6e e 
KcicrTo> dvva/jLLv Xa^co^, oo-ris ijia>rai. The belief in such subordinate 
agencies was widely prevalent at this time : as we may gather from 
the words of the centurion in St Luke vn 7, 8. 

dicere habui : cf. i 63 n. 

explicatus haberet : periphrastic for cxplicaretur, cf. i 45 vcnemtionem 
habet. No other ex. of the word in this sense is given. 

Conclusion. Cotta is to be understood not as pronouncing a definite 
sentence, but contributing to a discussion. Cicero avows his personal 
preference for the Stole view. 9-i, 95. 

Ch. XL 94. Cotta finem : cf. Fin. iv 1 quae cum dixisset, Jinem 
ille; ib. n 17 turn ille, finem, inquit, interrogandi, si videtur ; see Madv. on 
Fin. I 9 quern quidem locum. 

rationem quae constituta est : the reverent and well-considered 
doctrine of the Stoics on the subject of divine Providence , cf. Div. I 117 
ea ratio quae est de natura deorum ( theology ); Verr. I 10 ut omnem 
rationem salutis in pecunia constituent. The recurrence providentiapro- 
videntissime seems to be merely accidental. 

dabis: Fut. for Imper. you must give us , cf. i 59, in 41 tu reddes, 
Att. xn 22 2 scribes ad me cum scies, Roby 1589. 

quoniam advesperascit : the same phrase occurs Fin. iv 80. 

pro aris et focis : so Catil. iv 24, Att. vn 11 3, Sallust Cat. 59, 
Liv. v 30, Gell. xix 9 8, &c. The Greeks do not seem to have had any 
corresponding phrase. 

muris quos sanctos esse dicitis : cf. In-stit. n 1 10 sanctae quoque 
res,veluti muri et portae, quodam modo divini juris sunt...ideo autem muros 
sanctos dicimus, quia poena capitis constituta sit in eos, qui aliquid in muros 
deliquerint, where Schrader compares Pint. Qu. Rom. 27 (discussing the 
reasons of their sacredness, see Wyttenb. in loc.\ Ronud. 11, Dionys. 
Hal. i 88, Festus s. v. rituales. Special religious ceremonies were needed 
for the extension of the pom^rivm. 



BOOK III CH. XL 94. 195 

diligentius religione quam moenibus : cf. Heracl. fr. 100 Byw. pa- 

xpv rov drjjjiov vnep rov v6p,ov OKCOS VTrep rcixfos, Acad. II 137 haec 
tibi (the Stoic doctrines) tarn sunt defendenda quam moenia. 

95. opto redargui : " the Inf. is said not to be found with opto in 
Caesar and Sallust (Draeg. n). The only other instance of its use in Cic. 
appears to be Fam. x 20 3. Merguet gives two exx. of optatum with 
the Inf." Hirschfelder Phil. Wochenschrift 1882, no. 12. 

quippe : ironical, yes (there can t be a doubt of his convincing 
you), when he even believes that dreams come from Jove ; cf. Fin. iv 7 
ista ipsa...a te quidem apte ac rotunde. Quippe ; kabes enim a rhetoribus; 
Murena 74 ergo condemnetur ; quippe, inquit ; Holden on Plane. 53 ; Leg. 
I 4 intellego te frater alias in historia leges observandas putare, alias in 
poemate. M. Quippe; cum in ilia ad veritatem cuncta referantur, where 
see Dumesnil. 

somnia ab Jove : Horn. 11. i 63 *ai yap T ovap K At6s eVrtv, Pers. n 56, 
Cic. Div. II 121 foil., above I 46 n. on occurrit. [Chrysippus wrote a trea 
tise on dreams, as we learn from Div. I 6. Swainson.] 

levia : with a double meaning, (1) of the unsubstantial nature of 
dreams, (2) of the groundlessness of the Stoic theology. 

haec cum essent dicta, ita discessimus : the conversation ended 
here and we parted, the upshot being that &c. 

ad veritatis similitudinem : the hesitation of the Academic is 
opposed to the certitude of the Epicurean (verior). The Stoic disputant 
in Div. i 9 repeats this as ad veritatem propensior. There seems to be no 
other example of this impersonal use of propensus. 



132 



NOTES ON THE FRAGMENTS. 



1. THE first and second fragments are given in Lambinus edition. 
The former might naturally introduce section C of Book in, where Cicero 
criticizes the Stoic argument in proof of the Providential government of 
the universe. For the caution to be observed in theological discussion cf. 
I 61 n. 

2. This fragment is interesting as bringing distinctly forward the 
question whether God is a Creator, in the strict sense of the term, or 
merely a Builder and Architect, employing preexisting matter to frame the 
world which we see. Compare on this subject Mosheim s dissertation con 
tained in Cud worth vol. 3 p. 140 foil. He maintains that even the Neo- 
Platonists never conceived of matter in itself as an actual creation, but 
rather as a coeternal shadow or emanation of Deity. Cf. Theodoret 
Grace. Aff. p. 63 1. 44 ^vvvnapxeiv ro> 6eo> rrjv V\TJV KCU OVTOS (Plato) e^o-f, 
KciOa Koi HvQayopas Kal Apio-ToreX?;? KOI ol rfjs HoiKiXrjs eTrcoVu/zw. The argu 
mentation of this passage would suggest that it was a moot point whether 
pure matter, the avows v\r) itself, was not made by the Creator, as well as 
the world which proceeded out of it. The Stoics, while maintaining the 
eternity of matter, identified God with a particular form of matter, the 
Artistic Fire, into which all other forms of matter were merged in the 
cyclic conflagration, and out of which the Cosmos was periodically evolved. 
This forms the subject of section Cc in Book n, cf. n 75 providentia 
deorum mundum et omnes mundi partes et initio constitutors esse et omni 
tempore administrari, and below ab animantibus principiis earn (naturam) 
esse generatam, with the note. Hence Zeno spoke of fire not merely 
as artificiosus, but as artifex (n 57). We may understand therefore 
that, while the Stoics would shrink from speaking of the creation of 
matter, since God himself \vas material, they would have no objection to 
speak of the different elements as created. Cotta is here endeavouring 
to show the inconsistency of the two beliefs by means of his favorite 
sorites. You agree that the Divine Architect, like the human archi- 



NOTES ON THE FEAGMENTS. 197 

tect, must have had some material to work on, and that this material 
must have had properties of its own ; similarly we may assume that, when 
he made plants and animals, he must have had, as his material, the four 
elements of which they are compounded . Lactantius distinctly denies 
the first assumption (n 8 8), nemo quaerat ex quibus ista materiis tarn 
magna, tarn mirifica opera Deus fecerit. Omnia enim fecit ex nihilo ; nee 
audiendi sunt poetae qui aiunt chaos in principio fuisse...postea vero Deum 
instruxisse mundum ; then, after citing this passage to show that the philo 
sophers are no wiser than the poets, he goes on to argue that " if God did 
not make matter, he must be inferior to the maker of matter, which is 
equivalent to saying that the maker of matter is the real God ! Or, if it 
be said that it exists by nature, then nature must be rational, but a 
rational and creative nature is only another name for God. Cicero s com 
parison ignores the difference between God and man, nam si est aliquid 
ante ilium, sifactum est quidquam non ab illo, jam potestatem Dei et nomen 
amittet. If it be said that matter is eternal, there must be two contending 
eternals, which is impossible, or God must be derived from matter, the 
rational and voluntary agent from that which is without will and con 
sciousness &C." Cf. Theodoret p. 64 (?) ypafprj) drjfjuovpyfjo-at TO. 
e(prjo-e TOV 0eoi>, ov Kadcurep otKoSd/iot KO\ vavrrrjyol /cat ^aXxoruTTOi KOI 
x6ot...Kal ol aXXoi T%viTai ras v\a$ epavi6p.evoi ravras el8orroiovo~L re icat 
diayXvcpovai, KOI TO. opyava Trap aXXr/ Xcoi aVriXa/z/3ai>aiTef, aXX a/Lia j3ov\T]Of)vat 
re Kai ra p,T]8ap,f] p.rjo ap.ws OVTO. Trapayayelv. Arrpoo Se^S yap 6 TG>V o\a>v Bfos, 
at Se avdpatTTLvai re^i/at aXX^Xcoi/ Trpoa Seoi rai.... O 5e TOV TTCLVTOS UOITJTJJS OVTC 
vpydvwv OVT v\rjs dederjTai, also Euseb. Pr. Ev. vii 19 22. Besides the 
analogy of the human artificer, Aristotle uses the analogy of generation to 
prove that creation out of nothing is impossible, Phys. I 7 6 on 5e KQ\ al 
ovo~iai Kai ova aXXa aTrXcoy ovra t v7roKip,evov TIVOS yiverai, 7rto~KQ7rovvTi 
yevoLT av (pavepov dei yap eVri n o i>7ro/ceirat, e ^ ov yiVerat ro yiyvop,vov } olov 
ra (pvra. Kal TO. ^a>a e (TTrep/zaros 1 . 

faber : see n. on fabrica II 35. 

cera : so. utitur. 

3. This is taken from Soaurus, a Virgilian commentator of the time 
of Hadrian, who in his note on Aen. v 95, where Aeneas is represented as 
doubtful what to think of the snake which issued from his father s tomb 
(incertus Geniumne loci famulumne parentis esse putet\ writes as follows : 
erudite; nam ait ex medullis corporum angues nasci. He then cites 
Persius pinge duos angues, and, after a short hiatus, refers to the story of 
Cleomenes, the reforming king of Lacedaemon, as told by Cicero. There 
can be no doubt that the allusion is to what is recorded in Pint. Cleom. 39 
p. 823, of the snake which wound itself round the head of Cleomenes, as 
he hung on the cross, and guarded it from obscene birds. This was taken 
as a sign that Cl. was beloved by the gods and was himself a hero and 
demigod ; but the wiser sort explained it by a theory cos /iieXirras /zeV /3oey, 

i, Kav6apOL Se uvutv TO avTo ira.6ovT<j)v 



198 DE NATUKA DEORUM. 

^aoyovovvTcii, TO. 8t avOpwittva (rco/xara, ToUv Trepl TOV jjive\ov l^wpcov crvppoqv 
TWO. KOI orvo-Tacriv ev tavTols Xa/3(Wa>i>, o(pfis dva8i8coan. Kat TOVTO KariSoire? 
01 TraXaio/ /iaXtcrra rcoy ^cocoy TOV ftpctKOVTO. rots rypoocrt avvaKeiaxra.!/. At first 
sight one is tempted to suppose that Cotta must have adduced the case 
of Cleomenes as a parallel to that of Metellus arid of Drusus (N. D. ill 81), 
good men abandoned to the malice of their enemies during their life 
and only tardily vindicated after their deaths. But the fragment in all 
probability belongs to the lost section C; and the remark with which 
Scaurus introduces his comment (erudite, nam ait ex medvMis &c.) sug 
gests that his quotation from Cicero must have been made for the 
purpose of illustrating the theory noticed by Plutarch. We have already 
met with allusions to spontaneous generation in n 26 (n. on ipsa ex se 
generated), and Lucretius uses this as a proof that no creator is needed 
(n 865 ex insensilibus omnia principiis constare, the opposite to Balbus db 
animantibus principiis earn (naturani) esse gencratam, see 1. 871 quippe 
videre licet mvos exsistere vermes stercore de taetro &c. and v 783 foil.). We 
may conclude therefore that Cotta s reference to Cleomenes formed a part 
of the argument by which he endeavoured to disprove the doctrine of an 
intelligent first cause. 

4. There seems no reason why this fragment should have been brack 
eted by Mu. It is true that much the same words are found in Off. i 105, 
but the providential care of man is the subject of section I) (cf. in 65), so 
that Cotta could scarcely help saying something of the kind. 

5. For the Magnus Annus seen 51 n. This is probably a piece of care 
lessness on the part of Servius. We nowhere else read that it consisted of 
3000 years. In the Hortensius, as recorded both by Serv. on Aen. i 269 
and in 284, and by Tac. Or. 16, it was reckoned at 12954. Servius however 
(1. c.) notices the inconsistency of the two estimates of Cicero in the words 
(magnum annuni) de quo varia dicuntur a Metone et ab Eudoxo et a 
Ptohmaeo et ab ipso Tullio. 

6. The words of Servius are spirabile\ . .est sermo Ciceronis, quam- 
quam ille spirltale (so Thilo and Hagen with one MS C against the 
majority of the better MSS) dixerit in libris de deorum natura. Spiritalem 
is the reading of B in ^V 7 . D. n 18, and though the form spiritualis is more 
regular, yet we find the former in Vitr. x 1, and possibly we ought to read 
it in Cicero. As for spiritabilem, it is read by N and Red. in n 18 (for spira- 
bilem of other MSS) and by the Paris codex of the 9th century in Tusc. i 40, 
but there can be no doubt that this is merely a corruption, like anima- 
bilis, naturabilis,morabilis, aequabilis compared by Mu. on Tusc. 1. c. 

7. We naturally look to Book n 142 foil, for this description of the 
eyes, but nothing of the kind is said there. We only read that the ears 
have duros et quasi corneolos introituy, but this has no reference to the 
resistance of cold. Possibly Cotta may have examined in detail the Stoic 
panegyric on the wisdom shown in the structure of the body, and in doing 
so remarked on this supposed use of the cornea. 



NOTES ON THE FRAGMENTS. 199 

Baiter, following Davies, gives two other fragments, one from Nonius 
p. 96 on the use of the word dulcitudo, but the reference in Non. should 
be Orat. in 97 ; the other from Arnobius in 6, which gives an interesting 
account of the feeling of the Pagans towards Cicero s dialogue, but contains 
no quotation from it. Creuzer refers to a Codex Scorialensis, bearing the 
title Ciceronis Fragmenta de natura deorum et divinatione, which is men 
tioned in Biisching s Magazin filr die neueste Historie und Geographie 
vol. v p. 123. 



APPENDIX ON THE MYTHOLOGICAL SECTION. ( 4160.) 

THE mythological summary given by Cicero diverges in many 
particulars from the ordinary tradition, but is in remarkable agree 
ment with what we find in four later writings, the Protrepticon of 
Clemens Alexandrinus (fl. 200 A. D.), the Liber Memoricdis of Am- 
pelius (fl. 250 A. D.?), the Disputationes adversus Gentes of Arnobius 
(fl. 300 A. D.), the De Mensibus of Laurentius Lydus (b. 490 A. D.). 
Are we to suppose that these writers borrowed from Cicero or from 
Cicero s authority Clitomachus, or was there some earlier common 
source ? There is no sign that Clemens was acquainted with the 
works of Cicero or even that he had any knowledge of Latin 
literature; moreover he cites as his authorities, under the head of 
Apollo, Aristotle and Didymus, and adds particulars which we do 
not find in Cicero, e.g. that the 4th Apollo was son of Silenus, 
that some writers made a 5th and 6th Apollo, that the 4th Minerva 
was called Coryphasia and that the mother of the 5th was Titanis. 
On the other hand it is probable that the remaining three had some 
knowledge of Cicero. Lydus quotes from his Yerrine orations and 
had a fair acquaintance with Latin literature, especially with the 
writings of Yarro ; but he too cites other authorities, e. g. Terpander 
for the 1st Dionysus, the poets for the others, Melias, Crates, 
Eratosthenes, Eumelus, under Zeus. Again in many respects he 
diverges from Cicero ; thus, besides assigning a different parentage 
for the 3rd, 4th and 5th Hercules, he names a 7th, son of Zeus 
and Maia. Moreover his references to mythology are scattered up 
and down his book, which is on the model of Ovid s Fasti, and 
can hardly have been picked out from this section of Cicero. 
Arnobius probably copied from Cicero, as he often quotes from the 



200 APPENDIX ON THE MYTHOLOGICAL SECTION. 

N. D. and agrees with Cic. in each case as to the number of synony 
mous deities, in fact only departs from him in making Hyperiona 
the mother of Sol, and in his description of the 3rd and 4th Minerva, 
making the 3rd the inventress of arms and daughter of Saturn 
(instead of Jupiter), and the 4th the Coryphasia of the Messenians 
instead of Coria the inventress of chariots. In the account of Sol 
the divergence may be explained by simple carelessness, in that of 
Minerva he has followed the Protrepticon of Clemens, which seems to 
have been one of the chief sources of his book. It must be observed 
however that in another passage (in 37 cited in the note on Musae 
54) he refers to Mnaseas, Ephorus, Myrtilus and Crates as au 
thorities. Lastly Ampelius, whose treatise is an epitome of the 
poorest type, follows on the whole the order of Cicero, but has the 
most extraordinary divergences, introducing such names as Granicus, 
Joab, Crio, Joppe, which can hardly be explained away by the 
corrupt state of the text : and there are besides signs that he follows 
a Greek original. Thus the names Cronus Cronia are plainly Greek, 
and the phrase Jovis Aetheris filius seems to be a mistranslation of 
Atos TOV At$epos. He also adds further details, e.g. that Hercules 
founded the Olympian games (cf. Diodorus quoted on Idaeis Diyitis 
42 ii.), that he taught Atlas, that the mother of the 5th Minerva 
was Titanis; and even brings in a deity, omitted by Cicero, viz. Mars. 
Also in common with the other parallel writers he is silent as to 
Pan being the child of Penelope and Mercury ( 56), and as to the 
names of the Muses and Dioscuri ( 53, 54). 

From the above considerations it would seem that the four 
parallel writers must have had access to some other authority besides 
Cicero : was this authority Clitomachus 1 I think we may say this 
is impossible in the case of all but Clemens, and not very probable 
even in his case. If however we compare certain other authors who 
are to some extent in agreement with Cicero, where he departs from 
the ordinary tradition, I think we shall find indications of an earlier 
common source from which the tradition was derived both by 
Clitomachus and by the later epitomists. Among these authors are 
Servius, the Virgilian commentator, and Lactantius Placidus, the 
scholiast on Statins, in regard to three out of Cicero s five Mercuries. 
The latter names a certain Corvilius as his authority. Athenaeus 
(quoted on 42 Asteriae) names Eudoxus as authority for the state 
ment that Hercules was son of Jupiter and Asteria. The contest 
between Apollo and Jupiter ($ 57) is said by Fulgentius to have been 



APPENDIX ON THE MYTHOLOGICAL SECTION. 201 

narrated by Mnaseas in the 3rd book of his Europa. Harpocratioii 
cites Mnaseas for the statement that Minerva, daughter of Coryphe, 
daughter of Oceanus, was the inventress of chariots. Tzetzes and 
Firmicus agree in the story of Minerva slaying her father Pallas. 
The Orphic hymns illustrate the names Eubuleus, Tritopatreus, 
Anactes. As Mnaseas is mentioned by three different writers, 
Arnobius, Harpocration and Fulgentius, as the source from whom 
they have borrowed, and as he is a noted Euhemerist of the 
Alexandrian school, the evidence, so far as it goes, seems to point 
to him as the mythologist followed by Clitomachus, i.e. by Carneades. 

As regards Cicero s summary, it is evidently very incomplete. 
He omits from his list the names Juno, Ceres, Neptunus, Mars, 
Pluto, Hecate, Pan, Rhea, Proserpina. He sometimes passes over 
the common tradition, as that which makes Dionysus son of Semele : 
he omits to note real differences, such as that between his three 
Cupids and the primaeval Eros, or between the Greek and the 
Ephesian Diana; aud makes distinctions where there are none, as 
in the case of Aesculapius, Mercurius and Minerva. The frequent 
references to Egypt, the paternity of Nilus in the case of five 
deities, the names Theuth and Phthas and the ineffable name of 
Mercurius would seem to indicate an Alexandrine origin, while 
the references to mystic rites suggest a connexion with the Orphic 
theology. 

In the comparative view, which follows, square brackets denote 
that the statement made is not given in that particular place by 
Cicero, but supplied from another part of his summary. 



202 



CICERO 



Name of Divinity 
llt-rculps a 



rarads 
] Jupiter a + Lysithoe 
ft ! Nilus 
V 



d Jupiter + Asteria 

(sister of Latona) 



Ju])itcr y + Alcmena 



Jupiter a Aether 

(N. D. in 53) 



ft Cuelus 

I 
y : Saturnus 



d. Karthago 



Dioscuri a Jupiter a + Proser- 

(X.D. i ii 53) I pina 



ft j Jupiter y + Leda 
y Atreus. s. of Pclops 



[wife, Proserpina; child 
ren, Dioscuri a, Diana 
a, Dionysus a, see be 
low J 

child, Minerva y [Mu 
ses a] 

[children, Hercules , 
Dioscuri ft, Musae ft, 
Vulcanus y, Mercur- 
ius y, Apollo y, Diana 



contended with Apollo 
I for tripod 

Egypt i composed the Phry 
gian Letters 



one of the Idaean Dac 
tyls worshipped with 
funeral rites (tit Cos r) 



Tyre 
India 



Arcadia 



Arcadia 



Creta 



Athens 



also called Belus 



tomb shown in Crete 



also named Anactes, 
viz. Tritopatreus, Eu- 
buleus, Dionysus 

Castor and Pollux 

Alco, Melamj)iis, Evio- 
lus 



203 



COMPARATIVE VIEW OF OTHER MYTHOLOGISTS 



Ampelius 


Lydus De Mensibus 


Arnobius, Clemens Alexandriuus 


Lib. Mem. c. 9. 12. Hercules 


IV 46. p. 94. oVb Se TCOI> icrroptcov 


Arnob. iv 1315. [The multipli 


sex: primus Jovis Aetheris 
lilius (.filii, W.); seeundus 
Nili filius, quern principem 


eupt cr/co|aej> eTrrd Hpa/cAet? ye- 
veaOai., npunov Atb; TOV Ai^epos 
K.OLL Aucrt^orjs Trjs flueavov, 6ew- 


cation of synonymous gods has 
been sufficiently shown by both 
Greek and Latin authors from. 


colunt Aegyptii; tertium con- 
ditorem loci (ludi, Duk.) sui 


Tepov NetAou irauSa, Tpirov "EA- 
Ar/i o? TOV Atb? /cat vu/a^rj? A-y- 


whom we briefly borrow.] Ai- 
unt idem theologi quattuor es se 


Hellenes (Elei, Duk.); quartus 


XtciArj?, 7f.ra.pTOV Atbs na.\ /y/3j? 


Vulcanos, et tres Dianas, Ae- 


Cronii (Gromi, MSS) filius et 


TTJ? AiyvrrTLa.<;, TrefjiTTTOV Ai/3aVow 


sculapios totidem, et Dionysos 


Oartheres, l quern Carthagini- 


/cat Nucrrj? TOV kv IvSoi? yeyojue- 


quinque, ter binos Hercules, et 


enses colunt 1 , unde Carthago 


vov, SKTOV Atb? /cat AA/c/ArjVr)?, 


quattuor Veneres, tria genera 


dicta est; quintus Joab (Li- 


e jSSojuoi/ Atbs eai Matas TIJ? 


Castorum, totidemque Musa- 


baniz, W.) filius, qui cum 


ArAavTO?. 


rum, pinnatorum Cupidinum 


. rege Medorum pugnavit; s< j x- 




trigas, et quadrigas Apollina- 


tus Jovis filius ex Alcumena, 




rium nominum: quorum simi- 


qui Atlanta docuit (athla do- 




liter genitores, similiter ma- 


cuit, Halm. Atlanta doniuit, 




tres, loca quibus nati sunt, 


Roth). 




indicant, et originem singu- 


1 Should this clause be put 




lorum suis cum prosapiis mon- 
strant. [This will be referred 


after quartusl 




to as the Summary .] 


2 Following Lydus. 






1. Joves fuere tres. Primus 


C. f 48. p. 95. ^ rife? 6e /cara TOV 


ib. Aiunt theologi vestri et ve- 


in Arcadia,, Aetheris filius, cui 


ypwutbv /cat jOLeptcrrbf Aoyov 1 


tustatis absconditae conditores 


etiam Aetherius cognomen 


rpets Ata? eii/at jSouAoi Tat, eW 


tres in rerum natura Joves 


fuit : hie primum Solem pro- 


ju.ev At0epo?, TOI/ 5e eVepoi/ ev 


esse: ex quibus unus Aethere 


creavit. Secundus ibidem 


Ap/ca8ta rex^^at, e^ ou (^aa ti 


fit patre progenitus, alter 


(MSS abide, edd. abinde, al. 


Aflrji ai , TpiTOv ok TOV Kprjra. 


Caelo, tertius vero Saturno 


ab Ida) in Arcadia, qui Sa- 


[He then goes on to speak of 


apud insulam Cretam et se- 


turnius cognominatur, qui ex 
Proserpina Liberum patrem 


the Phoenician tradition, and 
of those recorded by Melias, 


pulturae traditus et procre- 
atus. 


procreavit primum victorum 


Crates, Eratosthenes, Eume- 




(\IS3 victoriam). Tertius 


lus the Corinthian, &c., which 


Clem. Al. Protr. | 28. avrt/ca 


Cretae, Saturni et Opis filius, 


do not supply any illustration. 


yovv etcrlc ot rpei? TOW? Zfjva<; 


optimus maximusque est ap- 


and then continues] TTJS Se 


dva-ypatyovcriv, TOV /J-ev AiOepos ei/ 


polLitus. 


Koprjs Trarepa O.VTOV c/)acri, TOVT- 


Ap/cacit a, TO) Se AotTrco TOV Kpovov 




e crri rot) /copow /cai. TJS euio^i as 


Traloe TOVTOI.V TOV fj.fv ev KprJTr), 




airioi/ auTOi/ -yei/e o-eai. 


OaTepov oe ev ApKaoia Tra Atp. 




1 i.e. the Euhemerist theory 






which splits up the deity 






into a number of heroes. 








See above in Summary. 



204 



CICERO. 



Name of Divinity 


Parents 


Other Relations 


Country 


Miscellaneous 


Musae a 
(N. D. ill 54) 


Jupiter )3 






4, viz. Thelxinoe, Aoede, 
Arche, Melete 


|3 


Jupiter y + Mnemo 
syne 






9 


V 


Pierus + Antiope 






9 synonymous with j3 


Sol a 
(N. D. ill 51) 


Jupiter a 











Hyperion 








V 


Vuleanus /3 (son of 
Nilus) 




Egypt 


patron of Heliopolis 


s 


m. Acantho (?) 


children, lalysus, Ca- 
mirus, Lindus (?) 


Rhodes 




e 




children, Aeeta, Circe 


Colchis 




Vuleanus a 
(N. D. ill 55) 


Gael us 


wife, Minerva a; child, 
Apollo a 


Egypt 


also called Phthas, the 
patron of Egypt 


P 


Nilus 








y 


Jupiter y + Juno 




Lemnos 


worker in metal 


5 


Menial ius (?) 




Tnsulae 
Vulcaneae 




Mercurius a 

(N. 1). in 56) 


Caelus + Dies 






Phallic deity, wooer of 
Proserpina 


/3 


Valens + Phoronis 






the Chthonian deity 
identified with Tro- 
phonius. 


V 


Jupiter y + Maia 


wife, Penelope; child, 
Pan 






6 


Nilus 




Egypt 


Egyptian name inef 
fable 


e 






Pheneus 
in 
Arcadia 


fled to Egypt after slay 
ing Argus, and be 
came the Egyptian 
lawgiver Theuth.af ter 
whom they name their 
lirst month 


Aesculapius a 
(N. 1>. in 57) 


Apollo a 




Arcadia 


inventor of probe and 
bandages 


/3 


[ Valens + Phoronis] 


brother, Mercurius 


Cyno- 
surae 


struck by lightning 
and buried there 


V 


Arsippus + Arsinoe 




Arcadia 


inventor of purges and 
of dentistry: buried 
by the r. Lusius 



COMPARATIVE VIEW OF OTHER MYTHOLOGISTS. 



205 



Ampelius 



Lydus De Mcnsibus 



Arnobius, Clemens Alexandrinus 

In Summary, cf. also in 37 cited 
iu the note. 



9. 3. Soles fuere quinque: pri 
mus Jovis filius; secundu* 
Hyperionis; tertius Nili (Nilii 
MSB, Nini Duk.) filius, cui 
Aegyptus est consecrata ; quar- 
tus qui Rhodi natus est, cujus 
etiam Zemintus (Zmintheus 
Munck, Lindus Dav.) est fi 
lius ; quintus Colchi filius, ex 
quo Circe et Medea et Phae- 
thon nati suut. 



Arnqb. iv 14. Quinque Soles, ex 
quibus Sol primus Jovis filius 
dicitur et Aetheris habetur 
nepos; secundus aeque Jovis 
filius et Hyperiona proditus 
genetrice; tertius Vulcano.non 
Lemnio, sed Nili qui fuerit 
filius; quartus lalysi pater, 
quern Rhodi peperit heroicis 
temporibus Acantho ; quintus 
Soythici regis et versipellis 
habetur Circae. 



9. 4. Volcani fuere quattuor: 
primus Crio et Joppe (Aethiope 
W. ?) natus ; secundus Nili 
filius; tertius Saturni et Ju- 
nonis; quartus in Sicilia Mi- 
\etes(Melites W., Nilvii Dav.). 



IV 48. p. 105. H^atcTTOi Te rrapes, 
TrpcuTOs Oupai/ou /cat Hjue pas, Tra- 
Trjp ATroAAcoj os TOU A.Or)va.Cu>v 
a p^rjveVou, SeuTepo? NetAou Trat?, 
oi> AtyuTTTtot KaAoOo-t 4>0aV, Tpt- 
TOS o Kpdfou /cat Hpas, 6 ArJ^ii/i- 
os, 6 x^fUTrj s, TeVapros *H<|)at- 
0-705 o Mai/TOus (Cr. MavTcSo?). 
6 2t/ceAta)Trjs, e^ ou 



See above in Summary. 



, 5. Mercurii quattuor : pri 
mus Caeli et Diei filius; se 
cundus Jovis et Croniae filius 
vel Proserpinae; tertius Croni 
filius et Maiae, qui est in 
ventor lyrae; quartus Cyllenii 
(MSS Quilleni, W. qui Nili?) 
filius, qui Aegyptiis litteras et 
numerum dixit. 



Serv. ad Virg. Aen. iv 577. Non- 
nulli quattuor Mercurios tra- 
dunt, unum Caeli et Diei fi- 
lium, amatorem Proserpinae; 
alterum Liberi patris et Pro 
serpinae filmm ; tertium Jovis 
et Maiae ; quartum Cyllenii 
filium, cujus mater non pro- 
ditur, a quo Argus clam oc- 
cisus est, qui hoc metu in 
Aegyptum profugit, et ibi in- 
venisse primum disciplinam 
litterarum et numerum dici 
tur, qui lingua Aeg.vptiorum 
Thoth appellatur, de cujus 
nomine etiam mensis dicitus 
est. 



I.e. Jam Mercurius primus, qui 
in Proserpinam dicitur geni- 
talibus adhinnivisse subrectis, 
supremi progenies Caeli est. 
Sub terra est alter, Tropho- 
nius qui esse jactatur. Maia 
tertius matre et Jove procre- 
atus, seel tertio; quartus so- 
boles Nili est, cujus nomen 
Aegyptia gens horret et reve- 
retur exprimere ; quintus Argi 
est interemptor, fusyitivus at- 
que exsul et proditor apud 
Aegyptum litterarum. 

Lactantius Placidus (Scholiast 
on Statius Theb. iv 48*, fi. 
about 500 A.D.). Corvilius (V) 
quattuor Mercurios esse scri- 
bit, unum Jovis et Maiap 
filium, altt-rum Caeli et Diei, 
tertium Liberi et Proserpinae, 
quartum Jovis et Cyllenes, a 
quo Argus occisus est, quern 
ipstim ob hanc causam Graeci 
profugum dicunt, Aegyptiis 
autem litteras demonstrasse. 



6. Aesculapii tres : primus 
Apollo dictus (Halm Apolli- 
nis filii) Vulcani filius; se 
cundus Lai (W. Matt) h lius; 
tertius Aristeti et Alcippe 
(Periz. Alcippes) filius. 



Lydus IV 90. p. 125. Ao-KArjVtot 
rpet? \eyovrai yvveffOai, Trpcoro? 
ATroAAoji/o? TOV H^ateTTOu os 
efeupe ju.rjArji , Seurepo? Icrxvo? 
TOU EAa rou KOL Koptoi tSo?, [os 
fv rots Kui/oTovpiSo? added by 

llase] Opt oiS eTtt(/)TJ, TptTOS Ap- 

crimrov KO.I "Apcrti orjs Trjs Aeu- 



Clem. Al. Prot. 29. rt S et o-ot 
TOUS TroAAou? et7rot/u.t "Aa/cArj- 
Trt ous vj TOU? Epjuas TOUS dpi9- 
fj.ovfj.evow; vj TOus H^atcrTOUS TOU? 
ju.u9oAo-you/xeVou?; /.>) /cat TreptT- 
TOS elfat 66^a> Tas a oas uju.coi 

TOIS TToAAotS TOUTOtS eTTt/cAu^CJV 

bv6fj.acrii> ; a AA at ye TraTpi Sts 
auTOU? (cat at Tevi/at cat oi jStot, 
Trpbs 6V ye /cat ot Taf/>ot, aVdpw- 
TTOU? yeyovoTa.<; Stf\eyxov(Tii . 



206 



CICERO. 



Name of Divinity 


Parents 


Other Relations 


j Country Miscellaneous 


Apollo a 
(N. D. in 57) 


Vulcanus [a + Miner 
va a]. 


[son, Aesculapius a] 


Athens 


patron of 


J8 


Corybas 




Greta 


contended with Jupiter 
for Crete 


V 


Jupiter y + Latona 


[sister, Diana /3] 


Delphi 


came thither from the 
Hyperboreans 


8 






Arcadia 


Xomius, so called as 
the lawgiver of Ar 
cadia 


Diana a 
(N. I), in. 58) 


Jupiter a + Proser 
pina 


[husband, Mercurius ; 
brothers, Dioscuri a, 
Dionysus a; see also 
Hercules a, Sol a] ; 
child, winged Cupid 

(a) 









Jupiter 7 + Latona 


[brother, Apollo -y] 






V 


Upis + Glauce 






also called Upis by the 
Greeks after her fa 
ther 


Dionvsus a 
(N. D. in 58) 


Jupiter a + Proser 
pina 


[see Diana a] 









Nilus 






killed Nysa (?). 


Y 


Cabirus 





King of 

Asia 


worshipped in the Sa- 
bazia 


5 


Jupiter + Luna 






worshipped in the Or 
phic rites 


6 


Nisus + Thyone 






instituted the Triete- 
rides 












Venus a 
(X. D. in 59) 


Gael us + Dies 


[brothers, Mercurius a, 
see also Jupiter /3, 
Vulcanus a] 




Cic. had seen her shrine 
atElis 


ft 


A(/>pOS 


husband, Mercurius o; 
son Cupido ft 






y 


Jupiter y -j- Dione 


husband, Vulcanus y; 
son, by Mars, Anteros 
(Cupido y) 






s 


Syria + Cyprus (?) 
(Cyrus MSS) 


husband, Adonis 




also called Astarte 



COMPARATIVE VIEW OF OTHER MYTHOLOGISTS. 



207 



Ampelius 

9. 6. Apollines quinque: pri 
mus Vulcani et Minervae; se- 
cundus ex Corybante ; tertius 
Jovis filius ex Latona ; quartus 
Sileni filius in Arcadia; quin- 
tus Ammonis filius in Lybia 
natus. 



Lydus De Mensibus 



Arnobius, Clemens Alexandrinus 

Ib. II 28. val JLOJI> ATToAAwva 6 
ju.ei/ ApicrroreArjs nptZrov H^ata-- 
rov /cat A#rjvas ivTavOa. 817 OVK- 
e rt 7rap0eVos r) Aflrji a fievTepoi/ 
ev KprjTj], Toy Kopv/3avTos, rpLrov 
?bv AIDS, (cat rerapTOv TOJ/ ^Ap- 
/ca Sa, TOV SiXiji/ou No^tio? o5ro? 
Ke /cArjTat Trap" Ap/cdo-tv e7r! TOV- 
TOIS TOI Aifivv /caTaAe yet T OV 
AJOIJOHOVOS 6 6e At Su/ao? o ypa/x.- 



9. 7. Dianae tres : prima Jovis 
Croni (W. Cronii, Jahn Chtho- 
nii) filia ex Proserpina, quae 
estLiberi soror; secunda Jovis 
et Latonae, Apollims soror; 
tertia quae vocatur Ops (MS 
Obs) de Glauco (W. Glance). 



Arnobius in Summary recognizes 
three. 



11. Liberi quinque: primus 
ex Jove et Proserpina; hie 
agricola et inventor vini, cujus 
soror Ceres; secundus Liber 
ex Merone 1 (Muncker Melonc) 
et Flora, cujus nomine fluvius 
est Graniciis; tertius de Ca- 
biro, qui regnavit in Asia; 
quartus ex Saturno (W. Sa- 
turnio) et Semela dicunt (W. 
marks a hiatus before dicunt); 
quintus Nisi et Hesionae 
(Muncker Thyonae) filius. 

1 Festus p. 124 M. says that 
Melo is a name for the Nile, 
but Meros (int. Meru) also i 
a name connected with Bac 
chus, see Strabo xv p. 687, 
Solinus 52, Curtius viii 35 
Nysa sita est sub radicibus 
montis quern Meron incolae 
appellant (whence the fable 
of his birth from the thigh 
of Zeus). 



IV C. 88. p. 82. TepTravSpos ye fj.r)v 
6 AeVjSios Nua-crai/ Ae yet ren- 
BrjvriKevoiL TOV &i.6vv<rov TQV VTTO 
vivuv SajSa ^iOf OfOju.a^o/xevoi , ex 
Atb? /cat nep<7e<>6i>T7s yevo^evov, 
etra VTTO TWV TiraVoai/ (TTrapa- 
\6evra. ...Kara 6e TOU? Trotrjras 
Aioi VO Ot TreVre, TrpcSro? Atbs /cat 
Aucri^e a?, Sevrepog 6 Nei Aov, 
6 /cat |8acrtAevcras At^urj? /cat 
At#iO7Ti as /fat "Apa/St a?, rptros 
KajSftpov Trat?, OCTTI? T^S Acrias 
e/3acrt Aev;crei>, a<|) ou rj Ka^etpt/crj 
TeAeTTJ TeVapro? 6 Atb? /cat e- 
ju.eArj?, (3 ra Opc^eto? /u.V(mj pta 
ereAetTO /cat V(/>* ou ol^os ee- 
pacr^Tj 7refjti"TOS 6 Nurov /cat 
j /care Set^e Tpterr/ptSa. 



Five in Summary. 

Clemens Alexandrinus. 
See on Asclepius. 



9. Veneres quattuor: prima 
Ca^eli (MS hacdeli) et Diei 
filia; secunda quae ex spuma 
nata esse dicitur, Aetheris 
(MS et aeris) et Oceani filia; 
tertia quae Vulcano nupsit, 
quae cum Marte se miscuit, 
unde Cupido natus esse dici 
tur; quarta Cypri et Syriae 
tilia, quam Adon habuit. 



IV 44. p. 89. ot 5e dAAoi TMV TTOITJ- 
ru>v recrcrapas TrapaStSoacrti , 
av jaei/ e Qvpavov /cat H/xepa? 
Te\6el<rav, erepav Be e A(/>poi), 
e^ 175 /cat Ep/uof; "Epcos eTe x^r?, 
TptTTjv Albs /cat Atojcrj?, e^ 77? /cat 
*Apeo? rej(&r]va.L^>a<T(.v AvrepajTa, 
TeTo p-nji TJJS Svptas /cat Kun-pov, 
T^y Aeyo/jt.eVr7i> AcrTapTTjy. ^AAAot 
8e <f)a(Ti.v Trpumjf fxev TOU Oupa- 
vou xat Hfxepas OvpavLav /caAou- 
fj.evYjV, Sevrepav Se A^poO /cat 
Eupui/d/u,r)? TTJ? fl/ceavou, /cai. rpi- 
T| T?JI> avva<})6el(ra.v Ep/u,^ TOU 
Net Aou, e 775 /cat 6 fieuTepos^Epajs 
6 VTroTTTtpo?, TeTa pTTjy Atb? /cai 
Aiau Tj?, T^y eyrj/Ltei/ "Ht/jato TOS, 
\ddpa Se avTfj <rvve\6u>i> Aprjs 
eTe/ce TOI> Ai/Te pwira /caAetrai 6e 
7roAAa\ou /cat IlacrK/xxr) . . . /cai 
Epv/ctVr; . . . aV awT^s 8e /cat Ep 



Arnobius. 
Four in Summary. 



208 



CICERO, 



Name of Divinity 


Parents 


Other Relations 


Country 


Miscellaneous 


Minerva a 
(N. D. ill 59) 




husband, Vulcanus a]; 
son, Apollo a 






ft 


Nilus 




Egypt 


worshipped at Sais 


y 


Jupiter /3 








& 


Jupiter + Coryphe d. 
of Ocean us 




Arcadia 


also called Coria, in- 
ventress of chariots 


e 


Pallas 






represented with winjr- 
ed feet: slew her fa 
ther for attempting 
her chastity 


Capido a 
(N". D. Ill GO) 


Mercurius a+ Diana a 







[called winged 58] 


ft 


Mercurius a + Venus 
ft 








y 


Mars + Venus y 






also called Anteros 


[Mars in Ampelius 
and Clemens; 
Pan in Lydus ; 
omitted in Ci 
cero 











COMPARATIVE VIEW OF OTHER MYTHOLOGISTS. 



209 



Ampelius 

10. Minervae quinque : prima 
Vulcani filia, unde Athenarum 
est civitas; secunda Nili filia 
quam Aegyptii (MS. Aegypti) 
colunt ; tertia Jovis filia quae 
in bellicis (MS fecillis) rebus 
se exercuit ; quarta solis (Dav. 
Jovis) filia quae quadrigas 
junxit ; quinta Pallantis et 
Titanidos filia. Haec patrern 
occidit pro suae virginitatis 
observatione, quia eius cupi- 
dus fuit, unde et Pallas dicta 
est. 



Lydus De Mensibus 



Arnobius, Clemens Alexandrinus 
Arnobius. 



. Sed et Minervae, inqui- 
t, sicut Soles et Mercurii 



IV 14 
unt, 

quinque sunt: ex quibus pri 
ma non virgo sed ex Vulcano 
Apollinis procreatrix ; Nili al- 
tera proles et quae esse perhi- 
betur Aegyptia Sais. Stirps 
Saturni tertia est et quae usurn 
excogitavit armorum ; Jovis 
quarta progenies, quam Mes- 
senii Coryphasiam nominant ; 
et quae Pallantem occidit pa- 
trem, incestorum appetitorem, 
est quinta. 



Clemens Alex. 

( 28- eto-i 5e o i TreVre A0rji/a? 

VTVOTiOeVTCLL, TTJV fJLSV H^aUTTOU 

TYJV AOrfvaCav, rrjv 6e NetAov Tt)v 
AiyvirTiav, Tpi njv Trjv Kpovov 
TTJV 7roA.e ju.ou evpenv, TerapTTjv 
njv Ato s, rjv Meo-o-yVtot Kopv^a- 
<riav dub Trjs /aijrpbs eiri,KeK\T]- 
Kacriv, ITTI 7rao"t TTJV ITa AA.ai TOS 
/cat Tirai io o? Tij5 O/ceavoO, rj rbv 
Trarepa 8vo~o~e^c5s KaraOvcraa a TO> 
fiep/xan, c5<7- 



Arnobius. 

In Summary : pinnatorum Cupi- 
dinum trigas. 



2. Martes fuere duo: primus 
ex Enoposte, ut eum Homerus 
ait, et noster Mars Lcucarpis, 
et alter Mars enius; secundus 
ex Jove et Junone. (W. sug 
gests ex Enyo paste...; secun 
dus ex Jove et Junone, ut eum 
Homerus dicit, est noster 
Mars sen Marspiter et alter 
Mars Enyalius. ) 



IV 74. p. 118. Svo Havas <j>aff. 
rives fie (f>aai TOV Ilai a e K.poi>ov 
Kal Pea? yevecrOai, aVrl TOV e< 
TOV vov Kal TTJ? uypas ouo-tas . . . 

ToSe TO TTO.V. 



Clem. AL 

Prot- II 29. "Aprj?, ios per ETTL- 
\apju,6? 4>T](n., SirapTtanys rjv, 2o- 
(poK\rj<; Se paica olSev O.VTOV. 
dAAot Se Ap/caSa. 



M. C. III. 



14 



Index to Notes and proper Names as well as to less usual 
words and phrases. 

[Where the reading is doubtful (?) is added.] 



a, ab. ab utroque latere n 125, caudarum 
a parte locata n 114. a sacris haberet(?) 
in 84. 
after adjective, altissimus a II 101, re- 

censab in 11. 
after nouns, a puppi ventis n 125, metus 

a vi I 45. 

after neuter verb, anima calescit ab spi- 
ritu ii 138, conflagrare terras a tantis 
ardoribus n 92. 

personifying use after passive v. oa quae 
a terra stirpibus coritinentur 11 83, and 
127, ab his (dentibus) molitur cibus n 
134, confectio a lingua adjuvari vidotur 
ib., a nervis artus continentur 11 139, ab 
auditu sonus est acceptus 11 144, sensus 
a vocibus pulsus ib. See under natura 
and providentia. 

Abbreviation, see Brachylogy. 

Ablative (1) of place, see loco, initio, prin- 
cipio, bonis domiciliis habitare n 95, 
aram Esquiliis consecratam in 63, no- 
men veterum litteris usitatius in 48; 
with totus, tqto caelo luce dift usa II 95, 
corpore toto intextae venae n 138, toto 
corpore pertinentem n 139, tactus toto 
corpore fusus n 141; with idem, isdem 
spatiis vagatur n 103, i. s. conversions 
conficere 11 49; tropical, una littera ex- 
plicare in 62 (see below, 7). 

(2) of time, ludis n 6, tarn immenso 
spatio Pronoea cessavit I 22 (see below 
9), tempore infinite in gurgustio habita- 
verat ib., recentiore memoria 11 6, pa- 
trum memoria n 165, nocte et die u 24; 
with totus, Stellas totis noctibus cerni- 
mus ii 105, 108, tota aestate ii 130. 

(3) of description, (a) predicative with 
sum, erat perversissimis oculis I 79, hu- 
mano visu (sunt) I 85, his vocabulis esse 
deos facimus I 83, iis corporibus sunt ii 
59, sunt admirabili constantia in 23, 
matre libera est in 45, matre Asteria 
est in 46, sit eodem ornatu ii 85, eo 
statu shit ii 87, ea figura est i 48; (with 
Gen. in place of epithet) hominis esse 
specie deos confitendum est ib. ; (b) with 
other verbs, deos ea facie novimus I 81, 
veris falsa esse adjuncta tanta similitu- 
dine 1 12, perturbatis animis inducuntur 
(di) ii 70, soliditate quadam cernatur (?) 
i 49, imagines ea forma incidere I 107, 
eximio posita est fulgore corona n 108, 
perhibent Ophiuchum claro lumine (?) 
ii 109 (some of these might be classed 
with the following); (c) attributive with 
nouns, cursus incredibili celeritate ii 
161, glaebam nulla cohaerendi natura 



ii 82, pisces squamoso corpore ii 113, 
amiculum grandi pondere in 83, Musae 
isdem nominibus in 54, obscura specie 
Cassiepia II 111, jubam fulgore micanti 
ib., corpore semifero Capricornus n 112, 
Arcturus nomine claro n 110, splendenti 
corpore Virgo ib., sidera magnitudinibus 
immensis ii 92, continente ardore lucis 
orbem (?) I 28. 

(4) of manner, persuaderi non opini- 
one sed ad yeritatem I 61, quibus yo- 
cabulis nominantur I 83, aqua nive 
pruinaque concresceret ir 26, ratione et 
numero moveri ii 43, jure ac lege vivunt 
ii 154, casu fieri ii 97, colere deos jure 
pontificio et more majorum in 43, ves- 
tigiis concludere in 23, lege nova quaes- 
tiones in 74, de incestu rogatione Pe- 
ducaea ill 74, ratione peccetur in 69, 
opinione stultorum judicari ill 11. 

(5) of cause, eo errore dicebas quia ii 73, 
assidnitate consuescunt II 96, opiriiones 
qnae in maxima inconstantia veritatis 
ignoratione versantur I 43 ; used for a- 
gent, quo (numine) regantur ii 4, in 10, 
ii 16, natura tenetur ii 83, cf. II 85, di- 
vino spiritu continetur ii 19. 

(6) of means or instrument, cantheriis 
albis venisse in 11, rumoribus pugnas 
in 13, defectibus recurro ii 50, disco 
capedunculis in 43, terrae bubus subi- 
guntur II 159. 

(V) of part concerned, in point of, figura 
vastior I 97 (?), una littera explicare in 
62, ornatius aspectu, motu constantius 
in 23, liniamentis extremis similem i 
123. 

(8) of measure, uno digito redundat I 
99, uno digito plus habere ib., multis 
partibus major quam terra ii 92, multo 
antecellit II 145. 

(9) of attendant circumstances, tarn im 
menso spatio cessaverit I 22, immenso 
mundo colluceat ii 40, nullis calonibus 
venisse ill 11, nullis auspiciis adminis- 
trantur ii 9, assensu omnium dicere 114, 
his axictoribus debes moveri ill 13, ejus 
augurio bell a gerere n 9. 

(10) of origin (with nascor). igne riasci 
I 103, Jove natus in 42, 53, 54, 56, 57, 58, 
59, Nilo natus III 42, 55, 58, cf. Ill 60; 
(with procreor) in 54, 59 ; (with orior) 
Minerva orta Nilo ill 59; (with con- 
ceptus) Syria Cyproque concepta (?) in 
59 Add. 

(11) of comparison followed by quam- 
clause i 38. 

Abdera 1 120. 



INDEX. 



211 



Abderites i 63. 

abdico (used absolutely) n 11. 

aberro a conjectura 1 100. 

abiegnug in 75. 

Abstract, see Plural; (for Concrete) animi 
aegritudo commota i 9, animi fusionem 
I 39, volucres ex vastitate Lybiae invec- 
tas 1 101, utilitas rerum n 162, commo- 
ditas rerum in 16, hujusce terrae con- 
tinuatio n 164, in hac subtilitate sermo- 
nis in 9; understood from preceding 
Concrete, silos capitones, quae sunt I 80, 
sapientem esse mundum, beatum, aeter- 
num, omnia haec n 21. 

absum. cui nihil abest n 37, absunt ab hac vi 
( are unlike )n 67, quod abest ( which is 
not the case ) in 79. 

Absyrtus ill 48. 

abutor to turn from its natural use ii 151, 
to use to excess, atomorum liccntia 

I 65. 

ac, see atque. 

Academia: their profession of ignorance 1 1, 
18 ; of freedom I 10, 17, 72, in 1 ; charged 
with obscuring truth I 6; argued against 
common beliefs I 11, m72; a deserted 
school i 6, 11; unpopular i 13; doctrine 
of en-ox*? ill; of probability 1 12 ; distin 
guished for rhetoric ii 168; profess to 
hold the traditional faith in 19; procax 
Academia i 13; Academicorum calum- 
niam n 20. 

Academica, Cicero s treatise in four books 
i 11. 

Acantho (?) in 54. 

accedo. ad cognitionem ( to attain to ) II 153 
and Addenda. 

accessus X recessus, ad res salutares n 34; of 
.tides in 24; of the sun II 50. 

accido. corpora quaeque his accidant bodies 
and their attributes n 82; accidat tra- 
bes (quotation) (?) in 75. 

accipere plagam I 70 ; intcritum in 32 ; ma- 
gistrum male treat badly 1 92 ; auditione 

II 95; aliquid extrinsecus in 29; accep- 
tum refero in 86. 

accipiter, worshipped in Egypt in 47. 
Accius (Actius MSS) quotation from his 

Medea 11 89, from the Atreus in 68, from 

uncertain plays in 41, 90. 
accommodo = crui/o(.Kei6u) i 41; naturae accom- 

modatum i 104, ad hanc praesensionem 

nihil ace. n 45, ad artus flriiendos accom- 

modatas n 139. 
accubitio i 94. 
Accusative (of Oblique Complement) invo- 

cant ilium et Jovem et dominatorem n 4 ; 

(of Duration) compared withAbl. I 22 n. ; 

(of Motion to a country) Aegyptum pro- 

fugisse in 56 ; after aufugio n 111. 
acer. ingenium n 16 ; mens II 18; sensus n 

30, 42 ; umores 1 1 59. 
acerbum cor (quotation) in 68, acerbos e Ze- 

nonis schola exire in 77. 
Achaia (in Rhodes) in 54 n. 
Acheron m 43. 

Achilles worshipped in Astypalaea in 45. 
acies mentis n 43, 45, ipsa qua cernimus ( = 

pupula) n 142. 
acquierunt n 125. 
actio vitae (verbal of agere vitam) i 2 Add., 

45 (?), 103, corporis n 139, actiones ad- 

hibeo n 58. 

actuosa virtus 1 110 Add. 
acumen sting n 114; ex acuminibus auspi- 

cium n 9. 
acutulae conclusiones in 18. 



ad ( as regards ) ad agnitionem animi pul- 
cherrima I 1, ad speciern pulchriores II 
87, ad figuram vastior (?) 1 97 , ad rationem 
praestantior n 155, ad ornatum decoras 
II 151, nihil interest ad fortunam in 89, 
interesse aliquid ad mentis aciem n 43, 
nee ad speciem nee ad usum desiderant 
(?) i 99, ad cogitationem valent I 105; 
( with a view to ) quanta ratio ad con- 
servationem bestiarum appareat n 128, 
ad scientiam homini data est n 163; 
( according to ) exerceamur ad similitu- 
dinem bellicae disciplinae n 161, ad 
numerum ( = K<XT a pitf/aoi/) i 49, ad verita- 
tem persuader! X opinione ( = 7rpb? d\rj- 
fleiai/) i 61, ad harmoniam canere in 
27; ad eum ( to his house ) I 15; ad 
unum omnes I 44; ad extremum n 
118; ad quoddam tempus n 51; esse ad 
omne tempus ( suited to ) in 83; ad 
quern primas deferebant 1 15; aggredior 
ad disputationem in 7, cf. 157; arripio 
ad reprehendendum 11 167; adhibitis 
manibus ad inventa II 150. 

addo. extrinsecus spiritum addant (?) n 136. 

addubito 1 14, nll8. 

adduco n 136 (?); adducor ut putem II 17. 

adeo, X recedo, stellae n 51. 

adeo adv. II 105. 

adhibeo, actiones II 58, ignem II 151, odores 
ad deos I 112; cultus adhibetur homini 
I 94 Add. 

aditus difficiles habebat ad pastum n 123. 

Adjective (in -bilis with active force) insatia- 
bilis n 98, praestabilis in 26, patibilis 
ill 29. 

(as substantive), pontificii I 84. 
(n. pi. as adverb), truculerita tuetur II 

110 (poet.). 

(of antecedent; made sub-predicate in 
relative clause), natura quam cernit ig- 
notam 11 89, calore quern multum habet 
II 136, stellae quas tu innumerabiles m 
23, deos qui a te innumerabiles explicati 
sunt ill 93. 

(used for participle) vanas ( = vanas ow 
e-as) n 5. 
(otiose) ficta simulatio I 3. 

adjicio. frigoribus adjectis by the applica 
tion of cold II 26; adjectae voces n 
144. 

adjungo. ad hanc providentiam adjungi 
multa possunt II 140, tempus hiemi ad- 
junctum ii 49, adj. linguae radicibus n 
136, os adjunctis naribus spiritu augetur 
n 134. 

adminicula vites apprehendunt 11 120. 

admirabilitas caelestium rerum 11 90, cum 
admirabilitate maxima II 101. 

admirabiliter ii 132. 

admiratio est in we may wonder at n 124. 

admiror congressune an natura congregatae 
sint (?) ii 124; to express wonder I 24, 
91, cf. Cato 3, 4, Orat. n 29. 

admisceri genus (quotation) in 68, partim 
admiscentur in unam (quotation) ii 108. 

admotio digitorum ii 150. 

adnectitur ad linguam stomachus n 136. 

Adonis in 59. 

adulatio, canum amans dominorum n 158. 

adumbratas deorum formas I 75. 

adunca corpuscula I 66. 

aduncitas rostrorum ii 122. 

adventicius tepor n 26. 

Adverb (expressing opinion of speaker rather 
than mode of action) creduntur stul- 
tissime n 70, latent utiliter ii 143. 

142 



212 



INDEX. 



Adverbial clause as attribute apud inferos 
portenta n 5, saepc praesentiae n 166, 
praeter naturam portcritis n 14, aus- 
picia ex acuminibus n 9, ex aqua sola 
rium n 87, introitus cum flexibus n 
141, a puppi ventis n 125, hominem sine 
arte II 74, cursus cum admirabili cou- 
stantia n 55, see cum. Used as parti 
ciple Mercurius qui sub ten-is habetur 
idem Trophonius ill 5(5, hanc constan- 
tiam non possum intellegere sine mente 

II 54. 

adversus aer pellitur ( in front ) II 125, caput 

II 110, dentes II 134. 
advesperascit in 94. 
aedificator mundi 1 18 Add., 21. 
aedifico (mockingly used of Creation) I 19, 

in 26. 

aedilis (decorations by) I 22. 
Aeeta in 48, 54 (?). 
Aeginleus in 48. 
Aegisthus in 91. 
Aegyptius (superstitions of) i 43, 81, 82, 101, 

III 39, 54, 55, 56, 59. 

Aegyptus in 55, 56 (in ace. after v. of mo 
tion). 

aequabilis tributio ( = icrovoju.ia) i 50, calor II 
54, motus ii 23, 90, partes undique aeq. 
II 116. 

aequabilitas motus 11 15, 48. 

aequabiliter. fusus fcactus n 141, mare conglo- 
batur undique 11 116. 

aequaliter partes nituntur n 115. 

aequilibritas to-oi Oju.ia 1 109. 

aer. a new word n 91. See air and anima. 

Aesculapius n 62, ill 39, 45, 57, 83, 91, n on 
occurrit I 46. 

aestus maritimi (theories of Aristotle, Posido- 
nius, &c.) ii 19 n., 132, in 24. 

aetates sempiternae saeclorum n 52. 

aeternitas. in ornni aet. II 51, 54, frui act. 
n 62. 

aeternus. poetical use n 111, ill 41. 

aether, a new word n 91, caeli complexus 
qui aether vocatur ii 101, sidera ex pu- 
rissima actheris parte gignuntur ii 39, 
ardor caelestis qui aether vel caelum 
nominatur ii 41, called caeli ardor I 33, 
its divinity I 36, constat ex altissimis 
ignibus ii 91, holds together the universe 
ii 101, 115, the soul is derived from it n 
18 (n. on untie siistulwms), personified 
in Jupiter n (55, fed by exhalations n 83, 
cf. calor and ignis. 

Aether, f. of Caelus in 44, f . of Jupiter in 
53, 54. 

aetheria natura id est ignea n 64, summa 
pars caeli aetheria dicitur n 117, non ha- 
bent aethcrios cursus stellae n 54. 

affatim vescuntur n 127. 

affero. lacrymas populo Romano n 7, infe- 
rias in 42. 

afficio. vi afl ectam endued with I 36, ho- 
nore I 38, muncre in 66. 

affigo. (sculptors) Minervae talaria affigunt 
in 59. 

affingo. natura corpori affinxit (membra) 
i 92. 

afflatus, sine afflatu divino nemo vir mag- 
nus ii 167. 

affluo. imaginum series a deo (?) I 49 Add., 
ex ipso (deo) imagines I 114 ; nihil bonis 
ailluentius cogitari pptest I 51. 

Africanus, instance of divine favour ii 165, 
his death in 80, foretold by prodigies 
II 14. 

Africus ventus 1 101. 



agellus in 85. 

aggredior ad proceed to i 57, in 7. 

agnitio animi (?) 1 1 Add. 

agnosco deorum cognationem I 91, (to feel 
the force of an argument) I 49. 

agnus aurea coma in 68. 

ago. quid agat vereor what will become of 
her in 48 ; age (before question) I 83, n 
120, age porro in 43 ; res agitur i 17 Add. 

agripeta I 72. 

Air pervades all the other elements I 40, 
holding them together by its double ac 
tion expansive and cohesive ii 117, is the 
coldest element ii 26, its quality affects 
the intellect n 17, 42, its metamorphoses 
ii 101, in 31, personified in Juno II 66, 
essential to sight and hearing n 83, is an 
exhalation from water n 27. 

Alabandis ( AA.aj3ai/5ei?) in 39 (?); Alabanden- 
ses in 50. 

Alabandus, eponymous hero of Alabandaiil 
39, saying of Stratonicus about him in 50. 

Albucius the Epicurean I 93. 

Alcaeus i 79. 

Alcamenes, his statue of Vulcan I 83. 

Alcmaeo the philosopher i 27. 

Alco. one of the Dioscuri in 53. 

Alenus (?) in 74. 

ales, the constellation Cycrms n 113, ales 
avis winged bird n 112, alites X oscines 
n 160. 

Alexander, saying of Timaeus on the de 
struction of the temple at Ephesus at the 
time of his birth n 69. 

aliqui or aliquis. iratus aliqui deus in 91. 
(vague sense), esse aliquod numeii ii 4, 
esse aliquam mentem n 18, necessitate 
aliqua n 88, aliqua natura n 115. 

alius. (res) alia ex alia nexa i 9, alii per alia 
n 71, alia (closing a list without et) in 
52, cf. cetera, reliqua; Gen. alii (?) 
ii 123. 

Allegory used by Stoics I 36, 37, 41, n 62, 63, 
64, III 62 foil. 

allicere (elicerc MSS) 1 116. 

alligo vinclis ii 64. 

Alliteration in c, consentiens conspirans 
continuata cognatio quern non coget 
comprobare II 19, cotidiana conveniens 
constansque conversio n 54, convenientia 
cpnsensuque naturae quam quasi cogna- 
tione continuatam conspirare dicebas 
in 28, acerbum cor contundam et com- 
primam (quotation) in 68, cetera... celeri 
caelestia ii 104; in cl, clarum...clam 
clepere (quotation) in 68; in d, desipere 
delirare dementes esse dicebas 1 94; in m, 
major mini moles, majus miscendumst 
malum (quotation) ill 68 ; t and m, ter- 
ram tuentem maria mqderantem in 93 ; 
in v, volvit vertices vi suscitat (quota 
tion) n 89, velut vim aves avertunt 
volucres vastitate vento invectas i 
101. Cf. Theobald De annominationis 
et alliterationis ap. Ciceronem usu pp. 
25 Bonn 1852 

alludo litoribus ii 100 (confused with other 
words in MSS). 

Almo ill 52. 

alo. terra alat et augeat ii 83, cf. 81, vapori- 
bus altae stellae ii 118 ; cum agellus non 
satis aleret (dominum) I 72. 

Alphabet Latin n 93. 

alte emergit n 113. 

altissimus gradus ii 34, natura II 64, ignes 
ii 91, a domiciliis nostris altissimus caeli 
complexus n 101. 



INDEX. 



213 



altitudines montium n 98, speluncarum (?) 
ib. ; altitudinum iminensitas I 54. 

altqr omnium rerum mundus n 86. 

alvi natura n 136, purgatio in 57, contingit 
caput alvo n 111. 

amando procul a sensibus II 141 Add. 

ambitus rotundi stellarum II 49. 

ambulo. naturae artificiose ambulantis in 
27. 

amfractibus incisum n 47. 

arnica varietati fortuna II 43. 

amiculum grand! pondere in 83. 

amitto captum let go n 12*. 

amo X diligo i 121; (of self-complacency) 
vestra amatis n 73. 

amoenitates orarum II 100. 

Amor (mythological) in 44. 

Amphiaraus II 7, in 49. 

amplector. stirpes amplexa alat terra II 83. 

amplifico. sonum n 144, (sensations) ampli- 
ficata interimunt in 34. 

amplitudines (?) n 98. 

an (with the former alternative unex 
pressed) an tu mei similem I 84, an 
quicquarn tam puerile I 88 (97), an obli- 
tus es II 2, an Atti Navii lituus n 9, an 
ne hoc quidem intellegimus n 17; (in 
troducing contrasted clauses) an cetera 
mundus habebit, hoc unum non habebit 
II 18, an vero non possis adduci &c. II 
17 Add. 

Anacoluthon. (change of mood) facit Socra- 
tem disputantem eundemque dicere I 
31, dicemus...npn est...sed esse I 75, 
necesse est seritiat venire in 36; tegen- 
di causa factae et ne voces laberentur n 
144 Add.; (from Indirect to Direct) 
Chrysippus docet...esse debere, est au- 
tem II 38 & 39 Add., grues trianguli 
efficere formam, ejus autem angulo aer 
pellitur II 125, fateamur habere habe- 
mus I 44. 

(principal verb attracted into subordi 
nate construction) quem ad modum as- 
severant interire (for intereunt) II 94, 
cf. quae cum viderent II 95. 
(from personal to impersonal) poterunt 

intellegi n 71. 

(of Case) sed ipse Juppiter hunc n 64, ea 
quae nuper curant n 126, quibus quies- 
cerent II 143. 

etiam per jocum n 7, esse hominem arro- 
gantiae est n 16. 

Anactes (al. Anaces) in 53. 

anas, anitum ova n 124. 

Anaxagoras I 26. 

Anaxarchus in 82. 

Anaximander I 25. 

Anaximenes I 26. 

anceps, quasi amphibious I 103. - 

Andromeda n 112, elided before aufugiens 
n 111. 

anguis volucris 1 101 ; the constellation Draco 
II 109. 

anguitenens ( = Ophiuchus) n 109. 

angulus summus the apex n 125, angulis 
incisum n 47. 

angustia conclusae orationis II 20 Add., animi 
angustiae I 88, fretorum angustiae II 19. 

angustus. brevius angustiusque concludun- 
tur ii 20, urget angustius n 22. 

anhelo. frigus de pectore n 112. 

anicula I 55, 94. 

anilis n 70, in 12. 

aniliter m 92. 

anima air , quae spiritu ducitur n 38, 36, 
anima unde aiiimantium constet animus 



ex quo animal dicitur (?) Hi 36, animam 
illam spirabilem (?) II 18, animus ex igni 
atque anima temperatur ill 36, (in Lu 
cretius) I 26 n.; ( soul ) pro sale datam 
sui II 160. 

animadverto (followed by cum) n 24. 

animal (named from animus) I 26, ill 36; 
ignis ex sese ipse animal est ib. ; (denned 
by sensation and appetite) II 34, 81, 122, 
ill 32, 33; (the lower animals are without 
reason) n 34, 133, in 66, but have quid- 
dam simile mentis II 29, the ant indeed 
has mens ratio memoria in 21; (are 
created for man) II 158161 ; (each kind 
seems to itself the best) i 77 foil. ; (each 
element has its appropriate animals) I 
103, II 42. See Zoology. 

animalis cibus ( aerial nutriment ) n 136, 
animali spirabilique natura (?) II 91, in 
34; ( living ) nihil esse animale extrin- 
secus (?) in 36. 

animans (1) adj., mundum animantem I 23, 
II 47, 22, animantes imagines I 120, ani 
mans natura i 123, animantia principia 
II 75 Add. 

(2) subst. II 24, 37, 45, 83, 101, 130, 132, 136, 
153, used as masc. I 24, as f. II 101 n., as 
neut. II 128, ill 34 (?). 

animare abs. to give life 1 110. 

animus (see on anima, animal), est in am 
mo facere n 20, sive ex ariimo fit sive 
simulate 11 168. Cf. Soul. 

annales Ennii n 93. 

anniversarias vicissitudines 11 97. 

annuas frigorum et calorum varietates 11 
101. 

annus magnus n 51, Frag. 5; anno vertente 
n 53. 

anquiro I 45. 

anser n 123. 

Antecanis (?) n 114. 

antecedo (neut.) of the stars )( subsequor n 
51, 52, 53. 

antecello. sensus antecellit sensibus n 145. 

anteceptam ammo rei informationem I 43. 

anteeo. hominis natura anteit animantes n 
158. 

anteferre figuram suae I 77. 

antegreditur stella solem n 53. 

Anteros in 59. 

anteverto. turn antevertens turn subsequens 
ii 53. 



anticipo. ita est informatum anticipaturn- 

que mentibus nostris I 76. 
Antiopa in 54. 
Antisthenes I 32. 
Aoede in 54. 
aperio. aperiuntur stellae )( occultantur n 

51, cf. se aperire ii 52; aperit de istoc 

oratio (quot.) n 91. 
aperta mens unbodied I 27. 
aperte frankly 1 11. 
Apis I 82. 
Apollo ii 68 (derivation of name compared 

with that of Sol), m 55, 57, (legislator of 

Sparta) in 91, worshipped with unbloody 

offerings at Delos in 88 n. 
Apollodorus (the Stoic) i 93; (the Epicurean) 

I 89 n. on non vestro more and p. lii; 

(the tyrant) in 82. 
Aposiopesis after sed tamen I 90. 
Apostrophe, num quid tale Epicure I 88 n. 
Apotheosis^ see Gods. 
appetitio=dp^rj )( declinatio n 58, in 33. 
appetitus animi ii 34, cum appetitu acces- 

sum ib., rerum app. n 29. 



214 



INDEX. 



appeto. mare terrain II 100, proprium est 
animantium ut aliquid appetant I 104 ; 
(neut.) sentire et appetere II 81. 

appulsus soils I 24, Maoris et caloris II 141. 

apte cadere to suit 1 19. 

aptus. (1) part, inter se aptae colligataeque 
I 9, inter se conexa et apta II 97, apta 
inter se et cohaerentia in 4, undique 
aptum ii 37, aptius more compact n 47, 
115: (2) adj. ad jocandum 11 46, ad per- 
mancndum II 58. 

apud Cottam at his house 1 15. 

aqua pi. respiratio aquarum n 27, efterves- 
cunt subditis ignibus ib., maris aqua- 
rumque reliquarum vapores n 118. 

Aquarius (constellation) n 112. 

aquatilis bestia n 124. 

Aquila (constellation) n 113. 

Aquilius M . II 14. 

Aquillius C. in 74 (his definition of dolus). 

aquilonis tangitur auris (of a star) 11 111 
Add., cf. ii 112; aquilonibus reliquisque 
frigpribus n 26. 

aquilonius (?) ii 50 (aquilenta MSS). 

ara. in aram confugere in 24, pro aris et 
focis in 94; (constellation) n 114. 

ararieola n 123. 

Aratus n 104, (quotations from) II 104114, 
159. 

arbitro v.a. n 74. 

Arcadia in 53, 57. Arcades in 57, 59. 

arceo. arcet et continet quod recepit n 136, 
flumina arcemus ii 152. 

Arcesilas 1 11, 70. 

arcessitu 1 15. 

Arche in 54. 

Archilochus m 91. 

Archimedes (his orrery) II 88. 

architectus i 72, ii 141, )( faber n 35 n. ; (of 
the Creator) 1 19, n 90. 

Arctophy lax ( = Bootes) n 109. 

Arcturus n 110. 

Arctus ii 109, 110, 111 ; Arctqe n 105. 

arcus (rainbow) in 51, arqui ib.; (constella 
tion) ii 113. 

Ardea, seat of the worship of Natio in 47. 

ardor caeli^al^ p i 33, 37, mundi n 32, side- 
rum ardores n 92, continente ardore 
orbem I 28 (?). 

Areopagus ii 74. 

argentea mensa in 84. 

Argiva Juno I 82. 

Argo (the ship) ii 89; (constellation) ii 114. 

argumentum cur in 10, argument! exitum 
explicare i 53. 

Argus slain by Mercury in 56. 

aries (constellation) n 111; (of Atreus) in 
68 n. 

Aristaeus olivae inventor n 45. 

Aristippus. asotos ex Aristippi schola exire 
in 77, vol. i p. xxiii. 

Aristo of Chios i 37, his saying m 77. 

Aristoteles vol. I p. xxvi foil.; his arg. for the 
eternity of the world used by Epicureans 
1 20 ; Epicurean criticism of his doctrines 
i 33, 93 ; relf. to his dialogue l)e Phi- 
losoi>hia i 33, 107 (on Orpheus), n 37 
undique aptum n., n 42 (forms of life 
belonging to each element), n 44 (stars 
move of their own accord), n 51 mag 
num annum n., n 95 (ground of natural 
theology), n 125 (flight of cranes); points 
of agreement between him and Posido- 
nius vol. n p. xix foil. 

arrideo i 79, in 1. 

arripio. assume i 70; unde arripuit ii 18, 
in 27, arr. ad reprehendendum ii 162. 



ars naturae ii 83, cf. artes ii 132 n., artes 
quarum judicium est oculorum II 145, 
ars medicinae (?) ii 12, ignem magistrum 
artium ii 57, homines artium ill 23 Add.; 
(the ideal in art suggests the divine in 
nature) n 35, artis proprium creare II 
57, nulla ars imitari sollertiam naturae 
potest i 92 Add., n 81, 87, 142; artes 
works of art ii 87. 

Arsinoe ill 57. 

Arsippus in 57. 

arte. calorem continet artius ii 25, arte tan- 
gendi (?) n 146. 

arteria (1) artery ii 25, spiritus per arterias 
diffunditur ii 138; (2) aspera arteria 
windpipe ii 136 Add., 149. 

articulatim membra dividit ill G7. 

articulus finger I 79. 

artifex. riatura non artificiosa sed artifex ii 
58. 

artiiiciosus ii 58, ignis artificiosus (?p rex- 
VIKOV) ii 57, artificiosi operis vim n 138, 
aurium artificiosum judicium ii 146; na 
turae artificiose ambulantis in 27. 

artus. commissuras et artus ii 150, commis- 
suras ad artus liniendos (?) ii 139. 

arx. in capite tamquam in arce n 140 Add. 

ascisco augures acknowledge as augurs 
ii 7. 

ascripticios cives in 39. 

Asia in 58. 

asinorum utilitates ii 159. 

aVw/xaros (Latin equivalents) I 30 Add. 

asotus ill 77. 

asper. See arteria. 

asperitas. saxorum asperitates n 98, stir- 
pium asp. weeds ii 99 Add. 

aspirantes pulmones (of an expiration) ii 
. 136. 

aspiratio aeris ventilation ii 83. 

aspis (worshipped in Egypt) ill 47. 

assensio ( = <TvyKaTa 0ecrts). ass. cohibere^ 

eTre ^eiy I 1. 

assensu omnium dieere ii 4, 

assequi quantp consilio gerantur n 97. 

assiduitas cotidiana II 96. 

assuesco consuetudine ii 96. 

assumo. (with Dat.) nihil nostrae laudi as- 
sumptum in 87. 

Astarte in 59. 

Asteria (mother of Hercules) ill 42, (m. of 
Hecate) in 46. 

astringo X relaxo II 136, astririgentibus se 
intestinis ii 137 ; astrictus (?) ii 26. 

Astronomy, heliocentric hypothesis I 24 (ce- 
leritate n.), Venus and Mercury revolve 
round the sun ii 53, 119; geocentric n 
91, 98; planets, their direct and retro 
grade motions, their names number or 
der conjunction and opposition, pe 
riodic times ii 51 54, 103, 119; magni 
tude of the heavenly bodies ii 92, 102, 
103, their nutrition by exhalations ii 40, 
83, 118, III 37; Annus Magnus II 51, fr. 
5; gravitation II 98, 115; expansive and 
cohesive forces n 115, IK!, 117; planetary 
influences n 119; constellations as de 
scribed by Aratus ii 104115; their re 
semblance to the objects after which 
they are called, their number ii 104; 
horizon ii 108 (hoc caput n.); eclipses ii 
153. See under sun, moon and names of 
planets and constellations. 

Astypalaea ill 45. 

Asyndeton adversative I 20, 21, 23, 70, 74, 102, 
106, II 1, III 5, 7, 32, 35, 69. Cf. alius, 
cetera, relic^ms. 



INDEX. 



215 



at vero (abrupt transition) II 100; (strong 
opposition) n 10, in 87. 

Atargatis or Derceto nn. on II 111, ill 39. 

Athenae I 79, 84, 85, II 74, ill 46, 49, 50, 55, 
57. 

dfleos I 63, III 89, cf. I 62, 118. 

Atilius Calatinus n 61. 

atomus i 65, 73, 109, 114, n 94 ; see corpus, 
corpusculum, individuum, inclinatio, 
declino. 

atque (strong force) and indeed I 4; (after 
negative clause) in 84; similiter facis 
ac si me rogas in 8. 

atqui = a AAa MV I 57, II 10, 18, 89; intro 
ducing 2nd premiss II 16, 41; or atque 
(?) 1 16, II 41, 78. 

Atreus, in 53, 61, 71. 

attendis hoc, quicquid usum non habeat, ob- 
stare 1 99, cf. Caecin. 90. 

Attico sermone I 93, scurra ib. 

attingo. Mwr non attingit deum I 22, cf. ill 
38, eruditum pulverem II 48. 

Attraction (of pron. to gend. of predi 
cate) ista est veritas i 67, earn esse cau- 
sam i 77, non erit ista amicitia I 122, 
mare quern Neptunum esse dicebas ill 
52; (but on the other hand) Indus qui 
est fluminum maximus II 130; (of Part, 
to gend. of nearer substantive) nervi 
sicut venae a corde tractae for tract! II 
139; (of Genit. of Pron. to case of go 
verning ivord) earn facultatem for ejus 
fac. in 8, n. on quam similitudinem II 
27; (of attribute of antecedent into re 
lative clause, see Adjective) is quern e 
Vulcano natum esse dixi custodem Athe- 
naruin ill 57; (of principal subject 
into relative clause) iratus aliqui quern 
irasci negatis deum (?) ill 91; (of case 
after quam) quam Sospitam I 82 Add., 
quam te I 86; (after ut) ut in nomine 
mentem II 29; (of relative into subordi 
nate clause) qui quoniam intellegi no- 
luit omittamus in 35, quorum cum re- 
manererit animi di sunt habiti n 62, 1 12 
n. ; (of subordinate subject into prin 
cipal object) animi natura n. I 23; (of 
principal verb into relative clause) 
quemadmodum asseverant n. n 94; (of 
subordinate to person of principal v.) 
ut poetae cum potestis fugitis I 53 ; see 
under Sequence. 

Attus Navius n 9, ill 14. 

auctor 1 10, lucem auctoris an expounder 
ill. 

auctoritas saepe pbest, sine ratione valeret 
i 10, homo sine auctoritate II 74, auc- 
toritates contemnis in 9, auctoritatem 
dare in 91. 

audio to attend Zenonem I 59, Democritea 
i 73; audiens a student ill 77; audia 
mus Platonem n 32, si me audiatis 
( take my advice ) II 74, II 168; fatido 
auditum est I 82, auditum est pantheras 
habere remedium n 126; e patre II 11, 
14, (followed by cum with subj.) de fami- 
liari cum te anteferret i 58. 

auditione accipere ( = a/cor? napa\a^dveiv) II 

95. 

auditus the ear II 144. 
aufugiens aspectum n 111. 
augeo joined with alo n 33, 81, 83, aer terram 

au get imbribus n 101, os spiritu augetur 

II 132. 
augesco. semina oriri et augescere n 26, suis 

seminibus quaeque gigiluntur augescunt 

n 58. 



augur ii 10, 11, 12, I 55, (nostri) II 55, 160; 
(of foreign diviners) n 7; augurum pre- 
catio in 52. 

augurales libri n 11, in 52 n. 

augurii disciplina II 9. 

auguro. rerum augurandarum causa II 160. 

auguste sancteque n 62, in 53. 

augustus joined with sanctus 1 119, III 79. 

aureola oratiuncula ill 43. 

aureum illud genus n 159, coma in 68, barba 
in 83, amiculum in 83, Victoriolas ill 84. 

Auriga (constellation) II 110. 

Auroram salutans I 79 Add. 

aurum Tolossanum in 74. 

auspicari to take the auspices n 11. 

auspicia ponere to lose the right to take 
auspices n 9, ausp. peremnia, ex acu- 
minibus, cum viri vocantur n 9. 

aut vero X an vero n 115. 

autem (=Se for ya p) 1 121, introducing paren 
thetical remark II 25. 

Authority v. Reason. See Religion. 

aveo ii 1. 

averto. per litteras nomen in 73. 

Avis (constellation) II 112. 

axis caeli I 52. 

bacae quae ex stirpe funduntur n 127. 

Balbus. Vol. i p. xli and Add. 

barba aurea in 83. 

barbaria cuncta i 81 Add., (of a particular 
country) ii 88, 126. 

barbatus Aesculapius in 83, Juppiter I 83, 
100. 

basis trianguli II 125. 

beatitas or beatitude I 94, afterwards bea- 
tum 1 110. 

beatus. ii qui beat! putantur ( well off ) 
n 95. 

bellica disciplina n 161. 

bellus. quam bellum erat I 84. 

belua (of animals indiscriminately) I 77, 101, 
II 29, 100. 

Belus in 42. 

bene bonis sit, male malis in 79, bene plane- 
que ill 83. 

beneficentissimus ii 64. 

bestiae cicures X ferae n 99, terrenae aqua- 
tiles volatiles n 151, terrenae aquatiles 
ancipites 1 103. 

bilis secreta a cibo n 137. 

bipes i 95. 

bis bina n 49 and Addenda. 

blanda conciliatrix I 77. 

blandiloquentia (quotation) in 65. 

Boeotia. (temple lands tax-free) in 49. 

bonasus n 127 n. 

boni dei in 84, bqna venia I 59 Add. 

bonitas erga homines (goodness) II 60, ill 84; 
(honesty) in 75. 

Bootes II 109, 110. 

Botany, use of root and bark, movements 
of climbing plants, antipathies in the 
vegetable kingdom ii 120, propagation by 
seed ii 127, the vital principle of plants 
is natura in the narrower sense ii 33 n., 
their rj-ye/aoi/t/cov resides in the root ii 29. 

Brachylogy. (objective for subjective state 
ment) idcirco consuluit for idcirco con- 
suluisse dicitur in 70, cur di homines 
neglegant in 79, incredibile est (for vide- 
bitur) si attenderis n 149, prosperae om- 
nes res, siquidem satis dictum est n 167; 
(in comparisons) ut tragici poetae potes- 
tis (for possunt) I 53, ut cum fruges 
appellamus n 60, ut cum Titanis bella 
gesserunt ii 70; assimilis spongiis mol- 



216 



INDEX. 



litudo II 130 Add., vita similis deorum 
ii 15. }, hominis natura ariteit animantes 
ib.; quouiam 11. I 27, de singulis in 93, 
dividit esse n 82, quid censes 11011 tri- 
buturas I 78, I 82. See ccnseo, laudo, 
nomino, perhibeo. 

brassica (?) n 120. 

breviter (?) 11 65. 

Britannia(typical of barbarism) ii 88; Britan- 
nici aestus in 21. 

brumae similitude in luna II 50. 

brumalis orbis in 37. 

Brutus vol. I p. xli. 

Cabirus in 53n., 58. 

Cadmus in 48. 

cado. ( suit ) in solem I 95, in figuram I 23, 

in majestatem n 77, apte ad animum 

afficiendum (?) i 21; ( come under ) in 

cogitationem I 21 n. and Add. 
caelestis. volumen I 43, natura n 01; caeles- 

tia heavenly bodies n 56, 04. 
Caelius Antipater n 8. 
caelum (-aether) n 80, 91, 101, 116. 
Caelus II 63, in 44, 53, 55, 56, 59, 02. 
Caepio. n. on auri Tolossani ill 74. 
caerulei oculi Neptuni I 83. 
caesii oculi Minerva e I 83. 
Calatinus n 61, 165. 
calceoli repandi I 82. 
Calchas n 7. 

Calendar, Julian II 49 n. 
calesco a spiritu n 138. 
calficio. ad calficiendum corpus n 151. 
callidus. natura qua nihil potest esse calli- 

dius II 142, (etymology) ill 25, nihil ho- 

rum nimis callide (?) I 70. 
calo. nullis calonibus venisse in 11. 
calor. mundi fervor perlucidior est quam hie 

noster calor n 30, tectis calores pellamus 

II 151. 

calumnia Academicorum II 20. 
Camirus in 54. 
Campus hustings in 69. 
Cancer ii 110. 
candens. hoc sublime candens (quotation) 

II 4 Add., 65, III 10, 40. 
Candida vox ii 140 n. 
candor solis ii 40. 
Canicula (Sirius) in 20. 
canis (deilied) in 47; (Sirius) ii 114; similis 

lupo i 97 Add. 
Cannae in 80. 
canora vox X fusca n 140. 
cantheriis venisse (ironical, of the Dioscuri) 

in 11. 
cantum et auditum ii 89, vocis tibiarum 

nervorumque cantibus ii 140. 
capeduricula in 43. 
capesso medium locum n 115, pastum n 121, 

cibum n 122. 

capio tabernaculum II 11, cognitionem ii 140. 
capito ( big-headed ) I 80. 
Capitolium. meetings of tribes there 1 100, 

temples on n 01. 

capra fera n 120; (constellation) ii 110. 
Capricornus ii 112. 
Carbo I 04. 

cardo (the pole) II 105. 
careo. quae sunt his carentia II 21, nullius 

sensu carentis ii 22. 
caritas inter bonos i 122. 
Carneades I 4, 11, n 102; quoted ill 29, 44, 

vol. i p. xxviii, in p. Ix. 
carpo. animum ex quo nostri animi carpe- 

rentur i 27 ; alia carpunt alia vorant alia 

mandunt ii 122. 



carum est verbum amoris 1 122. 

Cassiepia n 111. 

Castor and Pollux (appearances of) ii 0, ill 
11 13, their mortality proved from Ho 
mer III 11; III 53. 

castus. cultus castissimus II 71. caste I 3. 

casus. dubitant de mundo casune siteffectus 
aut necessitate an ratione n 88; conver- 
sis casibus( by a change of inflexions ) 
ii 61. 

Cato the censor, his saying about the haru- 
spices i 71 n., specially favoured by 
heaven n 105, turn princeps ill 11. 

Catulus the elder, his epigram on Roscius I 
79, an example of undeserved misfortune 
in 80. T he younger a colleague of Cotta s 
in the pontiiicate I 79. 

caulis. a caulibus refugere vites n 120. 

cavea (the cage in which the sacred chickens 
were kept) n 7. 

cavillor. in eo cavillatus est grave esse ami- 
culum in 83. 

cedo mini deorum liniamenta i 75, cedo se- 
nem (quotation) ill 73. 

celo. tu me celas i 74. 

censeo. quid censes (with abbreviated ques 
tion) i 78, 82. 

censoria lex (respecting the farming of the 
taxes) in 49. 

Centaurus in 51, 70, see Hippocentaurus; 
(constellation) n 114. 

Cepheiis (constellation) n 111. 

cera. in ceris diceretur (?) i 71; (stock ex 
ample of aAAotwo-is) III 30. 

Cerberus in 43. 

Cercops, author of the Orphic poems accord 
ing to Aristotle i 107. 

Ceres (personification of earth) i 40, ii 67, in 
52, 02; ( = corn) II 60, III 41. 

certus. quid certi habeo i 0,14; mundum 
pro certo rotundum dicitis ii 48; certis 
verbis n 10; certiora quam quae ad Sa- 
gram ill 13. 

cervae se purgant ii 127 Add. 

cervices natae ad jugnm ii 159. 

cessant pueri 1 102, di n 59, in 93. 

cessatione nihil melius I 102 Add. 

cetera (without preceding et) pulmones jecur 
cetera I 92, ill 45; (with que) qui discor- 
diam qui cupiditatern ceteraque I 28. 

ceteroqui (?) I 60. 

Ceus, Chius or Cius 1 118. 

Charon in 43. 

Chelae (constellation) ii 114. 

Chimaera (example of non-ens) I 108, n 5. 

chirographum in 74. 

Xpovos ii 04. 

Chrysippus I 39, quoted ii 10, 37, 63, 160, ill 
18, 25,63, nicknamed Chrysippa by Epicu 
reans i 93; see vol. I p. xxx. 

cibus. animalis aerial nutriment II 136; 
(used of the exhalations which feed the 
heavenly bodies) in 37; cibo quo utare 
(predicative Dat.) ii 43 Add. 

Cicero. Vol. i p. xxxv foil., claims to have 
been always a student of philosophy i 5, 
impelled to write by his present enforced 
leisure and to divert his mind from grief 
at the loss of his daughter 79, defends 
his choice of the Academy, reference to 
his Academica 1012; his poetry, ad 
mired by contemporaries and copied by 
Lucretius, special features of it n 104 n. 
Biographical details (put in the mouth of 
Cotta) : residence at Athens i 79, there 
heard the Epicureans Zeno and Phaedrus 
i 59, 93, saw shrine of Hecate in Greece 



INDEX. 



217 



in 46, shrine of Vemis at Elis ill 59, 
of Erechtheus at Athens in 59, the sta 
tue of Vulcan by Alcamenes I 83. His 
augurship I 14; his discriminating use 
of words in 25 callidusn.; mistransla 
tions from the Greek, I 62 ut sint n., II 
77 utrum ignorant n. , n 108 maerentis n. 
His misstatements of fact II 9 AttiNavii 
n., in 83 temple of Proserpina at Lpcri 
sacked by Dionysius, statue of Jupiter 
at Olympia stripped of golden robe, of 
Aesculapius at Epidaurus stripped of 
golden beard by the same; in 84 tables 
sacred to the Boni Dei. Misstatements 
of argument I 87, n 92 ita prosunt n. 
Probably left the N. D. unfinished vol. 
in p. xxv. 

cincinnata stella comet II 14. 
China (noted for cruelty) in 80, 81. 
Circe. Circam procreavisse in 54, Circen 

Circeienses colunt ill 48. 
circle denned II 47. 
circulus (al. circus) aut orbis qui KVKA.OS voca- 

tur II 47. 

circumeo fana in 47. 
circumfero. astrorum motus in orbem cir- 

cumferretur (?) II 44. 
circumfundat terram aer n 17. 
circumitus solis orbium n 49, circ. solis et 

lunae n 155, cir. febrimn in 24 n. 
circumjectu amplectitur n 65. 
circumscripte coniplectimur closely define 

II 147. 
circumscriptio temporum limitation of time 

121. 

circus (?) n 44, 47, 54 nn. 
cives ascripticii ill 39. 
claudicat tota res 1 107. 
claudicatio apparet in Vulcano I 83. 
claviculis adminicula apprehendunt vites 

II 120. 
Cleanthes vol. I p. xxix, I 37, cited 11 13, 24, 

40, 63, in 16, 63. 

Cleomenes (k. of Sparta) Frag. 3. 
clepere (quotation) in 68. 
Coa Venus I 75. 
coagmentatio naturae II 119, quae non disso- 

lubilis ? I 20. 

coartavit locum brevis conclusio (?) in 22. 
Cocytus in 43. 
Codrus ill 49. 
coeunt societatem n 123. 
cogitatione depingere I 39, fingere in 47, 
motus celer cogitationis in 69, tantum 
modo ad cogitationem valent di 1 105. 
cogito refellere in 4 ; ( imagine ) tenebras II 

96, nihil agentem deum 1 101. 
cognatio deorum our kinship with the gods 
I 91, cognationes mutual relationships 
n 70; rerum consentiens conspirans con- 
tinuata cognatio n 19, naturam cogna- 
tione continuatam conspirare in 28. 
cognosco. cognitum habeo n 5, intellegam 
cum cognovero in 61, cognosce take 
note of in 74. 
cogo. alvus cogit omne quod recepit n 136 ; 

demonstrate in 34. 
cohaerentia mundi n 155. 
cohaereo. mundi partes n 87, mundus ad 
permanendum n 115, nulla cohaerendi 
natura II 82. 

coinquinari matres (quotation) ill 68. 
Colchi ill 54. 

collega sapientiae Metrodorus Epicuri 1 113 
collegium (of augurs) n 11. 
collibitum est 1 108. 
colligo acres umores contract n 58. 



colluceo. ignis immense mundo n 40, litora 

distincta tectis II 99. 
collustro. sol omnia luce n 92. 
colo. vates i 55, (of gods toward men) 1 115. 
combusti libri I 63 Add. 
comedo, comesse II 64. 
cometa n 14. 
comicae levitates ill 72. 
commenticius I 18, 28, 94, II 70, ill 63. 
comrniscendorum corporum libidines II 128. 
commissura II 139, 150. 
commoditas patris (quotation) ill 73; com- 

moditatum copia II 13, ill 86. 
commolior (quotation) ill 73. 
commune est de calido in 36, quae commu- 

nia sunt I 62 Add. 
comparatio eadem inter se relative position 

II 51. 

Comparative followed by Abl. and quam 1 38. 
Comparison abbreviated, see Brachyology. 
compensatione commodorum leniunt incom- 

moda I 23. 
compile, fana I 86. 

complector. complexatenet( in its embrace ) 
n 30, 36, 38 ; continet n 47, contorquet 
n 54. 

complere se conchis II 124. 
complexes caeli n 101, complexu coercet et 

continet II 58. 

compos rationis II 22, 36, 47, 78. 
compositio membrorum I 47, unguentorum 

II 146. 

comprehendo. sensurn prudentiam una cum 
deorum notione I 30, comprehensum ha 
beo n 5, si semen incident in compre- 
hendentem naturam n 81. 
comprehensio rerum consequentium cum 

primis n 147. 
conatus ( = op/u.rj) n 58, conatum habere ad 

pastus capessendos n 122. 
concavas altitudines n 98. 
concentus stellarum 11 119. 
concido satirize 1 93. 
conciliatione civiii conjunct! n 78. 
conciliatrix blanda natura 1 77. 
concilium deorum 1 18 Add. 
concinne Timaeus n 69. 
concino. re concinere verbis discrepare 1 16, 

concinentibus mundi partibus n 19. 
concipit terra semina n 26, conceptum a se 
ipso dolorem ill 91, Venus Syria Cyprp- 
que concepta(P) ill 59 Add., incidere in 
concipientem naturam II 81, concipitur 
corde anima n 138. 

concludo sententiam argumentis (?) I 89, ra- 
tionem II 22, in 23, haec brevius conclu- 
duntur II 20, deurn esse mundurn conclu- 
ditur ii 47; conclusa aqua, conclusa ora- 
tio n 20. 
concoquo cibum n 24, 136, conchas calore 

stomachi 11 124. 
Concordia n 61, in 47, 61. 
concresco. aqua nive n 26. 
concretio individuorum corporum i 71. 
concretus in nubes aer n 101, crasso caelo 
atque concrete n 42, concretes umores 
colligant n 59, ardorem nulla admixtipne 
concretum 11 117, species deorum nihil 
concreti habet I 75. 

Concrete for Abstract, quae ut fierent ra- 
tione eguerunt n 115, quae comparabas 
in 18, quae tu a caelp ducebas in 51, 
physicis rebus inventis 11 70. (See 
Plural.) 

concursio fortuita II 93. 
concursus fortuitus i 66, atomorum I 90, 
n 94. 



218 



INDEX. 



condiscipulus I 34. 

conditioncs eiborum n 146. 

condo ii 156, 157, mandantur condita vetus- 
tati ii 151. 

condocefactae beluae n 161. 

conduclum X locatum in 74. 

confectio mastication n 134. 

confector et consumptor omnium ignis II 41 
Add. 

conferas hue facultatem II 168. 

confestim ii 106. 

conlicio. res caelestes al> hpmine confici non 
possunt ii 16; conversiones conflcere II 
49, spatia n 51 ; ovium villis confectis 
atque contextis n 158 ; ( reduce to pulp ) 
inthni dentes conflciunt n 134, cocta 
atque confecta ii 130; ( kill ) II 123, 125. 

Conflagration, Stoic n 118. 

conilagro. a tantis ardoribus n 92. 

conllata ex duabus naturis n 100. 

conllictus atque tritus lapidum II 25. 

conformatio membrorum n 85 ; animi ( con 
cept ) 1 105 See informatio. 

confuse agere in 19. 

conglaciat aqua fngoribus II 26. 

conglobo. mare conglobatur undique aequa- 
biliter n 11(5, terra nutibus suis conglo- 
bata II 98. 

congredior, cum rhetore n 1, cum sole n 
103. 

congrego (used of two) n 124. 

congressus (?) n 124. 

conitor n 110. 

coniveo n 143, ill 8. 

conjectores i 55. 

conjectura. aberro a (?) 1 100, hominum con- 
jectura peccavit n 12. 

confunctio. habent suam sphaeram stellae 
ab aetheria conjunctione secret-am n 55, 
partium conj. cbntinetur n 84, alterius 
partis ii 64, cum eo summa n 66, con- 
sequentium cum primis II 147. 

coniunctum n 28. 

conjuratio Jugurthina in 74. 

Conscience a witness to God ill 85 n., cf. 
in 46 n. 

conscientia virtutis et vitiorum in 85. 

conscisco necem n 7. 

conscribo litteras in 42. 

consecro beluam I 101, Fidem ii 61, Li- 
berurn n 62, Cupidinis et Voluptatis 
vocabula consecrata sunt ii 61, caelum 
junonis nomine ii 6(5, Fides n 79. 

consectio arborum ii 151. 

consensus inundi in 18; naturae ( o-u/xTra- 
0eux) III 28. 

consentaneum est in astris sensum inesse n 
42, appetitionibus consentaneas actiones 
n 58. 

consentio. ad omnia tuenda consensisse ii (50, 
ad mundi incoluinitatem coagmentatio 
naturae n 119, consentiens cognatio 
rerum II 19. 

consequqr. naturae sollertiam nulla ars con- 
st-qui possit ii 81, res consequentes logi 
cal conclusion ii 147. 

consessus (V) i 61. 

conspire, naturatn quasi cognatione con- 

, tinuatam conspirare III 28, conspirans 
continuata cognatio ( cnWi/ou?) ii 19. 

constans ratio consistent in 92, conversio 
II 54. 

constantia)( fortuna 11 56, ordinum ii 48, in 
stellis n 54, naturae n 105, caeli ill 16, 
17, cf. 24 n. 

constat. ex animo et corpore i 98 ; dies tal 
lies n 6. 



constrictis in ore dentibus(?) ii 134. 

consuetude oculorum n 45, 96, in 20, cons, 
suscepit ut ii 62, impia est cons, contra 
deos disputandi ii 168, animi consue- 
tudine imbuti i 83. 

consultrix utilitatum natura ii 58. 

consumitaetastemporum spatia ii 61, salem 
. cons. squander ii 74 

consumptor omnium ignis ii 41 Add. 

contagio pulmonum contact with ii 138. 

contendo argumenta put side by side (?) 
in 10. 

contentio gravitatis ii 116. 

contineris (tr.) universitatem omnia conti- 
nentem I 39; (intr.) motum sensui 
junctum et continentem 126, continente 
ardore lucis orbem (?) i 28 Add., huic 
continens aer n 117, cont. efficiunt na- 
turam II 84. 

contineo. sphaera alias figuras II 47, Sa- 
turtius cursum tcmporis n 64, natura 
mundum n 29, 30; venis et nervis di 
continentur ii 59, continuato spiritu n 

19, radicibus ii 120, a terra stirpibus ii 
83, 127, naturae suis seminibus quaeque 
n 58, quibus naturae ratio I 73, iirmas 
membranas fecit utcontinerentur (oculi) 
that the other humours might be kept 
in their place II 142 ; cont. X remitto 
appetitus n 34; to nurse luctum 
in 91. 

contingo ( touch ) ii 120; ( belong to ) 
neutrum astris ii 41, regionibus n 17, 
his formis n 47, ( happen ) hoc ut 
ii 96. 

continuatio causarum chain of causation 
I 55, cont. hujusce terrae n 169. 

continuatus spiritus ii 19, cognatio n 19, 
cont. et conj unctus mar i aer ii 117, vicis- 
situdine corporum continviata natura est 
ii 84, cognatione continuatam naturam 
in 28. 

contorqueo. Stellas II 54; I 24. 

contractiores introitus n 144. 

contrahunt se pulmones II 106 ; contrahere 
universitatem eamque deducere ad sin- 
gulos ii 164; terram quasi tristitia sol 
contrahit ii 102. 

contrectatio I 77. 

conturbo upset I 61, I 99, II 1 Add. 

conus II 47, I 2 1. 

convenientia temporum II 54, convenientia 
consensusque naturae ill 18, 28. 

convenit in te unum ii 74, qui convenit ii 87, 
converiiat necesse est must be granted 
i 89 ; conveniens conversio n 54. 

conversio caeli ii 19, spatiorum ac temporum 
n 64, annua n 49. 

conversis casibus by a change of inflexions 
n (54. 

convexa leviter Fides (?) II 112. 

convicia reprehensoris (?) n 20 Add. 

coordination of contrasted clauses of which 
the former is subordinate in meaning i 

20, 23, n 17 an non possis adduci n., 18, 
97, in 32. In i 86 the 2nd clause is in 
troduced by sed, in n 97 by autem. 

copias eas rerum II 158. 

copiosus X opulentus ill 87. 

copulatio rerum n 119. 

coquo. omnia cocta spiritu ii 136. 

cor et pulmones spiritum addant (?) ii 136, 

evulsum palpitat n 24, cordis ventricu- 

lum n 138. 

coriis tectae aliae animantes II 121. 
Corinthus (fall of) in 91. 
corneo rostro 1 101. 



INDEX. 



219 



corneolos introitus II 144. 

corniger taurus II 110. 

cornicis cantus ill 14. 

cornu (part of the lyre) II 144, (cornus) 149. 

corona (audience) n 1 Add.: Parmenides 
quiddarn coronae simile efficit ( = erTe$a- 
vt)v) I 28 ; (constellation) II 108. 

Coronis (Phoronis?) in 56. 

corporeus ignis n 41. 

corpus, naturam esse corpora et inane II 82, 
corpora individua II 93, temere cursantia 
II 115. 

corpuscula. levia aspera I 66 Add., concur- 
rentia II 94. 

correpo in dumeta I 68. 

Coruncanius 1 115, n 165, in 5. 

Corvus (constellation) n 114. 

Corybas (f. of Apollo) in 57. 

coryphaeus (Greek?) I 59 Add. 

Coryphe (m. of Minerva) in 59. 

Gotta, vol. I p. xl, 1 15, II 168, III 5, 95. 

Cous. Venus I 75; Coi inferias afferunt 
Herculi (?) ill 42. 

crassus aer, regio 11 17, caelum n 42. 

Cratera (constellation) II 114. 

Creation, objections to 1 19 24. 

crebrae intextae utraeque II 138. 

credo ( I grant you ) 1 61 ; (ironical) I 67, 86. 

creo consules n 10, 11. 

Greta. Apollo and Jupiter contended for it 
in 57, Cretan goats n 126. 

Cretensis Juppiter in 53. 

Critias 1 118 n. 

Critolaus (caused the destruction of Corinth) 
in 91. 

crocodilus (corcodilus) I 82, 101, n 124, 129, 
in 47. 

KpoVos II 64. 

culpa est in hominum vitiis ill 76, hominum 
esse istain culpam ib., medicos magna 
sit in culpa in 78, reges si praeter- 
mittunt magna culpa est in 90. 

cum (prep. ). juvenes cum equis albis II 6 Add., 
cursus cum admirabili constantia n 55, 
introitus multis cum flexibus II 144, ra- 
pido cum gurgite flumen II 106, aries 
cum contortis cornibus II 111, Vergilias 
tenui cum luce II 112, Aquila ardenti 
cum corpore n 113 ; animum cum intelli- 
gentia per mare pertinentem in 64 ; 
cum pelle caprina Sospitam vides I 82 ; 
cecidit cum magno rei publicae vulnere 
II 8 ; inesse cum magno usu II 80 ; confi- 
cere vicissitudines anniversarias cum 
summa salute II 97; molior cum labore 
II 59 ; quanta cum exspectatione siin te 
auditurus in 21 ; impetus caeli cum ad 
mirabili celeritate movetur n 97, legu- 
mina cum maxima largitate f undit n 
156, rationem tanta cum pernicie datam 
esse in 69, fit cum maxima celeritate n 
142, cum admirabilitate maxima cursus 
definiunt II 101 ; nobiscum videt aer 
contributes to our seeing II 83. 
cum(conj.)wi/i Pres.Ind. to denote identity 
of action, avertunt pestem cum angues 
interficiunt I 101, cum sine corpore vult 
esse deum omni ilium sensu privat I 33, 
qua cum carere deum vultis neminern 
ab eo amari vultis 1 121, cum deos nihil 
agere coniirmat ludere videtur in 3. 
with Subj. in sense whereas, cum mens 
nostra videatur i 39, cum Epicurus 
vexarit I 93, cum optimam naturam dei 
dicat esse 1 121, cum supra terram sit II 
116, cum sint turn est ( as so ) I 1. 
For cum praesertim see praesertim. 



cum-clause postponed, pallium injecit 
cum id diceret in 83, cum quidem glori- 
aretur I 72 ; and used as 2nd predicate 
after audio and animadverto which see, 
also cf. dum; coordinated with simple 
object and relative clause in 18. 
Temporal and Causal uses combined I 
101, in 76. 

cumque. quale id cumque n 76. 

Cupido II 61, pinnatus in 58, plures ill 59, 
60. 

cur. quid est cur in 7, quid dicis cur in 47, 
argumentum cur in 10, locum conficit 
cur in 79. 

curatio corporis I 94; di omni curatione 
rerum vacant I 2, oves sine hominum 
curatione ali non possunt II 158. 

curia in 69. 

curiosus. curiosius quam necesse est I 10, 
curiosum et plenum negotii deum i 54; 
(good sense) curiosissimi homines I 88 
(97). 

Curius (example of one favoured by heaven) 
II 165. 

euro, ibes se curant (?) 11 126. 

curriculum nunquam sedans II 114. 

custodia conservandi sui n 124, fida canum 
II 158, incolumitatis II 145. 

Custom. Chrysippus wrote on the ill effects 
of, in 20 n., cf. II 45, 96. 

custos patron . Phthas Aegypti ill 55, 
(Apollo of Athens) ill 57. 

Cygnus (constellation) n 123. 

cylindrus n 47, i 24. 

Cynosura (Ursa Minor) n 105; (adj.) Cyno- 
surae Arcti n 111 Add. ; (burial place of 
Aesculapius) hurnatus esse dicitur Cyno- 
suris in 57. 

Cyprius tyrannus ill 82. 

Cyprus (?) in 59. 

Dagon in 39 n. 

Dative, fingere nobis I 78, placari populo 
ill 15, similitudo deo (?) I 96, huic pul- 
chrior i 79, remedia morbis eliciamus n 
161, muribus aedificatam n 17, cui ex- 
istant II 86 ; dis gratiam sustulit 1 121, 
oculis repelleretur n 143; assumere 
laudi in 87 ; (of agent with passive) 
vitio sibi tabernaculum captum fuisse II 
11 ; curatio erit eadem adhibenda deo 
quae adhibetur homini I 94 Add. ; in- 
structa sunt mi in corde consilia in 73 ; 
Postumio aedem dedicatam (?) in 13 n.; 
bestiolis cibus quaeritur II 124 Add. 
(Predicative) cibo quo utare II 43 Add. , 
agnum portento misit in 68. 

de (of quotation) Platonis de Timaeo deum 
P. s God of the Timaeus I 18; audio 
de from i 58, qiiaero de i 60; quattuor 
de causis informatas nptiones II 13 ; 
( = Gen.) extremus duplici de cardine 
vertex n 105. 

debeo. (See Indicative.) 

decentia figurarum II 145. 

Deciorum devotiones in 15. 

declinatio X appetitio in 33 (-recessus 
n 34). 

declino intr. oculi declinarent n 142, ait 
atomum declinare I 69; tr. declinantur 
contraria in 33. 

decxima Herculis in 88. 

dedico Mentem n 61, 79, templum in 43, 
terrenam vim Diti n 142. 

deduco. in hunc locum me oratio in 43, per- 
territos a timore n 148, uriiversitatem ad 
singulos II 164. 



220 



INDEX. 



defectio solis et luuae n 153. 

defectus. luna mutatur turn crescendo turn 

defectibus recurrendo n 50. 
defero. ad quern prinisis deferebant 1 15. 
deiicio. luna interpositu terrae II 103. 
definio. ita delinil ut dicat ignem esse u 57. 
defluit ab superis mens in terrain n 79. 
Deianira in 70. 
rieinceps consecutively n 93. 
deinde (repeated) I 23, see 104 postremo 

Add. 

delapsus (?) cibus n 135. 
delicatus puer 1 102, voluptas I 111. 
delirp (term of invective) I 37, 42, 92, ill. 
delitisco (of a planet) II 52, (of wild beasts) 

ii 126. 

Delphi in 57. 

delphinus I 77, n 89 ; (constellation) n 113. 
delubrum i 14, n 150. 

ArjjLtTyVrjp II 67, III 52 n. 

Demoeriteus Anaxarchus in 82, Nausiphanes 
I 73. 

Democritus, vir inagnus in prirnis 1 120, vol. 
I p. xvi, Epicurean attack on i 29, 73, 
93, his imagines 1 107, 120, II 70. 

dernum. turn d. 1 13. 

denique (followed by postremo} 1 104, in 23. 

dentis evulsio nr 57, dentes adversi X in- 
timi or genuini n 134; constringere (?) 
II 134, (a manifestation of </>v cn.s in man as 
opposed to I/* 7 ?) ii 86 n. Add., chorda- 
rum similes ii 149; dentes aprin 127. 

deorsum n 41, deorsus n 84, I 69. 

depellit depulsum cibum (?) ii 135. 

depingere quidvis cogitatione I 39. 

depravant Stoicos poetae in 91. 

depulsio pravi ii 79. 

Derceto. (See Atargatis.) 

derecto deorsus ferri I 09. 

dercctus. si iter derectum pateret n 141, ad 
portas jecoris ductas et derectas vias 
ii 137. 

derigimus flumina n 152. 

describp. Persius describitur n 112, de- 
scripta distinctio.stellarum n 104. (See 
discriptum.) 

deserta et relicta disciplina I 6. 

desidero I 11, 10, 54, 99, II 45, 87, ill 6. 

designari rerum discriptionem mentis vi I 
2(5. (See dissigno.) 

designatio operis I 20 (al. diss.). 

desipio n 10, 17. 

desperq veritatem i 60. 

determinatio mundi ii 101. 

detestor. invidiae detestandae gratia 1 123. 

detineo. advitam detinendani necessaria (?) 
II 121. 

deus (used indiscriminately in S. and PL) 
I 25, 31 n. , 50, 51, 102, 10(5, 114, II 71 ; 
Platonem deum. philosophorum ii 32. 
(See God.) 

devotiones Deciorum in 15, cf . ii 10. 

Diagoras atfeos i 2, 03, 117, anecdote of 
in 89. 

dialecticus i 70, 89, in 18 n. ; dialectica or -ce 
Nom. Sing. Fern., dialectica Neut. PI. I 
89 n. 

Diana lucifera, ornnivaga n 68, Ephesia n 
09, etymology n 69, plures in 58. 

dico. idem quod in Venere Coa I 75, si in ceris 
diceretur (?) I 71 ; dicitur esse (for dici- 
tur) n 105 bis, ii 109; ( to wit ) illud 
quod vincit omnia rationem dico n 18, 
80,150, i 80; quid dicis nielius what do 
you mean by better ? in 21, dicuiit 
enim caelo (?) ii (55 ; ex quo animal di 
citur) from which the name animal 



comes (?) in 36; dixti ill 23. (Stibj. 

for Ind. by attraction) i 20. 
dictaranus (heals the wound of an arrow) 

II 120. 

dicto. quasi dictata redduntur i 72. 
dies (time) opiniommi commenta delet ii 5, 

dies deueiat ill 81 ; unum diem deliber- 

andi i 60; (mythological) in 41, 56, 59. 
differt nihil inter deum et deum i 80, gradi- 

bus non genere I 16. 
difficili in loco versor I 78. 
diffundit aqua se ii 26, toto caelo luce dili usa 

II 95. 
digitus. uno digito plus habere to have one 

finger too much I 99; digitprum con- 

tractio et porrectio ii 150 ; Digiti Idaei 

in 42. 

digrediensX congrediens(of a planet) ii 103. 
dilapsus cibus ajecore n 137, aqua liquei acta 

et dilapsa II 26. 
dilatant se puluumes ii 136, stomachi partes 

dilatanturXcontrahuntur ii 135; (trop.) 

quae dilatantur a nobis Zeno premebat 

II 20, X coarto (?) ill 22. 
diligens ex diligendo ii 72. 
diligenter disputatum est I 15. 
diluo convicia ii 26. 

dimetatus pass. (?) ii (110) 104 ; dci>. n 155. 
Diminutive to express contempt in 18 acu- 

tulus, in 76 homunculus, 1 120 hortulus. 
dinumero I 2. 
Diodotus the Stoic, inmate of Cicero s house 

16. 

Diogenes (1) of Apollonia I 29; (2) of Baby 
lon i 41; (3) the Cynic, his saying of 

Harpalus in 83, 88, 
Diona in 59. 
Dionysius the Elder, example of prosperous 

wickedness ill 8284. 
Dionysus, one of the Dioscuri in 53; plures 

t III 58. 
Atocr/coupot III 53. 

directus, see dcrectus. 

Dis pater, from dives II 66. 

disciplina puerilis I 72, augurii ii 9, harus- 
picum ii 10, rerum ii 15, bellica n 161, 
Lacedaemoniorum in 91. 

disco (with Abl. of means) ill 43. 

discrepare verbis re coricinere I 16. 

discriptio omnium rerum designatur I 26, 
omnium corporis partium I 92, in dis- 
criptionibus siderum divina sollertia 
apparet ii 104 (110) , siderum n 115, par 
tium (descr. MSS) ii 121. 

discriptum (descriptum MSS) solarium II 87, 
stellarum distinctio (?) n 104. 

disjunctio disjunctive judgment (dej. MSS) 
i 70. 

disjungo (dej. MSS) a fabula I 41. 

dispar motio ii 51, cursus 11 19 (of the plane 
tary movements). 

disputatio subject of debate ii 75. 

disputo in utrainque partem II 168. 

dissigno I 26, III 85 (?) . 

dissolubilis coagmentatio i 20, in 29. 

dissolve refute in 29. 

distinctio siderum ii 15, 104, sonorum II 146. 

distineo. mens distenta ill 93. 

distinguitur varietate ii 98, aer die et nocte 
ii 101, litora collucent distincta tectis 
n 99, caelum astris distinetum ii 95, 
Helice stellis distincta ii 100, stellis si- 
militer distinctis Cynosura ii 106. 

distractione animorum discerpitur deus I 27. 

divido ita, naturam esse corpora ii 82. 

Divination II 412, 162, 3, III 5, 1115; 
its origin II 166, in 14 ; conlined to man 



INDEX. 



221 



ir!62; divided into natural and artifi 
cial II 162 ; various kinds of omens II 
9, in 14; derided by Epicureans I 55, 
condemned by Academics as unreal, and 
injurious if it were real ill 14, 95. 

divimis s. a diviner in 14. 

do. non datum est n 74, ita dat se res ut 
operam dabit (quot.) in 6(5, perniciem 
dabo in 66 (quot.), quid mali datis what 
mischief you cause 1 121. 

doctrina science II 47. 

doctus a philosopher I 5. 

dolus mains in 74; (mythological) in 44. 

domesticus ( = Roman) II 7, 74. 

domicilium mentis i 76, vitae I 99, dei 1 103, 
II 17, illustria II 95. 

domina rerum eloqueritia II 148. 

dominator rerum II 5. 

dominatus terrenorum commodorum est in 
nomine II 152. 

domitu nostro efficimus quadrupedum vec- 
tiones n 151. 

Draco (constellation) n 106 Add., 108. 

Drusus (example of suffering virtue) ill 80. 

dubitationem affert quin n 158. 

dubito (with Infin.) quid dubitas negare de9s 
esse i 85, (in positive sentence) omnia 
ventre metiri 1 113. 

dubius. spe dubiae salutis in 69, sine dubio 

I 58. 

duco. aer spiritu ductus n 101, 136, cf. n 18, 
pulmones spiritum ducant (?) II 136, a 
principe disputationis principium II 57, 
in deorum numero astra II 42. 

Duellius (one of heaven s favorites) n 165. 

dum palato judicat non suspexit n 49; (with 
Subj.) a udire dum inducat n 2, ut dum 
captaret artus parens, ipsa effugeret in 
65, dum disputarem vellem (?) II 147; 
dum dum one while another while 

II 89 (quotation). 

dumetum (trop.), in dumeta correpitis I 68. 

dumtaxat aspectu n 47, lineamentis d. ex 
tremis 1 123. 

duplex ( = duo) stella una tenet duplices for- 
mas II 111, duplici de cardine vertex the 
two ends of the axis n 105, pressu du 
plici palmarum II 109. 

durescit umor frigoribus II 26. 

durum verbum (of a newly coined word) i 95. 

Earth, uninhabitable except in temperate 
zone I 24; inhabited, an island n 165; 
is in the centre, i.e. the lowest part of 
the universe I 103, II 116. See Astro- 



ecquos paetulos esse arbitramur (?) I 80. 

eculeus colt n 38. 

editum terra II 24. 

edo. ut biberent quoniam esse nollent II 7. 

educator rerum mundus n 86. 

effectum absoluti operis n 35. 

eft emino (aera) to give a feminine name to 

n 66. 

efferari immanitate I 62, n 99. 
effero. agri multa n 151, cf. II 86. 
effervescunt aquae (?) n 27. 
efficientia solis n 95. 
efficio prove I 68, II 21, 32, 42, 47, 147, ill 

23. 
effigies omnis rerum ex individuis corpori- 

bus oritur 1 110. 
effluens aer n 101. 
effodio oculos orae maritimae in 91. 
effugia pennarum II 121. 
effugio calumniam II 20. 
etfunditur mare runs off II 116. 



effusio aquae (?) II 26, atramenti n 127. 

effutio i 84, II 94. 

egone I 16, ill 8. 

elegans (etym.) II 72. 

Elements, each has its appropriate inhabit 
ants i 103, ii 42 Add.; the world pre 
served by their interchange, see Fhtx. 

elephantus n 151, 161. 

Bleusis 1 119. 

elioio ferrum (?) II 15, remedia (?) II 161, 
ignem n 25, sonos II 150. 

Elis. Abl. Eli (?) in 59. 

Ellipsis, a. (of principal verb of saying) ve- 
rum hoc alias; mine, quod coepimus I 
17; turn Balbus n 2, turn Gracchus 11 
11, scite Chrysippus II 37, concinne Ti- 
maeus 11 69, atque haec quidem ille n 
96, hoc totmn quale sit, mox in 37, nos 
quidem nimis multa de re apertissima 
in 79, Gotta meus modo hoc, modo illud 
i 49, ad ista alias n 1, idcirco haec te- 
cum in 93, nescio quid de Locrorum 
proelio in 11, cui Proserpinam nuptam 
(?) II 66 

b. (of subordinate verb of saying) longum 
est ad omnia I 19, ut multa praeclare, 
sic hoc ii 65, non inurbane Stratonicus, 
ut multa in 50, dicemus idem quod in 
Venere i 75, Diagoras, cum venisset at 
que ei quidam m 89, ante quam de re, 
pauca de me in 5, ornatius quam solent 
vestri I 58. 

c. (of facia) at id ipsum quam callide ill 
68, nihil horum nimis callide I 70, Gotta 
finem in 94, quanto melius haec vulgus 
i 101, 121 

d. (of Indicative of sum) sed ilia palmaria (?) 
I 20, haec quidem vestra I 25, multaque 
ejusdem monstra I 28, si igitur nee hu- 
manq yisu di (?) I 85, quid ad rem I 67, 
non igitur aeterni; quod ex atomis; si 
natum i 68, ante humana forma (erat) 
quam homines ea (erant) I 90, quo modo 
aeternae I 109, sine virtute nullo modo 
&c. 1 110, atque ex ea venustas ii 69 (but 
see Addenda), nee dubium quin n 46, 
quot hominum linguae, tot nomina de 
orum i 84, ut tu Velleius, sic idem in 
Hispania Vulcanus 1 84, vis Diti dedicata 
qui dives ii 66, Vestae nomen a Graecis 
ii 67, 80, 167, in 80, &c. (esp. with parti 
ciples) nee vero Aristoteles non laudari- 
dus (?) II 41, Acheron Cocytus di putandi 
in 43, provisum etiam ut inhaeresceret 
II 144, cervices natae ad jugum n 159. 

e. (of esse) quibus consultiim dicitis in 79, 
nil potest indoctius n 48, excarnificatum 
accepimus ill 82, si ilium aedificatum, 
non a natura, conformatum putarem (?) 
in 26, salutem ab Aesculapio datam 
judico in 91. 

/. (of esto) hoc quidem ut voletis I 90. 

g. (of other verbs) rem ad senatum (refe- 
runt) nil, senatus (decrevit) utnll, ex 
quo et Minerva Apollinem eum (natum 
esse ferunt) in 55, huic deo pulchrior 
(visus est from, above) 1 79, senatus quqs 
ad soleret (referri) referendum censuit 
n 10, an (falli potest) ut sol (fallebatur) 
in 76, docuit idem qui cetera (docuit) 
I 53, cum saepe turn paulo ante contigit 
157. 

h. (of subject of Inf. when it is the same as 
the subj. of governing verb) confiteri 
nescire 1 84 Add. , puderet me dicere non 
intellegere I 109; (of subj. when it is 
different from that of governing verb) 



222 



INDEX. 



censuit (deum) animum esse I 27, vim 
quandam dicens (deum esse) i 32. 
i. (of demonstrative after relative) quos ad 
soleret (ad eos) referendum censuit n 10, 
quibus bestiis erat is cibus (iis) vires na- 
tura dedit ii 123. 

It. (of apodosis) utrum dicat aliquid esse an 
si quid sit (id non habere negotium) I 86, 
neque decumam vovit (se daturum) si 
sapiens factus esset in 88. See Objec 
tive. 

1. See under egone, ergo, mo do, plus, qui, 
si, sic, tamen, ut, utinam. 

eloquendi vis = eloquentia n 148. 

emendatus perfect I 80. 

eminens. nihil express! nihil eminentis ha- 
bet i 75, nihil eminens nihil lacunosum 
(in a circle) n 47, genae leniter eminen- 
tes n 143. 

eminent extra aures n 144. 

eminentia. (the gods of Epicurus have neither) 
soliditatem nee eminentiarn i 105. 

emo. quae ex empto contra fid em fiunt ill 
74. 

Bmpedocles i 29, 93. 

Engonasin 11 108. 

enim ( yovv) serninis enimiiSl; verily in 
40. 

Ennius interpreted Euhemerus i 119; quo 
tations from his Thyestes n 4, 65, in 10, 
40; Medea III 65, 66, 75; Telamo III 79 ; 
reference to his Annales n 93. 

enodatio notninum m 62. 

enodo. in enodandis nominibus in 62. 

Epicureans, their self-confidence I 18 ; scur 
rility I 93, ignorance I 72, 85., 89, II 47, 73, 
polemic against Plato and the Stoics 1 18. 
24; critical sketch of theological views 
of earlier philosophers 125 41; criticism 
of vulgar beliefs I 42, 43 ; idea of God 1 43 
56; Roman I 8, 58; later refinements I 
49 nn., I 89, 111; see Zeno, Phaedrus, 
Philodcmus. 

Epicurus vol. i p. xxxiii foil, biographical 
details I 72; idolized by his followers I 
43; his treatise on the Canon 143; his 
Ku picu 6dfai i 45 ; sincerity of his religious 
belief questioned I 85, 86, 123, in 3; 
mocks his readers I 113, 123, Iii3; his 
want of humour n 46; sneers founded 
on ignorance n 73, 74; follows Aristotle 
i 20 n., Democritus I 66, 120; guided by 
experience i 48: scofl s at divination n 
162; his account of sensation I 25 n., 
atomic theory I 54, ridiculed by Cotta I 
65 68, [inclination of atoms I 69, criti 
cized by Ealbus II 93, 94. 

Epiphanies I 36, 46, II 6, 163, 166, ill 11 
13. 

eques splendidus in 74. 

equus. ex equis pngnare n 6, juvenes cum 
equisnG; (deified) in 47; (constellation) 
II 111, 112. 

Erebus in 44. 

Erechtheus ill 49. 

ergo (elliptical) utrum ignorant (i.e. si dubi- 
tas) II 77, doceat aliquis n 87 ; (in apo- 
dosi) quod si luna dea est, ergo etiam 
Lucifer in 51. 

errans planet I 87, Ti 51, ill 51, stellae false 
vocaiitur errantes II 57, 119 ; uncertain 
sententia II 2. 

erratic 11 56. 

error uncertainty I 2, II 56. 

eruditus pulvis n 48. 

eruit (al. evehit,evomit,erigit) Triton molem 
II 89. 



eruptio Aetnaeorum ignium n 96. 

esca bait ii 125; food n 59, 160; pi. mor 
sels II 134. 

esculenta et potulenta 11 141, ea quae sunt 
esc. ii 124. 

esoteric belief I 61 Add., see interiores. 

et ( = etiam) et non praedicanti crederem I 
72, et his vocabulis esse deos facimus I 
83, ergo et illudin silice ill 11. 
(introducing minor premiss) et deus ves- 
ter nihil agens I 110, et quod ea sentit 
non potest esse aeternum in 33, etomne 
animal et quod est contra naturam, ib. 
(introducing new topic) et quaerere a no- 
bis soletis I 50, et eos vituperabas 1 100, 
et Chrysippus acute dicere videbatur ill 
25. 

(pathetic = etra) et nunc argumenta quae- 
renda sunt quibus hoc refellatur I 91, et 
soletis queri I 93. 

(ironical in refutation et quidem) et ego 
quaero in 27, et praedones in 82. 

et et (where 2nd et is lost by Anacolnthon) 
et praesentes ii 6, et spectaculum homi- 
nibus praebent n 155. 

et quidem KM ye (emphatic aye and ) audi- 
torem et quidem aequum i 17, audiebam 
frequenter ct quidem ipso auctore Phi- 
lone i 59, soleni animantem esse opprtet 
et quidem reliqua astra II 41, et quidem 
alia nobis I 82, et quidem laudamus 
Athenis i 83, alia ex ratione et quidem 
physica n 63, optimus maximus et qui 
dem ante optimus quam maximus ii 64, 
intellegentem esse inundum et qnidem 
etiam sapientem ii 3(5, disertus et quidem 
mathematicus in 23, 71; (with a word 
intervening) id quoque damns etlibenter 
quidem 1 89, natura continet et ea quidem 
ii 29, haec inesse et acriora quidem ii 30, 
providentes et rerum quidem maxima- 
rum n 77, minus ppero>a et multo 
qnidem ii 94, esse aliquam mentein et 
earn quidem acriorem n 18, aniculis et 
iis quidem indoctis I 55; (ironical refu 
tation) homo nemo velit nisi hominis 
similis esse. et quidem forniicae i 79, ha- 
bebam informationem dei. et barbati 
quidem Jovisi 100. 

etenim further ii 16, 42, 77; in 30, 34. 

Eternity idea of I 22. 

Etesiae ii 131. 

etiam (repeated) accedit etiam horn inum 
etiam sollertia ii 130; aut etiam aut non 
yes or no i 70. 

Etruscus haruspex II 10. 

Eubuleus in 53. 

Euhemerus 1 119. 

Eumenides in 46. 

Eunnchus of Terence ill 72. 

Euphrates n 130. 

Euripus ill 24. 

Europa n 165, ni 24; (mythological) I 78. 

everriculum malitiarum ill 74. 

evidens ( = evapy-q?) in 9, evidentius n 5. 

Eviolus (?) in 53. 

evulsio dentis in 37. 

ex eodem genere ii 12, succedit ex iis one 
of them ii 125, eques ex agro Piceno in 
74, sunt ex terra homines ii 140; ex Cor 
sica dedicavit in 52 ; ex se movetur ii 32 ; 
ex equis pugnare ii 6 ; solarium ex aqua 
ii 87; ut essent ex fabulis regna divisa 
n 66, ex hominum sententia atque utili- 
tate partae ii 163, ex animo X simulate ii 
168; si ex aeternistenebriscontingeretut 
subito lucem aspiceremus ii 96; quae ex 



INDEX. 



223 



empto aut vendito contra fldem flunt in 
74 ; ex dispersis membris simplex deus 1 34. 

exauditae voces n 6. 

excarnifico in 82. 

excidit ex utero elapsum animal n 128. 

excipit linguam stomachus n 135. 

excitatus tepor agitatione n 26, humo homi 
nes II 140. 

Excluded Middle I 70. 

exclude hatch n 124 (al. excudo) Add. 

excors anus II 5. 

excudo ii 129. 

excutio in terram litteras II 93. 

exercitatio ludicra 1 102, rhetorica II 168. 

exhibere cuiquam negotium I 85. 

exilis atque perlucidus deus 1 123. 

exin ii 101, 111. 

exire atque evadere (?) n 95. 

exitum argument! explore the denouement 
of the plot I 53, in 84 (?); exitum reper- 
ire to arrive at any result I 104, 107, 
videamus exitum ill 36; bonos exitus 
habent boni in 89. 

exorior (with a play on the word) 1 79. 

Experience, argument from I 87, 88. 

expeto medium (of gravitation) iillG; poe- 
nae expetuntur in 90. 

expilare fanum in 83. 

expletur annis n 64, contemplatione n 104, 
omnibus numeris II 37. 

explicatio fabularum in 62. 

explicatus habere in 93. 

explico exitum argument! i 53, nomen una 
littera explicare ill 62, di innumerabiles 
explicati sunt ill 93. 

explorata ratio II 64, habet exploratum I 51. 

explorate non satis 1 1. 

exprimo. nihil expressi habet no promi 
nence I 75. 

exseco castrate Il63, ill 62. 

exsecror (quotation) ii 65. 

exsisto aedificator rise up to build I 21, ( = 
flo) II 5, 27, 86, 92. 

exspecto quid requiras ill 6. 

exspiratio terrae exhalation n 83. 

exstinctus sol n 14. 

exstructio tectorum ii 150. 

extabescunt qpiniones diuturnitate n 5. 

extenuatur cibus ii 134; extenuatus vapor 
II 42, aer n 101. 

exterminatus urbe I 63. 

extimesco tr. n 5, 59. 

extra, ea quae sunt the external world n 
148. 

extrahq aratrum (?) ii 159. 

extremitas aeris n 117. 
extremus cingit (predicative) I 37, vertex ii 
105, extremum circuli n 47, ad extremum 
at last ii 118, ab extreme from the fur 
thest point ii 102; extremum atque per- 
fectum ( = TC AOS) ii 35. 

extrinsecus duco n 136, accipere in 29, nihil 
esse animale extrinsecus outside of man 
(?) in 36. 
exuro ex animo (?) in 7. 

Fabius, Q. Maximus ii 61, in 80. 

fabrica ( workshop ) ill 55; ( workmanship ) 
ad omnem fabricam aeris ii 150, incredi- 
bilis fabrica naturae ii 138, effmgere fa 
bricam divinam i 47, admirabilis fabrica 
membrorum n 121; ( architecture ) ut 
pictura et fabrica ceteraeque artes ii 35 ; 
(used of creation) fabricam tanti operis 
qua construi mundum facit 1 19, natura 
effectum esse mundum nihil opus fuisse 
fabrica I 53. 



fabricatio hominis II 133. 

Fabricius II 165. 

fabricor. fabricarier ensem n 159 ; (of crea 
tion) i 4, 19. 

facilis pater in 73. 

facio. rem divinam in 47 ; (with Abl.) quid 
facies nubibus in 51 : (with Dat. ) quid 
Vejovi facies in 62; fac esse suppose I 
83; represent (with Inf.} con veniri facit 
in 41, construi I 19; (with Part, and 
Inf.) facit disputantem eundernque di 
cer e i 31. 

faelis (deified in Egypt) i 82, 101, in 47. 

Faith v. Reason (advocated by Academics) 

I 62, III 5, 6, 9, 10, 15, 43. 
fama et auditione accipere n 95. 

fatidica anus (of the Stoic n-poVota) I 18, II 
73. 

fatum i 40, 55, in 14; (mythological) in 
44. 

faucibus terrae patefactis n 95. 

Faunas n 6, in 15. 

fax caelestis n 14. 

febris tertiana et quartana in 24; personified 
in 63. 

feriae Latinae 1 15. 

feriatus deus 1 102. 

fero prae me 1 12; n 47; Graecia tulit viros 
n 165; ferre non poterat Epicureosasper- 
nari voluptates 1 113. 

ferramentum 1 19. 

ferrea proles ii 159. 

ferus (often joined with immanis q. v.) . 

fervor Ocearii in 24, mundi ( = aether) II 30. 

feta frugibus terra ii 156. 

ficta simulatio i 3; in fictis caelatisque for- 
mis ii 145. 

fictilis figura I 71. 

fictor cera utitur Frag. 2. 

fictrix universae materiae providentia in 
92. 

fldenter 1 18. 

fides (1) imploro fidem deum 1 13; mala in 
74 ; (personified) n 60, in 47, 61, 88. 

fides (2) et tibias ii 157; (constellation) II 
112. 

fidicen mundus m 23. 

fidiculas si platani ferrent II 22. 

fiduciae judicium in 74. 

figere maledictis stab i 93. 

figura deorum I 2, 4649, 7684, 87, 90, 94 
99, n 47, 48 ; formae figura I 90 ; species 
)( figura i 47; rerum naturas esse non 
figuras deorum divine persons ill 63. 

fingor solitus esse n 64, si in ceris fingeretur 
(?) i 71. 

finio artus ( to finish off ) n 139; finita den- 
_ tibus lingua ii 149; motus finitos ii 90. 

finis, usque ad eum finem dum (of time) n 
129. 

fio. ita fit ut hence it follows I 37, 88, 121 ; 
ita fit such is the case ill 89. 

Fire. Aristotle holds that, like the other 
elements, it supports living creatures 
(salamander, pyrausta) 1 103, (the stars) 
n 42; these must be of a finer nature 
than the creatures belonging to the in 
ferior elements n 17 n. ; it requires food 

II 40, a fact used by Cleanthes to explain 
the sun s course in 37; extinction of 
internal fire the cause of death in 35. 
See aether, ignis. 

firmitas vitae i 99, quae propter firmitatem 

<TTepep.via appellat I 49. 
fissio glebarum n 159. 
fissurn jecoris in 14. 
flagitium (trop.) i 66, in 91. 



224 



INDEX. 



flexibilis )( durus (of the voice) n 147; of 
matter ill 92. 

flexuosum iter (of the ear) II 144 Add. 

flexus arcus (al. plexus) n 113. 

floret domus amicitia I 6 Add., in caelo Aca- 
demia I 80. 

flos. in ipso Graeciae flore (of Athens) in 
81. 

fluitaiites beluae u 100. 

llumen verborum n 1, orationisii 20; flumi- 
na arcemus dcrigimus avertimus n 152 ; 
(constellation) II 114. 

fluo ( is derived ) ex ratione n 63, ex epdem 
fonte in 48, unde in 47 ; (of lunar influ 
ence) multa ab luna manant et flnunt II 
50; fluentium transitio visipnum I 109; 
multus sernio fluxit de libris nostris 
I 6. 

fluviatiles testudines II 124. 

Flux, borrowed from Heraclitus by Stoics I 
39, II 84; the cause of the life of the uni 
verse II 84; turned by Academics into 
an argument for its perishableness in 
30. 

focditas odoris II 127. 

foedius (?) I 1. 

follis bellows I 54. 

Eons (deified) in 51. 

for. fandp auditum I 82 Add. 

formae quinque (the five regular solids) 1 19; 
formae ligura i 90; pictis iictis caelatis- 
que fqrmis n 145. 

formatae in animis deorum notiones in 10. 

Formianus fundus in 86. 

formica I 79, n 157, in 21. 

fornaces ardentes I 103. 

fortitude (denned) in 38. 

fortuitns concursus I 66, concursio 11 93. 

fortunae injuria, vulnere i 9; arnica varietati 
coristantiani respuit n 43, 56; (personi 
fied) in 61, cf. in 16 sortes n., Mala in 
63. 

forum (law-courts) in 69, 74. 

fossio terrae n 25. 

fovent pullos pinnis gallinae n 129; pulli a 
matribus foti n 124. 

f raus (personified) ill 44. 

fremibunda moles (quotation) 11 89. 

fremitus terrae n 14. 

frequenter (of time) audiebam 1 59 Addenda, 
ducatur cibus animalis 11 136; ( in crowds ) 
fluentium frequenter transitio fit visio- 
num I 109. 

fretum Siciliense ill 24; Gaditanum Iii24; 
fretorurn angustiae n 19. 

Friendship, utilitarian of Epicureans op 
posed to disinterested of Stoics 1 122. 

friget Venus n 60. 

frigoribus adjectis n 26, frigorum varietates 
n 101. 

fructus hominum profit Ill54,fructufallas 
(quotation) in 73. 

frugifera spatia n 161. 

frupr atque utor II 152. 

fugit intellegentiae virn evades I 27. 

fultus calore II 25. 

fumat terra n 25. 

fundamenta jecisse (trop.) ill 5, I 44. 

fundo utter I 42 r 66; aer in omnes partes se 
fundit ii 117, per omnem mundiun fun- 
ditur natura 11 115, fusus in omni natura 
n 28, in corpore 11 18, toto corpore n 141, 
sublime fusum aethera 11 65, aer fusus 
et extenuatus n 101; fusius disputo II 
29. 

Furiae III 46. 

Furina in 46. 



fusca vox X canora n 146. 

fuscina Triton evertens specus (quotation) 

II 89, I 101. 
fusio animi universa I 39; liquor et fusio 

aquae (?) n 26. 
futtilis 1 18. 
futtilitatis plena 11 70. 
Future tense, see Indicative. 
futurus est = Me AAet eli/at I 90, 103. 

galeata Minerva 1 100. 

gallina n 124, 129. 

Ganymedes 1 112 Add. 

gelidas perennitates fontium n 98. 

Gelo in 83. 

geminatus sol 11 14. 

Gemini (constellation) 11 110, 114. 

genae n 143. 

Gender, (irregularities of) ant simplex est 
natura animantis aut concretum in 34, 
quern after ilumen n 114, mota after 
ignesii92; (neut. pi. instead of masc. 
or fern.) II 7 (?), 15, 18, 87, 88, 118, cf. 
Attraction. 

genealogi antiqui ill 44. 

generatus a Jove (?) in 59. 

Genitive (of Definition] oram ultimi I 54, 
medicinae ars II 12, talaria pinnarum 
in 59. 

(Inclusive] earum urbium singulos dili- 
gunt ii 165, eorum dentium adversi 11 
134, Graeciae sapientissimus n 60, ora- 
rum ultimae 1 119; (with pronoun) quid 
certi i 6 Add., 14, quid mali 1 121. 
(Possessive trop.) earum ipsum verbum 
est amoris I 122 Add., ita factum est in 
superstitioso et religioso alterum vitii 
nomen alterum laudis. 
(of Quality) homines earum artium ill 23. 
(of Price) magni interest ad decus I 7. 
(Objective] opinio deorum I 29 (bis), sus- 

picio deorum I 62, timpr religionis 1 86. 
(Subjective] lux auctoris I 11, gustandi 
judicium n 146, excusatio inscientiae ill 
90, cultus hominum 11 158, quadrupedum 
vectiones ii 151. 

(Obj. and Subj. combined) cibi judicium 
magnum earum est ii 141, artes quarum 
judicium est oculorum ii 145, neque con- 
dendi ulla pecudum scientia est ii 156, 
earum rerum hominum est usus ii 156, 
canum tain amans dominorum adulatio 
ii 158. Cf. Boetticher Lex. Tac. p. 209. 
(after personal rerb of feeling) studeat tui 

(quotation) in 72. 

(joined with Dat. after similis) plectri 
similem linguam solent dicere, nares cor- 
riibus ii 149, deos hominum similes hoc 
illi simile I 90. 

gens vesti-a your set (contemptuous) I 89. 

genu (al. genus) ii 112. 

genuini dentes II 134. 

genus, genere dift erre )( magnitudine et 
quasi gra,dibus 1 16 Add. 

geometria. in g. quiddam novi invenire ill 
88. 

Geres ( = Ceres) n 67. 

gero morem ii 3. 

Gerund (in -di used for Adj.) procreandi vis 

ii 28. 
(for organ) narium et gustandi judicia sunt 

ii 146. 

(with governing noun understood from 
predicate) mala consuetudo est contra 
deos disputandi ii 168. 

gestientes comprimit eloquentia ii 148, cf. I 



INDEX. 



225 



Gigas II 70. 

gigni aera Anaximenes statuit 126. 

glaeba II 82. 

Glauce III 58. 

globata (conglobata edd.) astra II 1.17. 

globosa forma n 49, terra II 98, mundus n 
116; turbines II 89. 

globus = o-$atpa ii 47. 

God. a. (existence) proof from universal 
belief I 2, alleged by Epicurus I 43 Add., 
44, by Stoics II 5, 12 ; fact questioned I 
62, 64, and validity denied by Academics 
in 11. 

Stoic proof from observation of the hettvens 
II 4, 1517, 3944, 9097, 102119, 153 ; 
opposed by Academics in 11, 24. 
Stoic proof from awfulness of nature II 

14; Academic criticism III 16. 
Stoic proof from beneficence of nature II 
13 (see Providence). 

from the rationality of man n 17, 18, 22 ; 
Academic reply ill 2527. From the 
nature of heat II 23 32 ; reply in 3537. 
From the Scale of Existence n 3338. 
b. (Attributes) Eternity, included ivith, 
blessedness in the Epicurean TrpoArji^ts 
I 44, 45, proved from experience and 
from the doctrine of iaovo^ia i 49, 50; 
Academic criticism 1 109 114. Stoic <aov 
dddvarov (ii 21), demolished by Carue- 
ades ill 2934. Benevolence, negative 
view of Epicureans, God is inactive 
I 51 Add., neither causes nor receives 
harm I 45 Add.; Academic comment 

I 110, 115, 116, 121. The perfection 
of active goodness is included in the 
Stoic idea of God n 7680, and is also 
shown by experience II 98168. Acade 
mic reply ill 6693. Wisdom II 18, 32, 
3638, 4244, 79, 80, 87, 88, 97104. 
Omnipotence II 59, in 92, I 22 n. 

r. (Identity of divine and human virtue) 

II 78, 79, denied by Academics in 38. 
God is the source of all human virtue ii 
164167 ; denied ill 8688. 

d. (Shape) human ace. to Epicurus I 46 
48, Academic objections I 76 102. Sphe 
rical ace. to Stoics 1 18, 24, II 45. 49. 
Gods. (Stoic) subordinate manifestations 
of the one supreme God n 71 ; heavenly 
bodies (1) II 4957; forces of nature (2) 
II 6371, in 62, 64; deified men (3> I 
38 Add., ii 62, ill 41; abstract qualities 

(4) II 61, 79, III 44, 47, 61, 88 ; utilities 

(5) II 60, III 41. 

(of the vulgar) repudiated by Epicureans 
I 42, and Stoics II 70; inferior preferred 
to superior in 45, 50; sometimes malefi 
cent ii 61, in 63. The taxgatherers dis 
puted the divinity of deified men in order 
to extend the taxable area ill 49. 
(of barbarous nations) i 43, 81, 82, 101, in 
39. 

good and evil classified in 79. 

Gracchus Ti. obtains the deposition of his 
colleague Octavius I 106. Anecdote of 
his father and the haruspices n 10, 11 ; 
the latter was especially dear to the gods 
II 165 Add. 

gradatim pervenire I 89, deducere universi- 
tatem ad singulos II 164. 

gradus. magnitudine et quasi gradibus, non 
genere differre ( =TO> /xaAA.oi/ /ecu. TJTTOI/ 5ta- 
^e petp) 116, a beatis ad virtutem, avir- 
tute ad rationem video te venisse gradi 
bus I 89; quartus gradus est eorum qui 
natura boni gignuntur II 34. 

M. C. III. 



Graeci n 108. Ill; Graece loquens n 91. 

Graius n 91, 105, 109, 114, in 53. 

Grajugena ii 91 (quotation) . 

grando pi. II 14. 

gratia (personified) in 44, ea gratia on that 

account in 67. 

gravidata seminibus terra II 83. 
graviditates luna affert n 119. 
gravis cibus II 24; gravis )( acutus sonus II 

146. 

gravitas et pondera ii 116. 
Gravitation, attraction of, maintained by 

Stoics, controverted by Epicureans II 

115 ad medium rapit n. Add. 
greges epheborum I 79. 
grus II 123, peculiarity of their flight II 125. 
guberno (used of divine guidance) I 54, 

II 73. 

gurgustium I 22. 
gustatus pomorum n 158; (organ of taste) 

II 141, 145. 

gusto primis labris I 20, gustandi judicia ii 
146. 

guttae imbrium cruentae ii 13. 

gymnasium n 15 

Greek words, afleos, aaxoju.aroi , FTjjijirjTTjp, ATJ- 
jaifrrjp, Ato avcovpoi/EaTrepo? (?), eijaupjixeVr;, 
Eoria, rjyeju.oi 1/coi , OeoyovLa, itrovo^La, KO- 
pu</>atos ( V) , Kopia, Kpoi-o?, /cv/cAos, /cvpiai 
56ai, Atio/copioi , fj.avri.Ki], No/uuo?, op/u.^, 
Hfp<re<}>6v7), H\ovT<av, TTOIOTTJ?. IIpOKua>i , 
TrpoAyji^i?, npovoia, irvpoei?. crepe/miaa, ore- 
tfxxiTj, crriAjStoj/, crTpaTifyij/Aa, cr^aipa, <f>ae- 

0<av, <j>aiv<ai , <|>w<7<j!>6pos, \p6fos. (See in 
their places.) 

habeo quod liqueat I 29, quid Cotta sentiat 
in 6, quid sentiam, quid tibi assentiar 
in 64; habeo dicere I 63 Add., ill 93; 
habeo cognitum n 5, exploratum I 51; 
res habet venerationem I 45, explicatus 
in 93; Laelium quern audiam ill 5; 
Mercurius is qui sub terris habetur idem 
Trophonius in 56, praedo felix habeba- 
tur in 83, habemus speciem nullam nisi 
humanam deorutn I 46; (=adhibeo) 
virtutibus hominum honores habeantur 

III 46. 

habitat gustatus in ore n 141. 

habitatorem inesse in caelesti domo II 90, 

incolae atque habitatores II 140. 
habitus oris I 99. 
hactenus admirabor I will only go so far as 

to express my surprise I 24 Add. 
Haedi (constellation) n 110. 
haeret cum cornibus Aries ^eo-nfpiKTai (of a 

fixed star); in multis nominibua haere- 

bitis to be at a dead lock in 62. 
halucinor i 72. 
hamata corpuscula I 66. 
Hannibal in 80. 



(in Cicero s sense), aequilihri- 
tas 1 108, angulatus i 66, araneola n 123, 
capeduncula in 43, capito I 80, consul - 
trix ii 58, coryphaeus (?) i 59, flaccus I 
80, fronto I 80, graviditas n 119, in]ucun- 
ditas II 137, insaturabiliter ii 64, omni- 
vagus ii 68, paetv;lus I 80, perdiuturnus 
II 85, perfremo II 89 (quotation), pericli- 
tatio ii 161, platalea ii 124, pyramidatus 
(V) I 66, replica tio I 33, scutulum I 82, 
silus i 80, stabilimen (quotation) ni 68, 
subitus (part, of subeo) ii 108, vectio n 
151. 

(till after 200 A.D.) aniliter ill 92, bland i- 
loquentia (quotation) in 65, cincinnata 
n 14, genealogus ill 44, insulanus in 45, 

15 



220 



INDEX. 



praenotio i 4t, respiratus II 130, tlieolo- 
giis in 53. 

liarioli i 55. 

harmonia. ad harmoiiiam eanere in 27. 

Harmony of the spheres in 27, II 19 conci- 
nentibus n. 

Harpalus (?) in 83. 

haruspex I 55, mirabile videtur quod non 
rideat haruspex cum haruspicem viderit 
i 71, Tusci et barbari n 10, 163. 

Hasdrubal Karthaginem evertit in 91. 

hand scio an I 4, in 69; hand sciam an n 
11. 

hebes. saepe visae formae deorum quern vis 
non hebetem confiteri coegeruut n 6; 
hebetiora ingenia propter caeli pleniorem 
naturam n 17. 

Hecatam deam putare in 46. 

eiju.apnxe oj i 55, nn. on I 39. 

tiyefj.ovi.K6i> ( =principatus) II 29, 139 nervi n. 

Helenus n 7. 

Helice n 105, 110. 

Heliopolis III 54. 

Hendiadys. intellegentiaenostrae vim etnp- 
tionein i 27, imagines earumque circumi- 
tus i 29, nervos eorumque implication em 
II 139,signissideribusquei35, rerum vicis- 
situdities ordinesque conserve! I 52, can- 
turn et auditum refert (quotation) n 89, 
contentio gravitatis et ponderum n 116, 
vi et gravitate n 93, monies vestiti atque 
silvestres n 132, ignis ad usum atque 
victum n 40, febrium reversioneet motu 
quid potest esse constantius in 24<. 

Heraclides Ponticus I 34. 

Heraclitus (his obscurity) I 74, in 35; fol 
lowed by Stoics in 35; see vol. i pp. xi, xii. 

herbula seselis 1 127. 

Hercules II 62, in 39, 41, 42, 50, 70, Herculi 
decumam vovere ill 88. 

Hermarchus i 93. 

heroieae personae ill 71, temppribus ill 54. 

Hesiodus explained by the Stoics i 41, cf. n 
159 n., in 44 n. 

Hesperides in 44. 

Hesperus II 53. 

ei? )( (/jucri? ii 82 cohaerendi n. 

hiatus terrae II 13, oris II 122. 

hie (to denote what is familiar) hie noster 
ignis ii 40, hie ex Alcmena Hercules ill 
42, hujus collegae et familiaris nostri 
pater I 79 Add., hoc Orphicum carmen 
i 107, Vatinius avus hujus adolescentis 
IK!; (pointing to it) hoc sublime candens 
ii 4, haec regantur ill 10; hoc esse illud 
in 40. 

hie adv. (logical) hie ego non mirer II 93, hie 
quaeret (?) ii 133. 

Hiero I 60. 

hilarata terra II 102. 

iAecos i 124 Add. 

Hippocentaurus 1 105 Add., ll 5. 

Hippocrates ill 91. 

Hippolytus in 76. 

Hipponaxm 91. 

Hispanienses aestus ill 24. 

historia. in h. dicit Timaeus ll 69. 

historici antiqui m 55. 

Homerus. allegorized by Stoics I 41, his date 
in 11 ; cited to prove divine aid ii 165, to 
prove mortality of Tyndaridae in 11, of 
Hercules in 41; source of popular my 
thology n 70. 

homo hominem ii 96; nemo I 78 Addenda, 
n 9(5 n. ; homines homine natos m 11 ; 
homo artium in 23; (in pregnant sense 
worthy of the name ) II 97. See Man. 



homunculus 1 123, in 76. 

Honor (personilied) II 61, III 47, 61. 

horae time of day ii 87, clock 11 97. 

6pMif = appetitio n 58. 

horreo X florep (of the earth) II 19. 

horriferis auris II 111. 

horti Scipionis ii 11. 

hortulus Epicuri 1 120 Add. 

hue adde ii 98, 139; hue et illuc ellluens ii 
101, 115. 

humilitas low stature II 122. 

Hyades ii 111. 

Hydra (constellation) ii 114. 

Hyperborei III 57. 

Hyperion III 54. 

hypallage. animi aegritudo magna commota 
injuria iVAdd., (mysteria) silvestribus 
saepibus densa, I 119, umbra terrae soli 
officiens ii 49, t ontium gelidas perennita- 
tes II 98. 

liypotlietieal sentence, unusual forms. (Subj. 
in prot. Ind. in apod.) si quis quaerat 
apparet Iil8, qui rt^tractarent sunt dieti 
II 72, qui concedant iis fatendum est II 
76, cum yideamus dubitamus n 97, quod 
n i ita sit quid veneramur deos (?) I 122 
Add. 

(Ind. in prot. Subj. in apod.) si vernm est 
praestaretiii77,cf. ill 78 siconvertunt 
melius fuit. 

(prot. omitted) quorum cultus (si di essent) 
esset futurus in luetu i 38, possetne flo- 
rere terra (nisi divino spiritu continere- 
tur) II 19. 

lalysus ill 54. 

iambus in 91. 

ibis I 82, 101, II 126, III 47. 

ichneumon i 101. 

.ictos undis turbines (quotation) II 89. 

Idaei Digit i ill 42. 

idem ( = also ) 147,121, (implying inconsis 
tency) I 30, III 93, idemque II 22, 31, 101, 
136; et idem ii 1, 26; qui idem ii 62, 128; 
(predicative) erit eadem adhibenda I 94; 
idem idem ill 93; (pleonastic) cum 
idem dies constitL>set ii 6. 

Idyia ill 48. 

igitur (resumptive) I 44, II 92, III 25 ; (intro 
duces apodosis) ill 30, 33; (position) 
commencing I 80; after 3rd word ill 
43. 

ignesco. mundus II 118. 

igneus motus ii 24, celeritas II 24, genus II 
25, formae II 101. 

ignis artiticiosus magister artium ii 57, vim 
esse ignem (?) ill 35; pi. I 22, n 27. See 
Fire. 

illacrimor morti in 82. 

ille (of what follows) i 90, 99, ii 125, 127, 137 
and passim; illud pugno I 75; ille in Eu- 
nucho the speaker in 72. 

illexe (quotation) ill 68. 

illucesco. cum sol illuxisset ii 96. 

illuminata a sole luna ii 119. 

illustris V\SUS = Papyri-; (fravTaa-ia I 12, faeif S 
deorum ii 80, signum ii 110, domicilia ii 
95. 

imago (of Democritus) I 29, 107, 120, n 76 n. ; 
(of Epicurus) I 49, 73, 106109, II 7t5. 

imbecillitas. in imbecillitate gratiticationem 
et beneyolentiam ponitis I 122, cf. I 45. 

immanis joined ivith ferus II 148, 161. 

itnmanitate eifcratus I 62, II 99. 

immensitates caraporum ii 98. 

immensus et inftnitus I 26, ii 15, et intermir 
natus i 54. 



INDEX. 



227 



immoderate profnsam voeem n 140. 

immoderatum aethera II 65, neim moderates 
cursus haberet II 64. 

immolo Musis bovem in 88, hostiam flucti- 
bus in 51 ; abs. II 72. 

immortalitatibus honores habentur ill 46. 

imrnutat se res II 19, nihil imumtat quin 
eadem efficiat n 52, immutata littcra II 
66, 67. 

impendentiura montium altitudines II 98. 

imperatorium consilium ( = en-par*/ yrj/aa) in 
15. 

Imperfect (implying priority of ideal to fact) 
II 123, 141; (in reference to what imme 
diately precedes) 1 96, 98, 100 ; (to express 
the attempt) reponebas in 23. 

imperitus X doctus II 45. 

Impersonal use. See resono, nego, refello. 

impetus caeli movetur n 97. 

implicatio riervorum II 139. 

implicates occupationibus I 51, 52. 

impono in cervi*nbus I 54. 

importunissimus homo ill 81. 

imprimo in animis I 43. 

impunitas garriendi 1 108. 

in- (negative, prefixed to participles) inerrans 
II 54, invocatus I 108, iricognitus II 73. 

in prep, with Abl. ( in the case of) idem 
facit in natura deprum I 71, hoc fieri in 
deq 1 106, in Nausiphane tenelur I 73, in 
ceris diceretur (r 1 ) i 71, in consulibus res 
ipsaprobavit (?) n 10, dicemus quod in 
Venere Cpa I 75, factura est in supersti- 
tioso vitii nomen n 72, singulae conver- 
siones idem efficiunt in sole n 88, ut in 
araneolis aliae texunt n 123, est admi- 
ratio in bestiis n 124 
(periphrastic with sum) sunt in varietate 

I 2 Add., in erratis I 31, errpre 1 37 ; (with 
versor) in errore I 29, in constantia 
1 43, voluptatibus I 51. 

(superfluous) in omni puncto temporis 

II 94 n., in tanta diuturnitate n 28, in 
aeternp temporis spatio II 36, in omni 
aeternitate II 43, 51, 95, in singulis annis 
II 102, calor fusus in corpore II 18, in 
omni fusum natura n 28. 

in ea dea precatioextremaest prayer ends 

with that goddess n 67. 
with Ace. in sublime ferri n 44, 141 ; 

insultans in omnes n 74. 
inane n 82. inanis motus animi 1 105, 106. 
inanimus I 36, II 76, 90, III 40. 
incensa ( illumined ) luna solis radiis I 87. 
incstu, quaestiones de in 74. 
incisum angulis 11 47. 
incito I 24 (?), motus incitantur n 103, neces- 

sitas vi magna incitata II 76. 
incitus (quotation) n 89. 
inclinatio atomorum I 73; bending i 94. 
include, physica ratio inclusa est in fabulas 

II 64. 

incognita causa II 73 Add. 
incohatus rudimentary n 33, incomplete 

156. 

incolumis (joined with salvus) in 87. 
incolumitas mundi II 119, incolumitatis cus- 

todia II 145. 
incorppreus I 30 n. 

incredibile est, si attenderis, quanta n 149. 
inculco animis imagines 1 108. 
incus I 54. 

inde from him ill 73. 
India 188 (97). 
Indicative used for Su^j . (of auxiliary verbs 

and phrases) longum est 1 1, 30, n 159 ; 

bellum erat I 84, opus erat 1 89, satis erat 



dictum i 45, satius est I 68, longa est 

oratio II 25, melius est m 69, debebant 

III 79; possum 1 101, II 10, 121. 126, 130, 131. 
(in direct interrogation) arbitramur i 80, 

facimus 1 83, putamus 191, volumus 1 102, 

dubitamus n 97. 
Fut. for Imperative, audies I 59, tu red- 

des in 41, dabis ill 94. 
(logical itse] efficietur n 21, feretur II 110, 

contemnet in 93. 
(indefinite assumption) quaeret quispiam 

II 133. 
Fut. Perf. prius te quis dejecerit 1 66, vide- 

rit 1 17, tu videris in 9. 
indidem n 118. 
Indirect construction joined with Direct, see 

Anacoluthon. 

individuum I 49, 71, 110, II 93. 
indocte ( unscientific ) II 44, indoctius II 

48. 
induce deps n 2, imagines n 76, diperturba- 

tis animis inducuntur n 70. 
inductiones aquarum II 152. 
Indus (the greatest of rivers) n 130 Add. 
indutus specie humana II 63. 
inelegans. physica ratio non inelegaris n 

64. 
inerrans a fixed star n 54, 55, 80, 104, in 

51. 

inferias afferunt in 42. 
infernis epartibus n 114. 
intero. cui illatae lampadt s fuerint (quota 
tion) in 41. 
inferus. apud inferos n 5; interior orbis n 

53. 
infima terra est n 17, cf. 1 103 : medium in- 

fimum in sphaera est II 116, cf. n 84. 
infinita series (species MSS) I 49; irifiniturn 

TO aireipov I 26. 
infinitatis summa vis I 50. 
Infinitive, (exclamatory) hominum incidere 

imagines 1 107. 
(omission of subject in Orat. Obl.)puderet 

dicere intellegere 1 109, confiteri nescire 

I 84 Add. 
(instead of Gerund) molestiam suscepit 

reddere rationem in 63. 
(in subordinate clause of Or. Obi. to repre 
sent parenthesis in Or. Rfct) i76; (with 

connective Rel.) intellegitur et iram et 

gratiam segregari, quibus remotis nullos 

impendere metus i 45, cf. I 12 n. and 

see Subjunctive. 
(explanatory of pronoun) 1 12. 
infirmo et tollo n 147. 
infixa stirpibus n 26; intentainfixaque mens 

149; )(infusus I 28. 
informare deos conjectura I 39. 
informata notio n 18. 
informatio ( = 7rp6A.)^ts) I 43, 76, 100. 
infra lunam II 56. 

ingenium pi. ingenuity I 78 Add., II 126. 
ingenuit animantibus sui natura custodiam 

II 124. 

ingressus act of walking I 92, 94. 
inhabitabiles regiones I 24 Add. 
inhaerens caelo cursus n 54, stirps terrae n 

83, ad saxa belua n 100. 
inhaeresco. bestia in visco n 144. 
initio (Abl. of place) II 23, 75. 
irijectus animi ( = en-tjSoAjj ) i 49. 
injiciens se animus I 54. 
innans belua II 100. 
innato. pisciculi in concham II 123. 
innatumestet in animo insculptum esse deos 

II 12, insitas vel potius innatas cognitio- 

nes i 44. 

152 



228 



INDEX. 



innumerabilitas atomorum 1 109, mundorum 

I 73. 
Ino in 48. 

inquain I repeat in 91; inquit (for inquis) 

187,109, 100 (?), Ill 90. 
insatiabilis that never wearies varietal n 

98, insatiabilior species n 155. 
insaturabiliter expletur annis u 64. 
inscientia (MSS scientia) i 1 Add. 
inscitia loquendi I 85, imperitoruin in 39. 
inscitius II 36. 
insculpsit natura in mentibus I 45, insculp- 

tum in animo II 12. 
insequor ( attack ) in 44. 
insignis ( marked ) visusi!2; insignia caeli 

1 100. 

insipiens II 36. 
insisto find footing non video nbi mens 

possit insistere i 24; pause II 51, 103. 
insitus calpr in terris 11 25 ; cognitio I 44 

Add., informatio dei 1 100. 
Inspiration of genius II 167 Add. 
institutio rerum organization II 35 Add. ; 

institutionibus Graeris eruditus I 8. 
institutum resolution I 8. 
instructio exercitus II 85. 
insula (of the in habited earth) n 165 Add. 
insulanus in 45. (Also in Beda II. E. n 1, 

III 4.) 

insultans in omnes n 74. 
integer, rudis et in 8. 
intellegens (= intellegentiae particeps) I 23, 

II 36, 120; nihil intellegens irrational 
II 133. 

intellegentia X ratio m 38; inest in mundo 
II 32, metis capit intellegentiaui quae sit 
beat a natnra I 49. 

intellego conceive deum I 21, 25, 30, 36, 73, 
II 51-, III 38; istuc quid iiitellegis I 73, 
int. cum cognovero in 61. 

intendo. animus se intendens in i 54, mens 
intenta in imagines i ^ Add. ; animum 
pernaturam in ten turn I 27. 

inter se diligere I 122. 

interemisse dicitur in 56, 58. 59. 

interiores litterae esoteric in 42. 

interminatus I 54. 

intermundial 18. 

internecio (quotation) m 90. 

interpositu interjectuque II 103. 

interpres comitiorum n 11, rerum sensus II 
*140, deorum n 12, Sibyllae in 5. 

Interpolation, causam (id est principium 
philosopliiae) I 1, oculis (animi) i 19, 
mente adjuncta omne (praeterea) quod 
esset infinitum I 28, a magistronon (Pla- 
tone) dissentiens I 33, de (L. Crasso) 
familiari illo tuo I 58, (earn esse putare- 
mus) wrongly suspected by edd. I 77 n., 
dubium est enimutrum dicat aliquidesse 
. . . immortale an si quid sit (id esse mor- 
tale) i 86, (itaquenullaars imitarisoller- 
tiaua naturae potest) I 92, poetae quidem 
(nectar ambro,4am) epulas comparant I 
112, liquor aquae declarat (eft usio) n 26, 
physicis (id est naturalibus) n 23, non 
eum quern nostri majores. .. (Liberum) 
cum Cerere n 62, (dicuntenim caelo ful- 
gente tonante) II 65, ut multa praeclare 
sic hoc (breviter) n 65, (arte naturae) n 
83, quae stint minus operosa et niulto 
quidem (faciliora) II 94, (a pluendo, veu/ 
enim est pluere) n 111, (from Arateain 
some MSS) n 112, caulibus (brassicis) II 
120, squillae (pina) morsu n 123, nuper 
(idestpaucisantesaeclis) n!26, (dicunt) 
ib., (et tamen multa dicuntur) II 132, 



(multnm) ib., (mundo) li 133, (acuti) ir 
134, (alvo) II 137, (cognoscunt) IH45, (et 
parte tangendi) n 14(5, (mihi quidem 
sane multi videntur) in 40, divina (in 
homines) moderatio in 85. 

interrogo to cross-question in 19. 

interrumpo abs. li 116, interruptua nimbus 
(quotation) n 89. 

intervalla sonorum n 146, signi intervallum 

II 53. 

intestinum medium ("fxeo-evre>iov) n 136. 

intextae venae toto corpore 11 138. 

inthnum os n 149, palatum it 135, dentes li 

134, tenehrae 11 162, rerum intimarum 

custos V r estan 67. 
intrinsecus (wrongly read for extrinsecus) 

III 36. 

intuens me 1 17 Add., n 104. 

inundet terram aqua ir 103. 

invado in pounce upon n 124; quocumque 

ignis II 41. 
inveho (intr.) Triton natantibus beluis i 78; 

Carneades in Stoicos invehehatur n 162. 
irivenio cibummanibus toget n 151; aphy- 

sicis rebus utiliter inventis fromauseful 

philosophy of nature n 70. 
inventor olivae III 45. 
inventrix belli in 53, quadrigarnm in 59. 
inveterascere (MSS inveterare or iriveterari) 

II 5. 

invidentia (personified) in 44, cf. n.on calli- 
dus in 25. 

inviclia (Epicurean fear of) 1 123, ill 3. 

invises Geminos n 110. 

invocant quein omnes Jovem whom all in 
voke as Jove II 4. 

invocatus tin-called 1 108. 

involucrum clipei n 37. 

involuti oculi n 143. 

ipse (opposes main idea to accessories) ipso- 
ruui deorum I 95; (general to particular) 
ipsa similitude i 97, genus ipKimi n 126; 
(whole to part) II 28, 32, 58, 80,86; (fan 
ciful oppositioti to give variety) earth as 
opposed to the other elements n 18, 
teeth to claws; II 122 ipse dixit 1 10, cf. ill 
35; (carelessly repeated) in ipso mundo 
I 52. 

irrepo (MSS irrumpo) bestiola in aurem n 
144 Add. 

irrigo (trop.) 1 120. 

is (pleonastic) after noun n 27, 77, 81, 101, 102, 
123, 125, 135 (is. . .atque is?) Add., 136, ill 
24, 34, 67; after nihil II 22, III 34; (used 
of 1st person) I 61 Add. ; isque ( = /cai 
raura) quartam causam esse eamque 
vel maxima rn n 15, aliquid agere idque 
praeclarum n 76 ; id est I 20, II 73, 126, 
Tyndaridas id est homines homine natos 

III 11, cf. Reid on Ac. I 5, 8, 32; ejus 
(monosyllable) n 109. 

Isis in 47. 

iVoi o/u.ia i 50 Add., 109. 

iste (marking arg. ad horn.) I 22. 

istuc i 89, istuc istac ibit in 65, see stuc. 

ita (limiting, with si) I 3; (with ut) I 54, ita 
decessimus ut in 95; (qualifying remo 
ter word) ita multa disseruit ut excitaret 
i 4, i 5t; ita multa tot I 23; (seemingly 
pleonastic with pronoun) istud ita dicere 
i 84 Add., quod tibi ita (al. item] per- 
suasum est I 85; ita fit I 88, 121, in 89; 
itaque referring to remoter sentence I 
85; and so nil; itane II 11. 

item after sicut I 3; non item (to save repe 
tition of predicate) n 62 ; item reprehen- 
ditur ut I 28, 



INDEX. 



229 



iter (trop.) natura suo quodam itinere n 

35. 
itidem II 67. 

jam ( at once ) licet lustrare terrain, cernes 
jam n 161; (transitional) I 30, II 24, 50, 
68, 122, 127, 129, 141 ; so jam vero II 126, 
147, 148, 154, 161, III 39. 

janua n 67. 

Janus (etymology) II 67; jani ib. 

Jason (of Pherae) in 70. 

jecur ii 137, fissum jecoris in 14. 

jocus. per jocum irrideo n 7. 

judicium(with subjective Gen.) nariummag- 
na judicia suiit n 146; (with obj. and 
subj. Gen.) n 141, 115; de dolo malo in 
74, publicum in 74. 

jugis puteus II 25. 

Jugurthina coniuratio ill 74. 

Juno (Argiya, Romana, Sospita I 82), n 66. 

Juppiter=juvans pater n 64, optim.ua maxi- 
inus ib., (Stoic name for the supreme 
Law) 1 40, (identified with the sky) n 4, 65, 
ill 10, 40; Jove tonante n 65; Jovis stella 
n 119; (three gods of the name) ill 53 
(see Appendix on Mythology); Olympius 
in 83, Capitolinus I 82, Hammon ib. ; 
somnia a Jove ill 95. 

jus pontilicium ill 43, civile X naturae in 
45, tenere auspiciorum n 11, vestro jure 
I 77, tuo jure I 89. 

Jussive use of Subj. see Vol. ill pp. 161 
165. 

Justice, crown of virtues I 4, defined in 38. 

Justus rogator 11 10. 

Juventas (Hebe) 1 112. 

Karthaginiensis ill 83. 
Karthago (its destruction) in 91 ; (mytholo 
gical) III 42. 
Kopia III 59. 
Kp6i/o? II 64. 
/cvp<.ai fio ou i 85, 45 n. Add. 

labefactari contentio gravitatis possit 11 116. 

labes landslip (?) n"13. 

labor, ne voces laberentur should glide off 

II 144. 

Labor (personified) in 44. 
laborantes naves ill 89. 
labris primis gustare I 20. 
Lacedaemon 11 154. 
lactescere cibus matrum incipit II 128. 
lacunosus X eminens n 47. 
Laelius, favoured by heaven II 165, his speech 

de Colleyiis III 5, 43. 
laetificat sol terrain n 102, Indus agros n 

130. 

laevus. a laeva exoritur i 79. 
lampades illatae (quotation) ill 41. 
langueo otio I 7, 67. 
Lanuvium I 79 n. 
lapideus imber n 14. 
lapsus volucrum 11 99. 
larga lux 1 1 49. 
largitas bounty II 156. 
Latinae feriae 1 15. 
latitudinem lustrans orbis n 53, latitudinum 

longitudinum altitudinum immensitas I 

54, latitudines umerorum 11 159. 
Latona ill 46, 57, 58. 
laudis nomen a eulogistic term 11 72. 
laudo Athenis Vulcanum there is a famous 

statue of V. 1 83 Add, ; propter virtutem 

laudamur ill 87. 
Leda ni 53. 
lego scriptum n 124. 



legumen n 156. 

Lemnos in 55, mysteries of 1 119. 
lena (trop ) I 77. 
leniter eminens n 143. 
lenocinia corporum n 146. 
Leo (constellation) 11 110. 
Leonaticum (=Aw(co pior) (?) Ill 50. 
Leontium i 93. 

Leos. Leo natarum (?) in 50. 
lepor. sine lepore n 74. 
Lepus (constellation) n 114. 
lepusculus I 88. 
Leucippus I 66. 
Leucothea in 39, 48. 
levationem injuriae reperire I 9. 
leve )( asperum (of the voice) n 146. 
levis (with double reference) in 95. 
levitas (trop.)opinionis 11 45, plena sunt levi- 
tatis n 70, comicae ill 72; (lit.) levitate 
fertur sublimis 11 117, 1. f. in sublime II 44. 
leviter convexa n 112. 
lex naturalis I 3(3, defined n 79, censoria ill 

49, nova in 74, Plaetoria ill 74. 
liber (adj.) matre libera liber est in 45. 
Liber n 60, 62, in 41, 53. 
Libera n 62. 

libertas (personified) II 61. 
libri augurales n 11. 
libro aut cortice n 120. 
Libya ill 24. 
h center 1 109. 
licentia atomorum 1 65, cf. 93, 107 ; fabularum 

ii 7. 

licui (from liqued) 1 117. 
Ligusticum bellum n 61. 
limatus urbanitate ii 74. 
Lindus (?) in 54. 

lingua (use of) ii 135, plectri similis II 149. 
liquefacta calore aqua ir 26. 
liqueo. habere quod liqueat I 29, ii 3; cui 

neutrum licuerit 1 117. 
liquor ( fluidity ) aquae ii 26; liquores am- 

nium ( transparency ) n 98. 
litigo i 93. 
littera. (comparison of letters to atoms) n 

93. 

litteratus I 5 n., ill 23. 
Htuus ii 9. 
Locri (war with Crotona) n 6, in 11; (Diony- 

sius at) in 83. 
locupletior hominum natura quam deorum I 

112 Add. 

locus, (quasi-adverbial) quo loco i 13, hoc 
1009 i 76, 85, ii 104, his locis i 86 ; heredi- 
tatis loco in 84 ; locum obtinere II 42, 
dare n 83; in locum inferiorem ferri 
downwards I 69. Joined with domici- 
lium and sedes I 103, cf. I 2 n. ; magnus 
locus (in apposition to preceding sen 
tence) II 73 (?); ( topic ) 1163,73,75,94; 
( argument ) in 70; (euphemistic) in 
locis semen ii 128. 
Ao yot (TTrep/ixaTt/coi. II 58 n. 
longitudo et latitude orbis ii 53, I 54. 
longus ( tedious ) nolo esse 1 101, ne longior 

fuerim I 56. 
Lubentina ii 61. 
lubrici oculi ii 142. 
lucet, hoc quod (quotation) n 65. 
Lucifer ii 53, ill 51. 
Lucifera ii 68. 

Lucilius the satirist quoted 1 64 See Balbus 
Lucina ii 68. 

lucubratio anicularum I 94 
lucus Aesculapii in 57, Furinae in 46, cf i 

119. 
ludi magister I 72 ; ludis auditum est n 6. 



230 



INDEX. 



ludicra exercitatio I 102. 

ludo to mock (of Epicurus) i 123, in 3. 

lumen (of an illumination by the aediles) I 

22; ornament I 79 ; window (used 

metaphorically of the eye) in 9. 
Luia (mythological) II 68, in 51, 58. See 

Moon. 
luo. paenis luendis dabitur satias (quotation) 

in 90. 
lupus (deified in Egypt) in 47; (constelln- 

tion) quadrupes n. ii 114. Lupus (the 

object of Lucilius satire) 1 64. 
Lusius r. in Arcadia in 57. 
lustratio orbis I 87. 
lustro orbem n 52, latitndinem 11 53, caeli 

verticem n 106, terrain animis n 1151. 
Lutatius (favoured of Heaven) II 165. 
lux auctoris 1 11 ; lucem eripere (said of the 

Academy) i 6. 
Lyceum I 72. 

Lycurgus in 91, cf. ill 57 n. on No>iov. 
Lysithoe (MSS Lisito) in 42. 



machina, deus ex I 53. 

machinatio data estquibusdambestiis 11 123, 

machinatione mover! sphaeram 1197. 
machinor (of nature) n 128, 149. 
maerens (mistranslation of /xoyecoj/) n 108. 
magister artium ignis n 57. 
magnitudinibns immensis sidera II 92. 
magnus annus II 51 Add., Frag. 5 ; magnum 

est judioium ( important ) n 111, 146, 

magna di curant n 1(57; vir ( bonus) 

n 167; magni interesse ad decus I 7; 

majus ( = admirabilius) II 115. 
magus I 42. 
Mala Fortuna ill 03. 
male accipio I 93. 
malitia (defined) ni 75. 
malo. mallem audire dum inducat n 2. 
malum dare I 121. 
Man. the noblest work of God II 133153, 

erect position 11 140, made in the image 

of God i 90 ; the world is made for him 

ii 154 lt!7; only less than God because 

mortal 11 153, this contradicted in 11 17, 

34, 36, 37, 39, 79. 
manant multa ex lima n 50; unde haec ma- 

narit the preceding in 49. Seefluo. 
mandare vetiistati n 151 ; mandati judicium 

in 74. 
mandunt )( vorant and carpunt n 122; con- 

strictis dentibus manditur cibus n 134. 
/J.O.VTI.KTJ I 55. 
inanu factmn I 20, tractare I 49, quaesita n 

151; manibus adhibitis ad inventa animo 

ii 150 ; manus elephant! II 123. 
inanubia in 83. 
Marcellus ii 61, 165, ill 80. 
mare rubrum i 97; pi. cum terrarn et maria 

caelumque vidissent n 95, n 26, 71, 77, 

maria tepescunt ii 25 Add. 
marinus vnnor ii 43, raria II 124. 
maritimus. aestus ii 131, cursus n 161, res II 

152, nuptiae III 45. 
Marius in 80, 81. 
Mars in 59; stella n 53, 119. 
Maso ill 52. 
mater. Hecate matre Asteria est in 46, matre 

libera liber ill 45. 
materia ( timber ) et culta et silvestris n 

151; (philosophical vArj) totam esse 

flexibilem et commutabilem 111 92. See 

Matter. 
mathematicus mundus erit in 23, mathema- 

tici ii 51, 103. 



Matter (^v Aij JTHHOS) in 29, 30, 92; (was it 

created?) Frag. 2. 
maturata pubescant 1 4. 
maturescunt partus n (59. 
maturitas ii 50, gignendi ii 119, maturitates 

temporum II 155. 
Matuta ii 48, cf. Ill 39. 
matutinis temporibus ii 52. 
Mavors (etyin.) ii 67, in 02. 
Maximus (Fabius) ii 61, 165, in 80. 
Medea in 48, 67; quotations from the Medea 

of Ennius in 65, 66, 75; of Accius II 81 , 

III 67. 

medicamentum ii 132. 
medicmae ars n 12 (?). 
medicus n 126, 136, in 15, 76, 78. 
mediterranei inland folk I 88. 
medius locus infimus II 84, 116. 
mehercule I 78, ill 3; inehercle II 74. 
Melete ni 54. 
melius fuit ill 78, 81, 69 (bis), see Indicative; 

quid dicis meliu in 21. 
melos Silvani (quotation) ii 89. 
Memalio (?) in 55. 
membra philosophiae I 9; dei I 24, 34; muudi 

I 100, II 86. 

membranae (the coats of the eye) ii 142. 
memoriae proditum est n 6; (Abl. of time) 

recentiore ii 6, patrum n 165. 
memoriter I 91. 
meris, the voO? of Anaxagoras I 26, mundi ii 

18 (?), 58; deified II 61, III 47, 61, 88; 

mentem cur aquae adjunxit (?) I 25. 
mensa argentea ill 84. 
mensis (etym.) n(!9. 
menstrua spatia ii 50. 
mentior. nihil umquam vetustas has never 

deceived expectation n 15. 
mentum (of a constellation) ii 107. 
meracius (vinum) sumere in 78. 
mercatura (said of interested friendship) i 

122. 

Mercurius ill 56, 57, 59. 
Metellus (cos. 250 B.C.) ii 265; (Numidicusr) 

murdered by Varius ill 81. 
Metrodorus I 86, 93, 113. 
metus a vi i 45, contra metnm se defendunt 

II 127. (personified) ? m 44. 
micare (of veins and arteries) n 24. 
Microcosm ii 18 nn. Add. 
Middle Voice, convertor n 106, convolver n 

113, moveor II 125, aperior, occultor n 51. 
milvus II 125. 
Minerva I 81, 83, 100; (etym.) II 67, ill 62; 

(five so named) in 53, 55, 59. 
ministrae artium manus ii 150. 
minoris est (?) ii 32; minus vera wanting 

in truth in 4, intellego ( =parum in in 

1,4) III 4. 

mirabilis ii 126. mirabiliter n 52, 136. 
miracula philosophorum strange fancies I 

18. 

mirae libidines II 128; non mirum no won 
der in 93. 
mirifice factus n 140. 
miscendum est malum (quotation) in 68, 

misceri genus (?) ib. 
Miseria (personified) in 44. 
mitigat Indus agros ii 130. igni ad mitigan- 

dum cibum utimur ii 151. 
mitto ad dedicate i 16; (with predicative 

Dat. ) agnum portento ill 68. 
Mnemosyne in 54. 
moderator ii 90. moderatrix ejus providen- 

tia in 92. 
modo hoc rnodo illtid i 47; modo, turn autem 

i 31, 35, II 102. (For dumnwdo with apo- 



INDEX. 



231 



dosis understood) m. possemus in 20; 
modo in verse n 107. 

modulate cano Ii22. 

modus (or motus) I 26. 

molestiam suscepit reddere rationem in 63. 

molestum sit dinumerare I 2, cf. I 17 Add. 

molior I 2, II 59. 

molitio tantarum rerum II 133, quae molitio 
tanti muneris 1 19. 

mollire verba usu I 95, cf. Orat. in 165. 

moilissirae substernunt nidos n 129. 

mollitudo assimilis spongiis n 136. 

momentum rationis 1 10, astra sua momenta 
sustentant n 117. 

Moneta in 47. 

monogrammos deos II 59. 

monstrum n 7, in 5; absurdity I 28, ill 
44. 

montes impendentes II 98, vestiti atque sil- 
vestres n 131. 

Moon, her influence II 19, 50, 119; magni 
tude, orbit, phases, lunislice n 50, 103. 

Mopsus II 7. 

morbus (personified)? in 41. 

mordicus premo n 124. 

morem geram II 3. 

mors (personified) in 44. 

morsus. apri dentibus, morsu leones se de- 
fendunt n 127, 123. 

Motion, circular and rectilineal II 43, 44; 
of stars voluntary II 55 n. 

motiones atque vicissitudines n 15. 

motus sensui junctus I 26, cogitationis in 69, 
animi 1 106, in 71. 

multiplex alvus II 136, fetus II 128. 

umltus (prcd.) calore qu<-m multum habet 
II 136, multae intextae n 138 ; tedious 
nolo in stellarum ratione videri n 119, 
sane multi videntur (?) in 40; (pleonas 
tic) multi saepem 82; multo (for multo 
magis) paene majoribus referta est m 
69. 

mundus=ovpavol21. See Universe. 

municeps tuus I 79. 

muniuntur palpebrae vallo II 143. 

munus building , molitio tanti muneris I 
19, architectum tanti muneris II 90. 

muros sanctos esse pontifices dicunt in 94 ; 
nasus quasi murus oculis interjectus n 
143. 

mus II 17, 157. 

Musae. their number ill 45, 54; Musis bovem 
immolare in 88. 

Musaeus I 41. 

musica in platanis n 22. (On Music see n 
146.) 

mustela II 17. 

mutationes caeli i 4, temporum i 51. 

mutuorn 91. 

mutus. n. pi. used for brutes II 133 (?). 

Myrtilus III 90, 68 n. 

mysteria II 62, cf. 1 119, in 58. 

Mythology, its connexion with religion in 
11 n. ; Meterological and Solar in 16 nn. 

naevus i 79, 80. 

riam (elliptical) 1 117 ; (transitional in a series) 

I 27, 28, 63, 93, n 67, nr 15, 38, 41; (to in 
troduce explanation of preceding demon 
strative) ilia explicetur fabrica nam n 
138. 

nanciscor. semen materiam n 81, alter alte- 
rius ova n 125, venarido beluas n 161. 

riares n 141, 146, 149. 

nascor (with simple Abl.) 1 103, n 62, in 11, 
42, 45, 48, 51, 53, 54, 55, 57, 59; (with ex) 

II 22, 64; (with ab) II 28, 60. 



nasus n 143. 

natio vestra your lot n 74 Add. (cf. gens); 
(mythological) a nascentibus Natio dicta 
est in 47. 

nativos esse deps came into being i 25; 
beluae nativis testis inhaerentes native 
with which they were born n 100. 

nato (with double meaning) magis natare 
quam Neptunus in 62. 

natura (periphrastic) animi I 23, alvi n 136, 
caloris n 24, humana n 133, (pi.) deorum 
II 60, rerum in 63; ( element ) I 22, 29, 
103, II 28, 29, 83, 86, (substance) II 33,35, 
27, 84, ill 34; (euphemistic) obscenius 
excitata in 56 ; natura seritiens II 75, 85, 
intellegens II 120, concipiens comprehen- 
densque n 81, fragmentum lapidis nulla 
cohaerendi natura n 82, rerum omnium 
II 36, omnis rerum I 27, 36, pmnis II 35, 
(in different sense) n 57, universa n 35, 
inundi n 58; ipsa pulsa 126; (with ab 
after Passive) sustineri II 33, 133, confor- 
mari m 26 (see lleid on Ac. 1 15); (with 
out ab) teneri n 83, administrari n 85, 
86. regi n 85, contineri n 30, congregari 
II 124. 

naturalis res n 61, domus II 124. pastus II 
122, bellum n 125, lex I 36 Add. 

Nature, different senses II 80; Zeno s def. 
II 57; blind force (of Strato Epicurus and 
New Academy) I 35, 53, II 43, 76, 81, 82, 
in 27, 28; rational (of Stoics) i 36, 37, 39, 
67, surpasses the fine.st art I 92, n 35, 57, 
58, 82, 8588. Use is second nature n 
152. 

naufragia fecerunt in 89. 

nauseo I 84. 

Nausiphanes I 73, 93. 

nauticus cantus n 89, res n 152. 

navigatio II 85. 

navigii cursum n 87. 

ne (rat) ille I 52, ego II 1. 

ne negative, utmam ne accedisset in 75, with 
Jussive in 76 n., after ut I 17. 
ne quidem (with weak force) i 71. 110, 
113, II 12, 87, ill 21, 23, 43, 44, 47, 49, 68, 
86. 

-ne interrogative (following short syllable) 
varietatene I 22, seminane I 91, respon- 
derene ill 4, see Munro Lucr. i 666, 
Reid Ac. n 29. (following utrum) utrum 
ea fortuitane sint II 87, (num) numne vi- 
disti i 88; (following adiiriror) n 124; 
(for nonne) videtisneii 70, videturne in 
69, videsne ill 82 ; (for num) seminane I 
91, omnesne I 92, istisne I 93. 

nee or neque (= sed non) necea forma 1 107, 
nee tamen exissent II 95, neque tarn refel- 
lendi in 1 ; (introducing 2nd premiss) nee 
mundo quicquam melius n 21. (nee non) 
II 44, 54. (neque et) ill 32. 

necesse est (followed by Subj. and Inf.) in 
36, cf. n 76. 

Necessity, identified with God by Chrysip- 
pus i 39; chance and necessity opposed 
to creative Reason II 76, 77 nn., 88. 

necopinatum I 6 Add. 

nefas. quern n. habent nominare in 56. 

Negative (understood in 1st from 2nd clause) 
sicut reliquae virtute, item pietas non 
potest i 3, ut sct-lus sic ne ratio quidem 
defuit ill 68, non modo sed ne quidem 
in 64; (suggests cognate affirmative) 
volo from nolo 1 17, aio from nego I 71 ; 
(applying to combination of clauses) nee 
potest jucunda accipere, non accipere 
contraria in 32, 35. 



2:32 



INDEX. 



nego (suesrests a following ilico) I 71; (im 
personal use) negari potest de patre (?) 
Ill 44. 

nemo (with substantive) homo I 78, n 96, 
opifex (after nulla ars) n 81. 

nempe (ironical rejoinder) I 24, in 93. 

Neocles f. of Epicurus i 72. 

Nepa (constellation) ii 109, 114. 

Neptunus (the intelligence which pervades 
the sea) i 40, n 66, 71, m 64; (etym.) 
H 66, III 62; (mythological) III 43, 52, 
granted the prayer of Theseus in 76. 
Neptuni filius i 63. 

nervus. sinew muscle a nervis artus con- 
tinentur II 139, n 59, e nervis constat 
alvus II 136; chord nervorum cantus n 
156, sonos 150, ad nervos resonant n 149. 

nescis quanta cum expectatione sim te 
auditurus you can t think in 2; con- 
iiteor nescire quod nescio I 84; nescio 
quis (contemptuous) I 93, in 11; nescio 
an i 93, cf. haud scio. 

nevolt emend, for non vult I 13. 

nidos construunt II 129. 

nihil omnium rerum n 18, nihil nee nee n 
80, agens inactive n 59 Add., intelle- 
gens irrational n 133, scire (of Aca 
demics) 1 17 Add., cf . nihil didicerat I 93. 
See is. 

Nilus irrigat Aegyptum n 130; (parent of the 
Gods) III 42, 54, 55, 56, 58, 59. 

nimbus n 13. 

nimirum 11 73, in 87- 

nimis very (like our slang too ) I 70. 

nisi forte (ironical) I 99, 117, n 158, in 45, 78 ; 
nisi vero in 27. 

nisu suo conglobata astra n 117. 

Nisus in 58. 

nitor aequaliter (of gravitation) n 115; ubi 
on which to lean 11 125; simul ac niti 
possunt to move n 124; nixa genibus 
kneeling 11 108; (the constellation) 
Nixus ii 108 11. 

nobiles philosophi }( Epicurei I 4. 

nobilitas (abstr. for concr.) 11 9. 

Nodinus in 52. 

nodum ex astris conectere n 111. 

nolo (suggesting volo in following clause) i 
17. 

nomen ( debt ) avertom 73. 

nomino. di qui in stellis vagis nominantur 
i 34, stellarum ex motionibus magnum 
annum nominaverunt 11 51. 

NOJUUOS (wrongly explained) in 57. 

non (interrogative distinguished from nonne) 
III 24; non possum non II 54; non cen- 
seo (like ou 4>r)fj.l) i 30; non nimis I 70; 
non modo sed I 61, in 4L ; non inodo 
sed ne quidem ill 64. 

nostrorum hominum urbanitate 11 74. 

nota ( criterion ) judicandi et assentiendi i 
12. 

notavit diuturnus usus n 166, quis sortes ill 
14; fulgorc notata tempora n 107. 

notio animi I 37, 11 45; primae notiones I 
46. 

novitas X magnitude rerum n 96. 

novus. quiddam novi in 88. novis rebus 
nova nomina I 44 Add. 

nox umbra terrae 11 49; (mythological) in 
44. 

nudius tertius in 18. 
nugatorius 1 108. 

nullus sum to be non-existent I 2, 61, 65, 
94, 88 (97), 110, 123, II 4, III 20, 27; (Abl. 
= without ) nullis auspiciis 11 9, nullis 
calonibus in 11 ; nullo modo 11 37. 



Numa in 5, 43. 

Number (S. and PI. interchanged) Balbe so- 

letis i 50; (dpus) i 51, 101, 106, 114 Add., 

ii 71, ill 43 (?). Sve Plural. 
numen. oninia lingi numine deorum ill 92, 

ii 4, in 10. 
numero caelum deum I 33, singulas Stellas 

deos in 40, Jovem deum m 43. 
numerose sonans ii 22. 
numerus. eandem ad numerum permanere 

i 105, 49; in numero pono i 87, repono ii 

54, habeo in 48, refero I 29; numeris 

omnibus suis expletur 11 37; numero 

moveri ii 43; numerum obtinere in 51. 
numne I 88. 

numquidnam i 87 Add. 
nunc (logical) as things are n90. 
nuncupo dei nomine ii 60, ita dicens planius 

quam alio loco ii 65, comuetnrlo IT 71. 
nuper, id est paucis ante saeclis ii 126 (r). 
nuptiae rnaritimae terrenis anteponuntur 

in 45. 

nuto (trop ) i 120. 
nutricari (al. nutricare) ii 86. 
nutus. omnia nutu regentem Ii4; terrain 

sese nutibus suis conglobata n 98. 
Nymphae in 43. 
Nysam dicitur interemisse (?) in 58. 

obduco libro n 120, plum a, squama ii 121 ; 
Auriga pbductus (?) ii 110. 

obitus setting of a star ii 108. 

Objective and Subjective statements con 
fused : deum sic torpere ut vereamur ne 
beatus esse non possit i \02Add., incre- 
dibile est si diligenter attend eris ii 149, 
magnis viris prosperae res siquidem satis 
dictum est ii 167, omnia dicta snnt quaro 
haberent (for habere confitendum esset) 
ill 18, si idcirco consuluit quod iis est 
largita rationem (for consuluisse faten- 
dum est) in 70, non idcirco non provi- 
sum quod multi uterentur ib., locum 
conficit cur di ncglegant (for neglegere 
putandi sint) ill 79; (confusion of notio 
and causa) ii 13. 

objurgator )( vituperator i 6 (5). 

ob lectatio ii 148. 

obligare vulnus in 57. 

oblimatos agros ii 130. 

obliviscor quid dixerim ii 2v 

oboediunt soli astra n 129. 

obrigesco nive I 24. 

obruere se-e harena ranae dicuntur ii 125. 
ova crocodili n 129, Aegyptum Nilus 
obrutam tenuit ii 130. 

obscena voluptas I 111; obscenius excitata 
natura in 56. 

obsisto in omnibus rebus I 98. 

obstare abs. to be injurious I 99. 

obstipum caput a cervice rellexum n 107 
Add. 

obtinet vim has its force i 36, locum ii 
42, deorum nomen ii 61, numerum de 
orum in 51. 

obtusius quid dici potuit 1 70. 

obtutus idem amborum oculorum in 9, ob- 
tutum figere ii 107. 

occultantur stellae n 51. 

occultationc se tutantur bestiae ii 127. 

occultius facinus in 74. 

occurrit deus in votis i 36, aut vigilanti ant 
dormienti I 46, forma humana (deorum) 
I 76, i 81. 

Oceani fervor in 24 ; (mythological) in 48, 
59. 

Octavianum bellum ii 14. 



INDEX. 



233 



oculi animi (?) I 19, animis tamquam oculis 
II 161, ut animis sic oculis n 99, ut ocu 
lis sic ammo in 20 ; oculonun consue 
tude II 45, 96, in 20; ardor n 107; 
judicium n 47, 145; propone ante oculos 

I 114; duorum sonsuum testimonio, 
tactus et oculorum II 40; (trop.) oculos 
orae maritimae effoderunt in 91. 

odium in externos n 158. 

odoratus pomorum n 158. 

ott erido to come across 1 15. 

oli ensionis nihil haberet, roughness II 47. 

otficio obstruct II 49. 

olet nihil ex Academia I 72. 

olivae inventor in 45 ; (Zeno s comparison) 

II 22. 

olivetum n 156, in 86. 

Olympias (m. of Alexander) ii69. 

omnino generally n 3; it is true (fol 
lowed by sed) 1 12, 95, 107 ; ( in a word ) 
1 123 ; non ouinino in 21 n. 

omnis natura or natura omnium, see natura; 
omnes minimi I 67 Add., n 141, in 86; 
omnes omnium gentium i 46, n 12 Add.; 
adunum 144; omne=Tb nav i 28; (quali 
tative) divinitatemomnem tribuit astris 
i 38 ; ordo ii 56, ornatus II 58; salus om 
nium omnis II 56. 

omnivaga Diana II 68. 

onero argumentis in 8. 

onus )( jugum irnpono n 151, 159. 

opacat sol terras n 49, nox terras II 95. 

operculum n 136. 

Ophiuchus II 108, 109. 

opifex ii 81, 142, 150 ; (of creation) 1 18. 

opinio )( res in 53, )( veritas I 61 ; deorum 
belief in i 29; de dis I 81, ill 11; 
opinionis commenta n 5; omnis est 
ratio in 71; opplevit Graeciam n 63; 
ista opinio quod videatur i 77. 

oportet (Sub], in apod.) n 32. 

oppletam Aegyptum Nilus tenet ii 130. 

opponere se soli II 129, lima opposita soli 
ii 103. 

opportunitates ad cultum hominum n 130, 
fluminum n 131, natura provida oppor- 
tunitatum n 58. 

Ops (mythological) ii 61, in 88 ; ope consi- 
lioquetuom 74. 

optatum (-evYTJ of a mere imagination) 
1 19 Add. 

optime (se. facis) ill 5, 20. 

Optimism, Stoic (best of all possible worlds) 
II 18, 86, 87. 

optimus maximus II 64, in 87. 

opulentus X copiosus in 87. 

opus erat (Ind. for Subj.) i 89. 

ora )( litus n 100, ora ultimi i 54, extrema 
mundi ii 101, orarum amoenitates ii 100. 

oraclum physicorum I 65. 

oratio (personified) spoliat deos metu I 102, 
me cohortabatur in 5, deduxit in liunc 
locum in 43, invita versatur in 85 ; (pi. 
faculty of speech ) non de orationibus 
nostris quaeritur I 78 Add. 

oratio obliqua loosely dependent on quaeres 
1 90; see Anacoluthon. 

oratiuncula aureola in 43. 

Oratory, styles of ii 1 n. 

orba Academia I 11. 

orbis ( = KVK\OS) ii 47, insula quam nos or- 
bem terrae vocamus n 165, orbem lustrat, 
tenet stella II 53, circumitus orbium n 
49, continente ardore lucis orbem I 28. 

Orbona in 63 (?). 

Orcus III 43. 

Order of words, ejus Palaemoriem filium in 



39, hujus Absyrto fratri ill 48, incredi- 
bili ciirsus maritimos celeritate n 161, 
possit quod I 76 Add., magna vis terrae 
cavernis contineatur caloris II 25. 

ordinatos cursus n 101. 

ordine* stellarum n 97, cf. 15, 48, 90. 

Orion n 113, in 26. 

orior (c. Abl.) orta Nilo ill 59 (cf. 2 Phil. 
118 quibus ortus) ; ab oriente ad occi- 
dentem n 164. 

ornatissimus ii 93. 

ornatus ( = /coox.os) ii 94, 115, 118,127. 

Orpheus I 41, 107, in 45. Orphicum carmen 
1 107, Orphica in 58. 

ortus atque obitus admiscentur II 108. 

oscitans Epicurus I 72. 

ostentum n 7, 166. 

ostium arteriae n 136. 

otio languere I 7, 67. 

ova ii 129. 

pacto quodam in a way ii 76. 

Pacuvius ii 41, III 48. 

paene fabricati I 4, manu factum I 20. 

paetulus i 80 Add. 

Palaemon in 39. 

palatum extremum ii 135; caeli (quotation) 
II 49 (playing on the word). 

Pallas (f. of Minerva) III 59. 

pallium laneum in 83. 

pahnaris I 20. 

palpebrae n 142, 143. 

palpitare cor evulsum n 24. 

Pamphilus (teacher of Epicurus) I 72. 

Pan in 56. 

Panaetius vol. i p. xxx, II p. xxi, n 118. 

pando. passis palrnis n 111. 

Panisci ill 43. 

panthera I 88, n 126. 

par et similis n 153, cf II 28. 

Parcae in 44. 

parens philosophiae Socrates I 93. 

parietes domestici in 80. 

pario (trop.) (of the propounderof a system) 
qui ista peperit II 79; ad pariendos sen- 
sus 1 19. 

Paris Hi 91. 

Parmenides vol. I p. xiv, I 28. 

Paronomasia, adjutorem auditorem 1 18. 

parricidium familiare in 67. 

pars, minima ex parte significetur (?) I 24; 
multis partibus major n 92, 88, 102. Ace. 
partim n 108 (?) . 

Participle (expressing principal idea) os- 
tendens emergit n 113, conflciens furi- 
ditur n 115 ; (instead of Abl. of Instr. ) 
vomitione canes, purgantes alvos ibes se 
curant (?) n 126; (as protasis) pro- 
fluentia essent aliquid taetri habitura 
ii 141; (epexegetic of pronoun) ne hoc 
quidem vos movet considerantes I 92 ; 
(used as Adj.) concipiens natura n 81, 
sentiens natura n 85, cf. Reid Ac. I 24; 
(used as Subst.) venans (?) n 126, 
audiens in 77. 

particula est perfect! homo II 37. 

partitio in 6, 8 (?),65. 

partus matronarum in 47, Jovis 1 41. 

parum accepi in 4, parumne in 66, 72 (bis). 

Pasiphae in 48. 

Passive (for Active) confirmari volo (?) n 
23, Add., terra cernatur n 98, non dis- 
tinguitur in 26, ut comprehendatur 
parat in 67. 

pastus ignis n 40, in 37; qui pecudum pas- 
tus n 99. 

patet nomen latius n 72. 



234 



INDEX. 



paterae in 84. 

patibilis capable of suffering in 29. 

patrirnonium in 70, 71, 7(5. 

patula duabus conchis II 123. 

paulum admodum (interit) n 118, p. praela- 
bitur ante 11 111. 

Paulus (Macedonicus) 11 6, 105; his father 
(defeated at Cannae) in 80. 

pax. pace vestra dicere liceat I 79 (quo 
tation). 

pecco blunder I 29, 31, II 12. 

peculatus III 74. 

Peducaea rogatio in 74. 

pelagus respergit (navis) II 89 (quotation). 

pellis caprina I 82. 

pello calores 11 150, natura pulsa I 26, sensus 
a vocibus (by) II 144, error a philosophia 
(from) ill 64. 

Pelops in 53. 

Penates(etym.) n 08. 

Penelopa in 56. 

penetrates (dei) n (58. 

penetravit hominum ratio in caelum 11 153. 

penitus ahditas venas II151. 

penus II (58. 

TTeTTTTju^. cujus sub pedibus n 110 n. 

perago comitiaii 10. 

percipio get commoda II 13, cibum po- 
tionem II 130; get in fructus II 156; 
aures sonum 11 141 ; vox per arteriam 
percipitur 11 149(?); perceptum jam usu 
nomeri 11 91 ; imagines similitudine i 
49; perceptum et cognitum ( = Ko.TaAr;7r- 
TOV) i 1. 

percutio pavidum (quotation) in 73. 

perdiuturnus n 85. 

peregrinatur animus I 54. 

peremnia n 9. 

perennes cursus n 55. 

perennitates fontium gelidas II 98. 

perexiguus 11 81. 

perfectione rationis excellere n 30. 

perfectus undique mundus ir 38; aliquid 
extremum atque perfectum n 35; nihil 
mundo perfectius ib.; full-grown p. et 
maturis ib. 

perforata ab animo ad oculos lumina ill 9. 

perfremunt rostris delphini (quotation) n 89. 

perfruendos sensus n 14(5. 

perfnndo voluptatibus 1 112 Add. 

perhibent Ophiuchum lumine clnro (?) II 
109, Graii perhibent aethera (quotation) 
II 91, hunc perhibeto Jovem (quotn.) 
II (55. 

periclitatione temporis percepimus 11 161. 

Peripatetics, how far in agreement with 
Stoics 1 16. 

Periphrasis (for plants ) fruges et reliqua 
quae terra pariat I 4; omnia quae terra 
gignat ib., II 130; res qua,e gignuntur e 
terra 11 29, 33, 120 ; quae oriuntur e terra 
ii 50, fruges atque fructus quos terra 
gignitii37, terra editum n 24, ea quae 
a terra stirpibus continentur 11 83, 127, 
quorum stirpes terra continentur 11 28; 
(for spring and autumn) n 29 ; (for 
difference of degree ) 1 16. Cf. habeo, 
natura. 

perlucens aether 11 54. 

perlucida membrana 11 142, sidera n 39, 
species deorum i 75 ; fervor mundi per- 
lucidiov est 11 30. 

permanare ad hominum vitam a dis I 3, ad 
.iecur ii 137. 

perpurgant se cervae IT 137. 

Persaeus (the Stoic) i 37. 

Perseis (d. of Oceanus) in 48. 



nepo-e^ot rj II 66. 

persequor ( make for ) aquam ii 124; ( to 
exhibit in detail ) sollertiam in sensibus 
II 142, mulorum utilitates II 159; ( go 
minutely into ) singulorum viticulas in 
8(5 ; non omnia deos in 93. 

Perses (of Macedon) n 6. 

Perseus (constellation) ii 112. 

Person (1st and 3rd mixed) si ad fructum 
reteremus, mercatura erit utilitatum 
suarum i 122; (2nd and 3rd) nescire 
quod nescires...quam ipsum sibi displi- 
cere I 84. See inquit. 

pprsonae heroicae in 71. 

Personal (for impersonal constrviction) 
es^e beati intellegantur i 106, nolo esse 
longus I 101. Of. multus. 

perspicuitas ( = e^a pyeta) argumentatione 
elevatur in 9. 

perspicuum est quo processerint ii 146. 

Pertinacia (mythological) in 44. 

pertineo pervade ratio ]>er omnem na- 
turam pertinens I 36, II 24, deus per 
naturam cujusque rei ii 71, implicatio 
ncrvorum toto corpore pertinens ii 139; 
reach to ad pulmones usque II 136, ad 
jecur II 137. 

perversissimis oculis erat I 79. 

pervia transitio (Janus) ii 67. 

Pessimism of Epicureans 123; of Academics 
in 79 foil. 

pestifera a salutaribus secerno ii 122 ; a pes- 
tiferis recessum ii 33 ; refugere ii 120. 

Phaedo Socraticus I 93; (the dialogue) ill 
82 n. 

Phaedrus (Epicurean) I 93, p. xliv foil. 

Phaethon (myth.) ill 76; c/>ae 0wi/ (^ 
Jovis) ii 52. 

<cuVwi/ (= Saturni stella) n 52. 

Ph alaris ill 82. 

(fravrao-ia ( = visum) I 12 n. 

Pheneatae in 56. cf. in 42 do tripode n. 

Philo (Academic) I 6, 11 n., 17, 59, 113. 

Philodemus vol. I p. xlii foil., cited I 45, 49. 

Philosophy (its practical importance) I 7, 
II 3; (especially useful to the orator) I 
6, n 1, 168; (four schools in C. s time) 
i 16. 

Phoemces n 106. 

Phoronis (?) in 56. 

Phrygiae litterae ill 42. 

Phthas (?) ill 55. 

pity sice adv. ill 18. 

physicus. (Epicureans so called) ii 48, 
Strato physicus I 35, tu hoc, physice, 
non vides I 77, physicuin id est specu- 
latorem naturae i 83; physicorum ora- 
cula I 66 ; physica ratio II 23, 54, 63, 64, 
in 92; omnibus in rebus sed maxime iu 
icis i 60 ; liber qui physicus inscri- 
itur i 32 ; quid est in physicis Epicuri 
non a Democrito I 73. 

physiologiam, id est naturae rationem I 20, 
partum Jovis ad physiologiam traducens 
I 41. 

piaclum (periclum MSS) ill 68. 

Picenus ager 111 74. 

pictura et fabrica habent quendam absoluti 
operiseffectum n 35; ornata signis atque 
picturis; cf. II 87. 145. 

Pieriae, Pierides in 54. 

Pierus III 54. 

pietas est justitia adversum deos I 116, in 
specie fictae simulationis pietas inesse 
non potest I 3, cognitio deorum e qua 
oritur pietas ir 153. 

r)ilorum vallum II Ii3. 



phy 
bitu 



INDEX. 



pina cum parva squilla societatcm coit 
ii 1-23. 

pinnarum talaria n 59, pinnis cursus avium 
levatur II 125, fovent pullos II 129. 

pinnatus Cupido ill 58. 

pinnulis uti n 129. 

piscem Syri venerantur in 39, cf. 47; pisces 
ova relinquunt II 129 Add.; (constella 
tion) ii 111. 114 

pisciculus II 123. 

Pisistratus ill 81. 

Piso 1 16. 

Pistrix. hanc Aries n. II 114. 

placari populo di non posseiit III 15. 

placatio deorum in 5. 

Plaetoria lex (?) in 74. 

plagam accipere I 70. 

Planet, see Astronomy. 

Plant (for Latin equivalent see Periphra 
sis) ; mutual antipathies of n 120, cf. 
Botany. 

planus. ex planis formis circulus II 47; 
planius adv. n 65. 

platalea ii 124. 

platanus n 22. 

Plato, his idea of creation i 1924; charged 
with inconsistency I 30; admired by the 
younger Stoics I 19 n., n 32 (deum phi- 
losophorum), vol. n p. xvii, xix; re 
ference to his Timaeus I 19. and Phaedo 
ill 82. Cf. vol. I p. xxiv foil. 

plectri similis lingua n 149 Add. 

IIAeiaSes II 112 n. 

plene ( in full ) sic dici II 74. 

plenior caeli natura ( denser ) II 17. 

Pleonasm (colloquial) multi saepe ill 82 ; 
(idea of noun repeated in v.) conjunctio 
continetur n 84, impetus caeli movetur 
II 97, in mentem veniebant quae di- 
cenda putarem ii 168 ; (of Demonstra 
tive) see is. 

plexus (? flexus) arcus ii 113. 

IIAovTtoi/ ii 66. 

pluma (collective) alias obductas II 121. 

plumato corpore n 114. 

Pluperfect for Perfect n 14, 23 Add. 

Plural (suggested by preceding Sing.) eorum 
after omne animal in 26 ; (with refer 
ence to following Sing.) ilia palmaria I 
20, ilia differemus in 18; (of Abstract 
implying a variety of instances) fontium 
perennitates n 98, liquores amnium ib., 
amplitudines speluncarum ib., asperi- 
tates saxorum ib., montium altitudines 
immensitatesque camporum ib., amoe- 
nitates orarupa n 100, artes II 87, reli- 
giones in 5, immortalitates in 46. 
(of Concrete to denote science or art or 
use or instrument) horas for horolo- 
gium n 97, sicae venena assassination, 
poisoning in 74, ingenia ingenuity I 
78 Add., ii 126, orationes faculty of 
speech I 78 ; see Number, aqua, ignis, 
mare, terra. 

pluris est n 32 ; plurimi est ii 18. 

plus habere uno digito to have one too much. 
I 99; fieri non potest ut plus una (opi- 
nio) vera sit i 5 Add. ; credo plus nemirii 
I 72; plus valuisse II 88. 

poerias suiferre ill 82. 

Poenus in 80. 

poetici di in 77. 

polus n 105. 

pomerium n 11. 

pono in numero 1 87. 

pontifex n 2, 168, in 80, 94. 

pontificii (libri) i 84; jus ill 43. 



poplitibus pedibus feminibus cruribus re- 

duridat I 99. 

populares deos multos unum naturalem I 32. 
porgens ii 114. 
porrectio digitorum ii 150. 
porro 1 104 Add. (?) , age porro ill 43 Add. 
portae jecoris n 137. 
portendo ii 7, 166. 
portentum (lit.) IT 7, pecudum 14, 163, III 5; 

(trop.) I 18, 43, III 91. 
porticus ii 94. 
Portunus n 66. 
Posidonius I 6, 123, II 88, vol. I p. xxxv, n 

pp. xvi xxiii. 
posquam (in quotation for postquam) in 67 

Not. Cr. (?) 
possum, see Indicative. For exx. of Subj. 

in apodosi see I 57, ii 4, 5. Repeated I 74. 
posterior vis corporis II 113. 
postremo (repeated with denique) I 104 

Add. 

Postumius ill 13. 
potio II 59, 136, 141. 
potissimum adv. l 6, 9, 11, II 58, III 42. 
potulentus n 141. 
prae se fero n 47. 

praeceptio recti pravique depulsio ii 79. 
praecipitare istuc quidem est, non descen- 

dere I 89. 

praecise dicitur ii 73. 
praeclarus (ironical) in 40, 73 ; so praeclare 

in 90. 

praeconem, vendidit per in 84. 
praecordia n 110. 
praedictio ii 7, 162. 
praedo ill 82, 83. 
praefectura II 6. 
praelabor ante ii 111. 

praenomen (written in full) Aulo in 13 (?). 
praenotio ( = 7rp6A>j^i.s) ii44. 
praenuntiae calamitatum stellae II 14. 
praepotens deus ii 4, natura deorum ii 77. 
praesens deus II 4. 6, ill 11. 
praesensio rerum futurarum ii 7, 13, ill 16 ; 

(=7rp6Aj?i/us) II 45. 
praesentia (?) ii 6, deorum saepe praesen- 

tiae ii 166. 

praesentio deum certa notione animi ii 45. 
praesertim cum especially as II 31, ill 14 ; 

although n 88; cum praesertim al 
though i 26. 

praestabilis = praestans in 26. 
praestare I 7. 

praestrigias praestrinxit ill 73 (quotation), 
praeter naturam hominum portenta n 14. 
praeterea (misleading use of) in 33; quod 

esset (?) i 28. 
praevolantium in tergo colla reponunt n 

125. 

pravi depulsio n 79. 
precatio augurum in 52. 
Predicative use (of Subst.) rex Asiae prae- 

fuit Dionysus Iii58; quos...augures ne 

ipsae quidem fabulae ascivissent n 7, 

quern invocant Jovem ii 4; (of Adj.) 

curatio corporis erit eadem adhibenda 

i 94. See Adjective. 
Pregnant force of verb of saying , see 

laudo, perhibeo, nomino, dico and nn. 

on i 83, n 51. 

Pregnancy (duration of) II 69. 
premebat Zeno quae dilatantur a nobis n 

20; sonos vocis distinctos et presses effl- 

cit lingua ii 149. 
Preposition (before Rel. understood from 

Antecedent) sunt isdem in erratis qui- 

bus ea I 31, in eodem, quo ilia ZenonLs 



2.36 



INDEX. 



errore versantur in 25 ; (Prep, and Dem. 
understood from preceding Rel.)senatns 
quos ad soleret (ad eos) referendum cen-